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Full text of "UNV. Darab 1"

/ 







. 



THE PERSIAN RIVAYATS 



OF 




HORMAZYAR FRAMARZ 



AND OTHERS. 



THEIR VERSION WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES 



BY 



Ervad Bamanii Nosserwanji Dhabhar, M.A. 



Pd-blished by THE K, R. CAMA ORIENTAL INSTITUTE 



BOMBAY 






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FOREWORD 

■ 


It gives 


me great pleasure to write, as the Es 



. 









Oriental Institute, a few words as a Foreword to this important work, so ably and 
excellently done by Ervad Bamanji Nusserwanji Dhabhar. 

On 25th April 1921, I had the pleasure to address a letter to the Trustees of 
the Sir Ratan Tata Charities, asking for a gift to found a scholarship to carry on 
research work in the Institute. They kindly replied, that they would, for the 
present, give Rs. 2,500 for a scholarship and watch the result. The Executive 
Committee of the Institute accepted with thanks the above offer at its meeting of 
7th June 1921 and resolved, at my suggestion, to have research work done by a 
competent scholar on the Revayet of Dastur Hormazdyar Framroze, and to get 
prepared by him an edition of the text with translation and full notes. The 
Executive Committee left to a small sub-committee the selection of a scholar for 
the work and to settle details for' it. The Sub-committee appointed Ervad 
Bamanji Nusserwanji Dhabhar, M.A., for the work. The following memo, was 
sent by me with my letter dated, 17th October 1921 to Ervad Dhabhar informing 
aim of his appointment : — 

" Some of the subjects in the Hormazdyar's Revayet are common to it and to 
his son Darab Hormazdyar's Revayet, a lithographed Edition of which is being 
published. So, the Text of only those subjects 'from Hormazdyar's Revayet 
should be prepared for publication as are not included in Darab's Revayet. 

" As to the translation, there need not be full translation of every part, but it 
may be left to the discretion of the Research Fellow what portion to translate fully 
and what portion to be only connected by him in the form of a running narrative. 
Those portions that may supply material for history, religion, manners and customs 
may be wholly translated. 

" The whole to have sufficiently full notes, especially from the point of view 
of how far the teachings of the Revayet differ on the one hand from the previous 
teachings of Avesta and Pahlavi books and how far they differ from the present 
practice and belief. This may be clone so as to give a historical perspective." 

I requested Ervad Dhabhar to do the said work for an honorarium of Rs. 2,500. 
Mr. Dhabhar, by bis letter of 3rd November 1921, consented to do so. He 
completed the work in 1926, to the satisfaction of the Committee, which, at its 
meeting of 3rd August 1926, resolved to give him the above honorarium. It was 
given to him at the Gathering on the occasion of the Anniversary of the death of 
Mr. K. R. Cama, on 20th August 1926. The Committee further resolved'to publish 
f-^work which was estimated to cost about Rs. 4,225. 

i 
Riva ,On 14th January 1927, I submitted the work, for inspection, to the Trustees of 

Sir Ratan Tata Charities and requested them to kindly give the above sum, 



r^ 1 



.i 



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. 









iV FOBEWOBD ' " 

"£> 
In their letter of 16th February 1927, they expressed their desire to give Rs, 2,250. 

I then wrote to other charitable Institutions to kindly give donations to make up 

the rest of the sum of the estimate. The following Trusts kindly complied with 

my request and offered to give help as under : — 

Rs. 

1. Trustees of the Seth M. F. Cama Athornan Institute .. .. 1,000 

2. Trustees of the N. M. Wadia Charities 500 

3. Trustees of the Parsee Punchayet. (They proposed to buy copies 
of the book, when published, to the amount of Rs. 7?0) .. 7?0 

I beg to offer the best thanks of the Institute to all the above donors for their 
generous donations. I beg to add my personal thanks to them for their kind res- 
ponse to my appeal. I conclude with the best thanks of the Institute to Ervad 
B. N. Dhabhar for doing, as is usual with him, the work very efficiently. Parts 
of the Compiled Revayats have been published with translations and notes by some 
scholars. But this work is the first of its kind comprehending the whole of such a 
Rivayat and dealing with it in an efficient manner. The Persian Rivayets are not 
considered as authoritative as Avesta and Pahlavi writings, but still, they have an 
importance of their own. As Milton says :—" All opinions, all errors known, read 
unci collected, are of much service and assistance towards the speedy attainment of 
what is Truth".. 

b<" 

211, Pilot Bunder Road, "1 

L JIVANJ1 JAMSHEDJI MODI. *• 

C'olaba, 1st August, 1931. J 

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Hormazyar Framarz, father of Darab Hormazyar, has made a collection — 
in the manuscript here called HF. written by himself — of eight Rivayats sent 
from Persia at different . times, besides a collection of some longer pieces, both in 
prose and verse, bearing on the Zoroastrian religion, These Rivayats are, as under, 
of:— 

(1) Kama Bohra. 

(2) Faredun Marzbati. 

(3) Asfandyar Sohrab. 

(4) Manek Ohanga. 

(5) Kaus Kama. 

(6) Kamdin Shapur. 

(7) Ban man Puniva. 

(8) Kaus Mahyar. 

In addition to these eight Rivayats, we find five more Rivayats, one prefixed 
M four affixed to HF., in the handwriting of Hormazyar's son Darab. They 
'uprise : 

(1) .Barzu Kamdin's Rivayat, 

(2) Shapur Bharuchi's Rivayat. 

1 (3) Rivayat addressed to Suratya Adhyarus (i.e., priests of Surat). 

(4) Rivayat addressed to Dasfcur Rustom Peshotan and others, and 

(5) A- Letter of Dastur Ardeshir Noshirvan of Kerman. 

Comparing the contents of HF. with the two lithographed volumes of Darab 
rmazyar's voluminous Compilation brought out by the late Ervad M. R. Unvala 
(here called MU.) we find that in addition to all the epiotations from " Kitab-i 
Avesta-o-zand," the following four Rivayats have been left out in H. F.— 

(1) Nariman Hoshang's Rivayat (consisting of a group of two series). 

(2) The Rivayat of A. Y. 880. 

(3) Kaus Kamdin's Rivayat, and 

(4) Jasa's Rivayat. 

The work entrusted to me was only in connection with the Collective Rivayat 
of Lorrnazyar Framarz (described fully by Shams-ul-Ulama Dr. Sir Jivanji Jamshedji 
Modi in his Introduction to MU., pp. 13-17), but taking into consideration the 
importance of the Rivayats left out in HF., chiefly the first indicated above, viz., 
the Rivayat of Nariman Hoshang, which is an important group of two 1 larger 

1 Excerpts from the Rivayat of A. Y. S80 are also taken as belonging to Nariman Hoshang's 
Rivayat in the classified Compilation of MU, • ■ -, , • 



■VI PREFACE 



Rivayats generally named after him, I have thought it fit to take in hand not only 
HF., but the whole series of Rivayats mentioned above, which are so systematically 
arranged and grouped together by Darab in MU. For this purpose, I have indicated 
in thp translation the corresponding portions of HI', and MU. HF. is found to be 
more correct than the lithographed MU., but dislocations of texts have been found 
in both, which have been noticed in their proper places. Portions not found in 
MU. or elsewhere, but found in HF. only have been given in foot-notes, and trans. 
lated with comments. Some important pieces omitted both in HF. and MU., but 
found elsewhere in other scattered Rivayats have been laid under contribution, as 
throwing further light on the original subject-matter. Larger pieces in prose and 
verse, e.g., the two versions of ' Olma-i Islam,' the two versions of the Saogand 
Naineh, the Bahman Yaslit, Jamaspi, 1 ' Noshervan and Mazdak,' 'the Prince and 
Omar Khuttab,' etc., have also been treated— the first four with full translation 
and notes and the last two, with other shorter and longer pieces which are in verse, 
have been given only synopticaUy. My great thanks are due to Prof. N. D. Mino- 
chehrbomji, M.A., Professor of Persian at the Elphinstone College/Bombay, with 
whose prompt and kind assistance I have been able to translate the first and longer 
version of the " Olma-i Islam " containing many an abstruse passage baffling 
attempts at decipherment, and which had been left hitherto untranslated by scholars. 

In HF. are to be found several chapters of the Saddar Bimdehesh grouped 
together at random, while MU. contains nearly the whole of it— each chapter under 
its proper classification. This whole Saddar which has been hitherto treated k 
parts is here translated fully (pp. 497-578), and commented on, as throwing mot 
light on many a legend and usage of medieval Parsism. 

Lastly, a thorough examination of the whole work from one end to the othei 
will give one an idea of the time and labour spent on this most interesting subject. 
The following MSS. have been used in connection with the work :— 

1. T. 30. Rivayat of Kama Bohra— original MS. of Iran, A.Y. 896. 

2. T. 31. Rivayat of Kamdin Shapur, copied by Ervad Ardeshir Mobed 

Bharuehi in A. Y. 936. 

. 

3. T. 33. Rivayats of Kamdin Shapur, Behdin Jasa, Asfandyar Sohrab, 
Nariman Hoshang, Kaus Kama, etc., copied by Dastur 






Kaus Sohrab in A. Y. 1129. 



4. T. 



35. 






Rivayat of Darab Hormazyar, originally in possession of Dastur 
Sorabji F. Meherjirana, called F.S.M 3 . 



1 Of the larger Jamaspi in prose, it may be said that the style is simple and easy, but there 
are so many dislocations at various places, and therefore the whole is in such hopeless confusion 
that I am constrained to put off the adjustment of its test to a future occasion until a good MS. 
throwing further light thereon is unearthed. Even BK (Barzu Kamdin's Compilation) which 
lias proved to be of great assistance in settling, in many cases, the texts of HP. and of MU has 
not been found serviceable with regard to this treatise. I have, therefore, given a synopsis 
only of this treatise (See, pp. 493-97). 

2 See' Introduction to Darab Hormazyar's Rivayat (MTJ.— lithographed Edition) by Dr 
Sir J. J. Modi, pp. 4S-49. ' " 



PREFACE 



Vll 



5. F. 60. Rivayat of Kaus Kamdiu, with several Epistles from Iran, 

introductory to the Rivayats, coj>ied by Dastur Eraohji 
S. Meherjirana in A. Y. 1254, called E. 60. t 

6. Darab Hormazyar's Rivayat — 2 volumes, belonging to Ervad E. K. 

Antia, called A. 2 

7. BK. — Barzu Kamdin's Collective Rivayat. belonging to Ervad 

E. K. Antia. 3 

8. SDB.— No, 235 of S. D. Bharucha's Collection in the Mulla Eiruz Library, 

Bombay, containing the Rivayats of Shapur Bharuchi and 
Bahman Punjya, (without date). 

9. S.DB.— No. 248 of S. D. Bharucha's Collection in the Mulla Eiruz Library 

— (same as No. &.)* 

Of these, Nos. 1-5 belong at present to the Navsari Meherji Rana Library, 
Nos. 6-7 to the Sir Cowasji Jehangir Zartoshti Madressa, Navsari, and Nos. 8-9 
to the MuUa Eiruz Library, Bombay. 

Besides these 9 manuscripts, Kamdin Shapur's Rivayat (pp. 214-42) in the 
" Pazend Texts " edited by Ervad E. K. Antia (A.C. 1909) and published by the 
Trustees of the Parsee Punchayat, Bombay has also been consulted. 



1 For these five MSS., see Dhabhar's Descriptive Catalogue of all MSS. in the Meherjirana 
Library, Navsari (pp. 118-23 and pp. 37-30.) 

2 See Modi op. tit., pp. 51-52. 

3 See Modi, op. cit., p. 18. 

■i See Dhabhar's Descriptive Catalogue of some manuscripts in the Mulla Firuz Library 
(A. C. 1923) pp. 81-S3 for Nos. 8-9. 









i 

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CONTENTS 









Pahlavi and Avesta Alphabet . . 

Yathd-ahu-vairyo prayer in Avesta 

21 words of Yatha, corresponding to 21 Nasks 

Contents of the Nasks 

Division of the Nasks into three groups 

Number of Yathas to be recited on undertaking different 

works 

Number of Yathas recited in various Yasna- services ; . 

Number of Yathas recited in place of various Avesta prayers 

Efficacy of Ashem-vohu recited on various occasions 

Commentary on Ashem-vohu, 

Tying the Kusti on the waist. At what age should a child 

be invested with the Kusti. The three band and the four 

knots of the Kusti — their object. The weaving of Kusti 

— by whom woven and of what material should it be 

The ceremony of Navzud, i.e., investiture with Sudra and 

Kusti, according to the practice of the Indian Parsees 
Avestic formula for ceremonially cutting a newly woven 

Kusti . . . . . ■ ■ • 

How far should one keep oneself away, while another is tying 

on the Kusti 
In what direction to turn while tying on the Kusti at night,. 

" if there be no lamp 
What kind of sacred shirt (Sudra) is to be worn beneath the 

Kusti 

Sudra and Kusti should be flawless : how far the flaws in a 

Sudra or Kusti are allowable. . 
How far does the appearance of a menstruous woman affect 

the rite of tying on the Ku.-ti 

Importance of Patet, i.e., repentance of one's sins 

A Dastur prescribing punishment out of proportion to the 

crime is a sinner 
Patet formula recited by one person for another is allowable 

in the case of the former's incapacity for its recital 
An impious Dastur cannot prescribe punishment for sins . . 
One must repent of one's sins chiefly in one's lifetime 
The recital of Patet for one after one's death 
One should repent of one's sins before a Dastur, chiefly on 

the day Ram, of the month Meher 
Can a Behdin (a layman) punish a Herbad (a priest) for his 
sins 











L J a.ge ol the Pago of Hie 
Test : Translation. 
MU. I. 


2-3 


1 


3 1 

.. 3-4 y 

4-13 J 


1-9 




13 


9 


ent 




13-14 


9-12 


15 


13-14 


rs 15-16 


14-15 


16-19 


16-1S 


19-22 


18-23 



22-29 



29-30- 



30-32 



23-26 



26-27 



32 



32 Y 27-32 



32-34 

34 
34-36 

36 

36 
37 
37 
37 



32 



32- 



38 32 

■ 
38 34-35 

2 



1 



CONTENTS 









i ■ 
(I 






Manure prepared by a darvand for cultivation 

Speaking the truth 

On speaking falsehood 

On Meher-druj, i.e., breach of faith 

On swearing and perjury 

Saogand-Nama or the Book of Oaths (2 treatises) 

On loans and the interest thereon 

The law of evidence 

Cultivation of land in partnership 

Loans and extortions from juddins 

Lawful and unlawful trading and profiteering 

Industry and unlawful acquisition of wealth 

Behests of parents to be executed by children 
. : 
Decision about intended gifts 

The creation of the world : man, fire and cattle refused to 

come down tp this world 
Fire and Kershasp . . 

Care of tire 

Rays of the sun should not fall on fire and other precautions 
"to be taken with respect to fire 

Water in a pot left boiling over fire should not be allowed to 
overflow . . . . . . . . 

Collecting household fires and carrying them to fires of the 
higher grade . . . . . . . . 

Fire lighted at midnight destroys divs . . . . 

Fire to be kept apart from water 

Household fires to be collected and carried to Atash-gahs . . 

Fire before which Darun and Yasna ceremonies are perform- 
ed, if allowed to be extinguished, will increase the power 
of divs . . . . . . . . . . ..... 

Food cannot be prepared on fire wherein nasa is burnt 

Descending order of merit for fires — whereon a corpse or 
other impurities are burnt — removed to Atash-gahs. . . . 

Fire lighted near the Dakhrna 

Names of six kinds of fire 

Adar Burzin, Adar Khordad and Adar Gushasp fires 

Atash Adarans to be established at every jjlace where there 
are Behdins, and during the Farvardegan days, these fires 
should be collected and carried to Atash Behrams. . 

How to consecrate an Atash Adaran 

Atash Behrams to be established wherever there are Behdins 

Fire of lightning should not be. used in the consecration of 
an Atash Behram , . . . . . . . . 

Sixteen fires necessary for the consecration of an Atash 
Behram — how they are purified 



Page of the Page of the 
Text : Translation. 

MIT. r. 






38-40 
40-41 
41-42 
42-44 
44-45 
45-54 
54-55 
55-56 
56-57 

57 
57-5S 
58-59 

59 
59-60 

60-61 

61-65 

65 

65-66 

66-67 

■ 

67 

67 

67 

. 67 






35-37 



37 
38-39 
39-51 

51 
51-53 
53-54 

54 

54 

54-55 

55 

I 

< 

■ ■ 



56 



57 



s 

68 57 

68 57-58 






68-71 

: . 

71 
72 
72 



72-73 
73 
73 



' 






74 



58-59 

59 

'60 



60-61 

61-62 

62 

62-63 



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74-76 63-70 



CONTENTS xi 



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What kind of gqstpend to be sacrificed for the zur (i.e., fat- 
offering) of the fire ....... ,.,,„, 

[ Miracle of the fir.e Adar Burzin Meher ] . . 
[ Atash Behram of Navsari ] ......... 

Out of one Atash Behram, two cannot be made 
No one can see the fire of an Atash Behram, except Dasturs,- 
and Herbads who are Navazud, i.e., who have been quali- 
fied with the greater Khub ceremony . . ... 

About the establishment of fire-temples and the care of fire. . 
The fifth question from the Gajasta Abalish about the adora- 
tion of fire . . . . . . . . . . . . 

[ Gifts for the Atash Behram may be accepted from those of 

a foreign faith ] 
Fire and water to be kept at a distance from imsa 
Punishment for bringing nasa in contact with water and fire„ 
Do water and fire kill men ? 

Punishment for throwing "nasa frequently in water 
First and second questions from ' Gajasta Abalish ' about 

. water and fire 
Water to be properly preserved from the impurity of nasa and 
explanation of rain-water falling on nasa in the Dakhma . . 
The nasa of the living is the same as nasa of the dead, when 

taken to fire or water 
Hihar-nasd (i.e., the bodily refuse of the living and the dead) 

coming in contact with a heap of corn in corn-fields 
How far should the Barsam and other sacred implements be 

kept away from the nasa of the living . . . . . ■ -83 80 

Difference observed as regards the culpability of the righteous 

and the wicked, when the bodily refuse of either comes in -I nl 

contact with water or fire .... . . . . ■ ■ 84 80-81 

Before cultivating land, care should, be taken to free it of 

nasa, if any ... . . . . . . . • ■ • ■ ■ 84 81 

Proper precautions about nasa to be observed in the cultiva- . . 

tion of the fields of a Zoroastrian under the superinten- 
dence of Zoroastrian or iron- Zoroastrian servants ... ... 84-85 81-82 

Cultivation of a field held by a Zoroastrian in partnership 

with a juddin 
How should a Zoroastrian act whe,n he sees nasa on a piece 

of land cultivated by a juddin 
Precautions about dead matter in flowing and stagnant 
waters . . . . ■ ■ • ■ ■ ■ ' .... 

Disposal of the nasa of a non-Zoroastrian lying on the road. 

by Zoroastrians 
How should nasa lying on the main road be disposed of 
How should nasa of Behdins or juddins lying in a cultivated 
field be disposed of 



Page of the 
Text: 
MU. I. 


Page of the 
Translation. 


' 


i 


76, 


71 


• • 


7_i 




72 


76 72 


T 


" 


76 


72-73 


76-77 


U 


77-78 


73-74 




74 


78 


7.4-75 


78 
78-79 


■ 


79 

■ 


75 

■ ■ 


80 


75-77 


80-82 


77-78' 


82 


78-79 


82-83 


79-80 



85 82-83 





■ 


85-86 


83 


86-89 


S3-92 




■ 


89 


92 


89-90 


93 


1 


i 


90 


93-94 



I 

I 
■ 









Xll 



CONTENTS 



■ 



Well-water polluted by nasa . . 

Water should not be drunk nor spilt unnecessarily at night 

and other precautions about water 

How and when should the water of ponds be used 
Different kinds of water spilt on the earth mixes with sub- 
soil water at different periods and about the water of Aredvi 

Sura Anahita 
Alburz mountain, FarSkh-kart sea and Khar-i talatd (i.e., 

the three-legged ass) 
The Saokant Mountain 
The Horn-tree and the Kar fish 
The Khar-i talatd and the Horn-tree, according to the ' Minu- 

khrat ' 

The birds Arnrush and Ohamrush 

[ The sea-ox Sarsaok ] . . 

Walking bare-footed 

Happy and unhappy lands 

On making water 

Foundation-laying of the Dakhina (i.e.', the land ceremony) . . 

Construction of a new Dakhina and repairing an old Dakhnia 

Water collecting in the inner well of the Dakhma should be 

let out by boring a hole into it 
Quotation from Vendidad 3 about the Dakhma 
About erecting a new Dakhma, and keeping water away 

from nasa 
Controversy raised at Surat about the disposal of the corpse 

of Nanabhai Punjya in a new Dakhma 
Plan of the Dakhma 
How should land be cultivated in which a Dakhma or an old 

astoddn (ossuary) stands, or if there is any bodily refuse of 

the living on it . . 
How should nasa be removed by the nasa-sdldrs in the inner 

well of the Dakhma 
Ceremonial disposal of the corpse of a person killed by a wild 

animal . . 
Jitddins cannot carry the biers of Zoroastrians 
Precautions to be taken by the nasd-sdldrs and Mammals 

(i.e., the principal and assistant corpse-bearers), if blood or 

any matter exudes from the body, or if the jmiwand is let 

slip, or if they utter anything without finishing the bdj . . 
The dasturi formula 
What should the nasa-sdldrs do, if any open part of their 

body or then garments comes in contact with nam 
How should one purify oneself after coming in contact with' a 

dead dog 



Page of the Page of the 
Text : Translation. 
MTJ. I. 



90-91 



94-95 



91-92 

92 95 . 







92-93 


96 


93 


97 


93-94 


98 


94 


9S 


94 




95 


99 




99 


95-96 


100-101 


96-9S 




98-99 




99 


102 


99-1011 


102-104 


100 


104 


100-101 


104 



101-103 

103-105 104-106 
104 

- 

105-107 106-108 

107 108 

. ■ 

107 108 

107 108-109 

107-108 109-110 

108-109 110-11 

109-110 111-12 

110 112 



CONTENDS 



Xll 



Precautions observed by nasa-salars when their hands with 

the gloves on come in contact with any bare part of nasa . . 
Sagdid, i.e., the dog's gaze and the kinds of dog required for 

sagdid . . . . . ■ 

Various precautions to be observed while carrying the corpse 

to the Dakhma : who, besides the nasa-salars, can carry 

the corpse, in case of necessity ? 
Precautions to be observed with regard to the corpses of per- 
sons dying unnatural death 
Precautions to be observed if death occurs in a Yasna-gah . . 
Death in an Atash Behram 

Nasa on a high road or in a cultivated piece of land 
Nasa corning in contact with a wooden couch, or a plastered 

piece of ground or a piece of land set with stones, or with 

felt-rugs, &c. 
Death on the upper floor or a terrace ; death by hanging ; 

death on the ground-floor; death in a common passage 

leading to two rooms .. 
On a darvand throwing nasa in the house of a Behdin, out of 

spite 

Nasa coming in contact with a wooden structure 

About the door or threshold of a house polluted with nasa 

and about horses or draught-animals coining in contact 

with nasa, 
One coming in contact with nasa should undergo Bareshnum 

purification 

Death of a person seated upright 

Death on a tree 

How far does pollution go, if one amongst a multitude of 

men dies 
Nasa lying in a heap of wood, or in corn, or in corn-fields, or 

in stalks or straw 
Bricks, earth, mortar, dung-fuel and ashes, &c, coming in 

contact with nasa 

Nasa in a jar of wine or of oil . . 

Death occurring on the sea 

How sagdid should be performed over a corpse buried under- 
neath a debris of brick-bats or earth 

Precautions to be observed by Behdins when jiuldins carry 
a corpse , . 

Bones of men or animals found in the folds of garments 

Spines of a hedgehog found in the dung of animals 

Bareshnum purification to be undergone by one polluted 
with nasa ■ ■ ■ • • • • • • • . . ■ • 

Difference between the msa of a Behdin and of a darvand . . 



Page ol the Page of the 
Text : Translation. 
MIT. I. 



110 



110-15 



115-18 



112 
112-18 

118-23 



118-20 


123 r 26 


121-22 


126-28 


122-23 


129-30 


122-23 


130 






123-24 


130-33 


, 


- 


124-20 


133-36 



126 137 

126 137 



127 



137-38 



127 . 138 

127 138 

127-28 139-40 



129 



129-30 



140-41 



142-44 



30-31 


144-45 


131 


145 


.131 


146 



131 



146-47 



131-32 


147 


132-33 


147-48 


133-34 


148-49 


134-35 


150 


136 


151 






XIV 



.CONTENTS 






.'I 
.1 .11' 









136-37 

137 



138-39 

139-40 
140 
140 

141 

141-42 
142-43 

144-45 
145 



About corning in contact with nasa m mown grass 

About dead matter crushed with a stick '. . 

Keeping a lamp or light near a dead body at night, and the 

space of ground polluted by nasa . . 
About food cooked in a house where death occurs 
After how long does the ground of a covered place become 

pure after death 
Temporary nasa-lcliana or, Zad-marg should be erected for 

the dead . . . . ■ • , ■ ■ 

When is pollution of nasa worse 
The, shroud (Kafan) for the dead . . 

The legs of the dead should be bent, before taking them to 

theDakhma .. ■■ 

Precautions to be observed by the msa-saters from the time 
when the dead body lies in the house up to the time when 
it is finally disposed of in the Dakhma 

The gah-sarna ( Yasht-i gahdn) .. '. 

Juddins cannot carry the biers of Zoroastrians to the Dakh- 
ma : precautions to be observed by the corpse-bearers . . 
Consumption of a corpse by vultures . . 
A person going in a funeral procession as well as those who 

have seen the corpse must take a bath 

Fresh meat should neither be cooked iior eaten for three days 
in a house where death occurs 

Mourning for the dead prohibited 

The form which the soul assumes for the first three days after 
death and the places frequented by it during that period. . 
Tars-i Studdn ceremony in honour of Sarosh 
How do the souls of the righteous and the wicked feel when 

the corpses are eaten away by vultures 

What becomes of the five spiritual faculties of a man after 

death 
The journey, to the Chinvad bridge, of" the souls of the righte- 
ous and the wicked 
On the Sarosh ceremony of the dead and the consecration of 

pure white garments with Darun ' • ' 151 

The dignity of Sarosh Yazacl . : - . . . . • • • ■ 151-52 

Ceremonies of tile dead for the whole year . . : . • ■• . 152-56 

White o-arments {jama-.i ashodad) consecrated in honour of 

the dead 
Principal ceremonies of the dead for the first year . . ■ 
Sidab (fiie) to be prepared with garlic on the third day's 

ceremony of the dead .. 
Dahman Afringan to be recited on the dawn of the fourth 

day after death .. .; ■■ ■■ ■.■''■■ 



Page of the Page of the 
Text : Translation. 
MU. I. 

136 

136 



' 



152 
152 



■ 



. 145 

146 

146-47 

147 

147-48 

148-49 



■ • • ■ 

152-53 
153-54 

154-55 

155-56 
156 
157 

158 



- 159-60 
161-62 

162-64 
165 

165 



149 



149-51 



165 

MlO 

I 

166 

■ ■ 

■ i ■ 

■ 
I 

166-67 

167-70 



156-57 


171 


157-59 


171-72 




. 


159. 


172 




• 


.. .159 


• . 172 



• CONTENTS: XV 

I 

If the three days' ceremonies after the death of a person have 

not been performed owing to unavoidable circumstances, 

they should be performed thereafter 
The souls of the pious come, down here on their rojgar 

ceremonies .. ...,...„ ... ..... 

Ceremonies of one dying during five Gatha days 
Invocation, in ceremonies, of a dead person whose name is 

. unknown 
Ceremonies on the death of a child aged one day up to seven 

years *, . . 
Children dying aged one day up to 8 years will look like those 

aged 15 years, in the next w'orld 

Zinda-ravan ceremony, can be performed for a boy or a girl 

11 years and 3 months old, and not of one under that age . 161 175 

Dastur Noshervan Marzban's last testament : advice to his 

son as to what he should do after his father's death- ... 161-63 175-76 
Ceremonies to be performed for one year on the death of a 

person aged 15 years and upwards . . 163-70 176-78 

On the bringing up of children .... .170-71 

On the duty of educating children .. .. , .. ... X71 

Submission to the authority of parents and teachers and ab- 
staining from harassing them. , . . ... .ypy," ] ... 171—79 

Which parent is created superior to the other — the father or 

the mother 
Children should not neglect the duties towards their parents . 172-73 
Disobedient children to be deprived of patrimony .. ..,. 173 



Page of the 
Text : 
MU. I. 


Page of the 
Translation 




■ 


■ 


■ 


.1.60 


172-73 • 


160 


173 


160 


173-74 


160 


174 


, 


• 


160-61 


174-75 


161 




• 


■ 



1.72 178 



179 



Ritual prescribed for one who dies aged 12 years and under 173 179 

On adoption— its varieties . .. ...... .-. , .,,, 173.77 179-91 

Proper age of betrothal and marriage , . 177-78 192-93 

On the merit of contracting marriage .. .. ,178 

On negotiating marriage-contract .. 179-80 193-94 

Five kinds of marriage . . . . ... ...... ... 180-8 9 

The marriage ceremony, the dowry and the announcement. 

of the mahr, or, the marriage gift ■ 182-83 

The status of the five kinds of wives under different circum- 
stances and the remarriage of widows . . . . 183-87 
Patrimony to be divided among survivors' .. ... 187-88 
On divorce 
Consorting with one's wife 



195-96 
196-97 



Nocturnal pollution 
On suckling a child 
On adultery 



197-202 

202-203 

189 204 

190-91 204-206 



191-95 .206-207 

195-96 20S 

. . 196-202 208-10 

On the Mmemdl sin, or, sin affecting the accusers . . . . 202-204 210-1] 

Obedience of wives to their husbands and of children to their 



parents . . ... 204-205 



' 



XVI 



CONTENTS 









About inenstruous women and the davazda-hamast ceremony 
performed for the expiation of sins committed by them . . 

Treatment of Women after child-birth and still-birth and 
about a woman who dies during her periods or pregnancy 

About purifying the clothes of the carriers of the dead and 
those which have become riman (i.e., defiled) otherwise . . 

On. the purification of metals, stones, etc. which have become 

defiled 

On cooking and drinking vessels 

Pollution of wood • ■ • ■ ■ • 

Trimming the hair and ceremonial disposal thereof ... 

Nail-paring 

On swallowing a tooth unawares : on a sore mouth 
soreness of any part of the body 

Blood-letting 

About a child biting another child 

About burns and brands 

About a child falling in water 

On suckling a child (see p. 196) 

About a child defiled by coming in contact with the dead . . 

Kinds of animals regarded as masa when dead 

About Jam and Jame and different species of men and ani- 
mals 

The dog mrrin-gosh 

About protecting a hedgehog and killing a tortoise 

Story of Jam and Jame . . • ■ 

Animals, birds and fish which are fit to be eaten 

On the lawful slaughter of cattle and fowl 

Eating unconsented flesh of cattle is unlawful 

Offering the fat of a gospand, lawfully slaughtered, to the lire 

of the Atash Behram on the fourth day after death 
Domestic animals to be properly taken care of 
On the domestic animals and the cock : the head of a do- 
mestic animal lawfully slaughtered can be consecrated . . 
On wearing silken clothes and ou the use of honey and opnim 

On drinking wine •. ■ . • • " , ," 

On the consumption of ghee or clarified butter prepared by' 

darvands 

Fruits and vegetables sold by jiuldvns . . 

Hot water does not remove druj-i ■nusash 

Hides tanned by juddins • • • ' 

On killing noxious creatures and on the eating of the flesh oi 

a hharfastar • 

Food gnawed by noxious creatures 

About the cattle which have eaten dead matter 



Page of the 
Text: 
MTJ. I. 



Page of the 
Translation. 



205-22 211-24 



223-36 224-38 



237-39 238-43 



239-40 

240-41 

. . 241^3 

243-46 

. . 245-48 

on the 

248-51 

251 

251-52 

252-53 

253 

254 

254 

254-55 



243-45 
245-46 
246-48 

248-50 
250-51 

251-53 
253-54 

254 
254-55 

255 

255 

256-£7 



255-56 

256-58 
258-59 
259-60 
260-61 
261-63 
263-64 

264 
264-65 

265-68 

268-70 
270-71 

271 

271-72 
272 
272 

272-76 
276-77 

277 



257-58 
259-60 



260-61 
261-63 
263-64 

264 



265-66 
266 

267 
267 
268 
268 

268-70 

270 

• 271 



CONTENTS 



XV11 



■ 






Dead matter taken as medicine 

How should Bareshnum purification be administered to one 
of a foreign faith, who wished to be cleansed of the pollu- 
tion by nasa . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 

On peaceful and forcible conversion 

On the treatment of juddins : their eonversion 

Diseases and their remedies : . . . . . . . . .... 

Amshaspands and Yazads to be propitiated, to avoid calami- 
ties and to ward off diseases . . . . 

The blind and the maimed to be contented with their lot 

On being grateful to God : Adarbad Marcspand on grateful- 
ness — his miracles 

How man brings on himself calamities : prevention is better 
than cure . . ... . . . . . . . . 

Behdins on attaining to majority should do various good 
deeds, chiefly six.; penalties prescribed for not doing them ; 
enumeration of greater and less sins and margarjan crimes. 

Degrees of crimes and margarjan sins : sins which make one 
riman or margarjan 

The merit of Khetyoclath .. .: .. .. ..'■ 

On sodomy . . . .• . . . . ■ . . . . .... 

On padjyab (ablution) with gomez and water': story of Iblis 
(Satan) and Tehmuras, illustrating the efficacy of bulls' 



, 



.. 



Nirang to be recited on applying gomez 

Different prayers to be recited durLig the five gahs : the dura- 
tion of each gah. . 
The Rapithwih gall : its celebration 
The Afringan of Rapithwhi — when recited': the Afringan 

given in Avesta 

Afrin-i Rapitkwin . . . . . . 

Recital of Nyaishes 

Number of YatM to be recited in place of different Avestas . . 

Khorshed Nyaish with translation 

On the performance of a Nyaish in general 

On the Mah Nyaish 

The waxing and waning of the moon 

On seeing the new moon in different constellations every 

month 
On the recitation of Ormazd Yasht 
On the recitation of Sarosh Yasht 
Ormazd Yasht with translation from the beginning up to 

the 20 names of God 
Nothing to be given to the wicked ... 
Gifts to be given to the worthy and the good 



" 



■ ■ 

■ ■ ' • 



Page of the Page of the 
Text : Translation. 
MU. I. 

277-79 272 

. 

279-80 273-75 

281-82 , 275 

282-83 276 

283 276-77 

283-86 277-79 
286 ., 280 

286-90 280-81 

i ] 
290-91. ■ , 281-83 
. 
... 
' 291-99 284-86 

299-307 286-92 
307-309 292-94 
310 

310-15 294-98 

315 

315-16 299-300 
316-17 300-302 

317-22 302-303 
322-25 303 

325 304-305 

326 
327-39 

339 

339 

340 305-306 

340^11 
341 
341 

341-46 

346 306-307 
346-48 

3 



^viii 



CfONTESTS 



307-308 
308-310 ' 
310 



Page of the Page of the 
Text: Translation. 

Mil. I. 

[ On charity ] . ; 

[ Delay is dangerous ] . . . . . . . . 

[ Proper maintenance of Atash Behrams ] 
Baj to be recited before and after taking meals, and on eat- 
ing meals with baj, i.e., by observing silence : the manner • 

of cleansing the mouth after eating : meals not to be 

eaten by two persons together from the same plate : meals 

supplied by danvands, not to be taken : cleansing 

the niouth with hot water after meals and spirting it out 

oil the ground is a sin — the way in which the mouth and 

the teeth should be cleansed 
On fasting 

On the recital of Afringans 

Dibache, or, Introduction of the Afringans 

The last portion of the Dhup-nh'ang (or, nh'ang biii dadan) . . 
Afringan of Ardafravash, as recited in Iran (to be recited 

with the tarda of Tao.ahmi-nmdne.) 

Afringan with the Khshnuman of Meher . . . . 

Afringan of Behram Yazad 

Afringan of Mono Ram (to be recited on occasions of joy, 

entertainments and marriage) 

Myazd ceremony to be performed five days in a month 
Khshnuman of the Afringan of Rashnu Yazad 

of Astad Yazad . . 
., „ of Aniran Yazad 

of day Orrtiazd, month Farvar- 

dm 

.. • „ of Vanant Yazad 



310-13 

313-16 
316-17 



348-51 

351 
351-53 
354-57 
357-58 

. 
358-59 
359-60 

360 

i • 
360-61 
361-62 317 

362 
362-63 
363-64 



••' 



- 






of day Khordad, month Farvar- 

din 

of day Tir, month Tir 
of day Meher, month Meher . . 
of day Aban, month Aban 
of day Adar, month Adar 
of day Parvardin, month Adar and 
of day Khorshed, month Dae . . 
of day Bahman, month Bahman 
of day Asfandarmad, month As- 
fandarmad and of Haft Am- 
shaspand 
of day Khordad. month Asfan- 
darmad 
of Nonabar (for the firBt day) . . 
of Nonabar (for the second day) 
of Nonabar (for the third and 
fourth days) 



364 
364-65 

365-66 



317 



366-67 

nonno 
368 

368-70 



370-71 
371 



317 

371-73 

373-74 
374-75 
375-76 

376 



OCWTENTS 



XIX 









Khshnuinan of the Afringan recited on the erection of a new 
building 

Khshnuman of the Afringan recited on a new well being dug. 

Afringan Dahman, with Afrinami .... (with the Persian 
translation of Afrinami ....).. 

Afringan of Gahambar 

Afringan of Gathabyo 

Afringan of Sarosh 

Afringan of Sarosh recited for the first three days in the Aiwis- 
ruthrem gah in a house where death occurs and also on 
the second day of Nonabar . . . . . . , 

Afringan of Siruze (abbreviated) 

Afrin-i Shash Gahambar (in Persian characters) 

Afrin-i Gahambar Chashni (in Persian characters) 

Afrin-i Myazd (in Avesta characters) 

Afrin-i Zartosht (in Avesta with Persian translation) • . . 

Afrin-i Ardafravash (in Persian characters) 

Afrin-i Buzorgan ( „ ,, ) 

Afrin-i Dahman ( „ „ ) •■ •■ •• 

Doa-i Behrarn Varjavand, i.e., Chithrem buyad, (Pazend in 
Avesta character) 



Page of tho Page of the 
Text : Translation. 

MU. I. 

ii 

376-77 

377 

• 

378-81 

381-84 

384-86 

386-S8 .318 

■ 
388-90 
390 



390-94 
394-95 
396-98 
399-401 
402-403 
. .. .403 
403-405 









405-408 318-19 



Doa-i Hoshedar and Behrarn Varjavand, to be recited after 



prayers,' especially the Nyaish — recited in Iran (in Persian 

characters) . . . . . . ■ • • • ...... 

Doa Nani-Setayashna (Pazand in Av. characters) . . 

Nemaz-i Ormazd (Pazand in Av. characters) 

Doa, Nam-Setayashna (Pazend with Persian translation) 
Marriage ceremony as performed in Iran (Paz. in Av. cha- 
racters) 
Doa-i Nekah, i.e., Tandarosti, as recited in Iran after the 

marriage ceremony (in Persian) 
Paiman-i Pahlavi, or, Marriage Ceremony, as performed in 

India (in Persian characters) 

Doa-i Nekah, i.e., Tandarosti 

About Gahambars and the use of Sudab (rue), and Noshirvan 

Marzban's account of the Gahambars 
Story of the Gahambar of Noshirvan, the just and Marzban 

Karsani 
The Zend or Commentary on Afringan Gahambar (Paz. with 

Persian rendering) . . . . ■ • • ■ 

The Yasna service as recited in the Gahambars, with the 

Khshnuman . . . . . . ■ ■ 

The Yasna service of the five Farvardegan days and the five 

Gatha days . . . . . • ■ • ■ ; 
Number of Barsam rods to be used in different Yasnas and 

the Khshnuman of Vendidad , , ■ - 



320-21 

423-25 
425-26 

r 
426-36 322-24 



409-10 
411-13 
413-18 

418-23 

423 



436-39 

439—47 

447-52 

453-64 

464-67 



325 
325 
. ■ 
325 
326 



XX CONTENTS 






• i . • Page of the 


Page of the 


- 


Text: 
MTJ. I. 


Translation. 


The Paragna Ceremony, or, the Ceremony preparatory to the 






Yasna . . 


467-82 


326-27 


Number of Yatha to be recited in different Yasnas 


482-83 




Barsam rods used in Yasna services 


483-84 




Barsarn twigs of the gaz (i.e.; of the tamarisk tree) only to 




l 


be used in the service and not of any metal 


484 


327-28 


33 alats or apparatus, round about the Havan 


484-85 


328-29 


15 Jiunar or capabilities of a herbad and the 5 virtues to be 






acquired by the faithful 


485-87 


330-32 


Nirang is the life of Religion ; — who is a Dastur ? - — the five 


• 


■ 


nirangs to be learnt by herbads and the question asked of 






Adarbad by Husht . . 


4S7-89 


333-35 


About acknowledging a Dastur and providing him with one- 






tenth of one's income . . . . . . . . 


489-93 


335t-36 


Rozgar of the departed relatives 


493-97 




Performance of the Darun ceremony . . . . ... 


. 497-98 




The souls of the departed visiting this earth . . 


498 


336 


On Farvardegan days 


498-501 


. 


Ceremonies of the dead and the Staomi (Y. 26) 


502-506 , 


336-37 


The ritual of the Parvardegan days .. . . : 


506-507. 


■ 337-38 


Baj of 1200 Ashem and.of 1200 Yatha 


507-509 


■ 


Darun to be consecrated in the Gatha days, with the Afringan 




. 


of Panji . . . . '. ; . . . . . . ■ 


509-514 


f 


Darun-i Pravashi in the Panji 


514-15 




Khshnuman of the Darun of Mino Marespend 


515-16 


338 


Rasraaha-i Behdinan (about Parvardegan days) 


516-17 


338-40 


Khshnuman of the Darun of Ormazd roz 


517 




>t „ ,, ' of Vanant Yazad 


517-19 




Ritual of the Farvardegan days . . • . . . . ■ . . 


519-20 




Where to recite avanghao and staomi in the Darun consecra- 






tion . .' . . 


520-21 


340 


Khshnuman of the Darun of day Khordad of the month 


C| 


. 


Farvardiii! j . 


521-22 




The greatness of the day Khordad of the month Farvardin. . 


522-24 


341 


Darun of Haft Amshaspand and its Khshnuman 


524-26 


340-41 


Nirang of the 5th day of the 12th month (in Pahlavi) and 






the description of this day . . 


526-27 


341^2 


The Khordad sal gah and its, Khshnuman (6th day of the 






12th month) 


527-29 


342 


Khshnuman of the Darun ceremony of day Tir of month Tir 


529-30 




[ An account of the Tiragan Jashan ] . . 




342-43 


Khshnuman of the Darun of day Meher, month Meher 


530 


343-44 


,, „ ,, Aban, month Aban 


530-31 




M . ,„ ,, ,, Adar, month Adar 


531-32 




„ „ „ ,, Bahman, month Bahman 


532-33 


344 


of Sarosh .. 


533-34 


r; 



CONTENTS 



XXI 



... 

; 



■ . 

Four Damns consecrated for the dead on the dawn of the 
fourth day 

Zinda-ravan ceremony with the four Darun ceremonies con- 
secrated on the dawn of the fourth day 

Khshnuman of the Darun-i Safar 

One going on a journey of 12 farsangs must have darun con- 
secrated in the name of Behrain Yazad 

Khshnuman of the Darun of Bahram Yazad 

Khshnuman of the Darun consecrated with the head of a 
gospand . . . . . . . . . . . . 

Khshnunian of the Darun consecrated with the head of a 
. fowl or bird 

Khshnuman of the Darun of Rapithwin 

Khshnuman of the Darun of Nonabar . . 

Khshnuman of the Darun of Siruze 

Khshnuman of the Darun of Shahinbdj 

How each day of the month is styled and mentioned in the 
Khshnumans 

Khshnumans — greater and smaller — for each of the 30 days 

How the days and months and the five Gatha days are men- 
tioned in the Darun consecration 

The manner of reciting the Yasna, etc. 

[ Ink prepared by darvands should not be used ] 

Ormazd and the Amshaspands 

Loin-cloth should not be worn 

Parts of the body to be covered while reciting Nyaish 

Priests should not eat the food cooked by Behdins (i.e., lay- 
men), nor should they come in contact with them while 
eating . . . . ..... 

Pronunciation of the compound do and of s in Spitama 

Secrets should be written in Avesta or Pahlavi characters . . 

Nirang av-padyav yashtan, i.e., consecration- of Nirangdin 
(in Pazand) 

The same — twice (in Pazand) 

How should one act in the nine nights' retreat, after under- 
going the Bareshnun purification 

Administration of Bareshnum to one who is not riman (pol- 
luted) 

The Indian Parsis asked by their Persian confreres to go to 
Persia and learn there the technicalities of the ritual 

Bagh-i Bareshnum (i.e., the place where Bareshnum is ad- 
ministered) ; — how should it be prepared — with a plan ; 
the qualifications of a Yaozdathragar 

The consecration of db and pddydb (i.e., water and gomez ;) 
laying out the Bareshnum gab, with a plan ; administra- 
tion of the Bareshnum to an ordinary person, as well as a 
riman, etc, 



Page of the Page of the 
Text : Translation. 
MU. I. 






[|i 



534-35 

535-37 
537-38 

538-39 
539-40 

540 

540-41 

541 

541-45 

545-55 
555-60 

560-61 
561-69 

569-74 
575 

575 
575 
575 



575 
575 

575 

576-79 
579-85 

585 

585-86 

586 

586-90 



. 345 
345 



345 
345 

346 
346 
346 
346 

346-47 
347 
347 

347-52 
353-57 

358 

358 

359 

360-02 



590-99 362-77 



xxu 



CONTENTS 



A 

Administration of the Bareshnum to a rimcm with a plan of 

the Bareshnum-gah 
Bareshnum purification with the retreat of 9 nights ; when 

is this retreat vitiated and when not ; the order in which 

the different members of the body are washed and the 

maimer of drinking gomez 
About the purification of various things which are defiled . , 
Zend or Commentary of Vendidad 9 (abbreviated) : and 

about the Bareshnumgar and Bareshnum 
The qualification of a Yaozdathragar . . . . ; . ■. . 



Page of the Page of the 
Text : Translation 
MTJ. I, 



599-601 



378-80 

• fj 















*'• 



601-609 380-93 
609-13 393-95 

613-15 

615 

On the qualifications of a Yaozdathragar and the merit of Pa g e of tlie Pa e e of fclie 
.. . , ; . ■ • _ , „ ° Text : Translation 

undergomg the Bareshnum purification (composed in MU. II, 

verse by Noshirvan Marzban) . . . . ' • 2-8 

Qualifications and reservations under which Herbadship, 

i.e., proper priestly duty should be preformed . . . . •• 8-10 396-400 

Sudra and Knsti should be in proper order, especially at the 

time of any consecration 
Precautions to be observed when there is any bodily refuse 

within three steps of the ceremonial apparatus 
Consecrations offered with or without zur 
About the consecration of Fravashin 
About the consecration of Vendidad 
About the performance of Yasna 
Merit of the performance of various ceremonials as well as of 

the Gahambars 
Merit of performance of Vendidad, Yasna, Visperad and 

Damn, with or without mr . . . . . . 

Correct preparation of Damn and Farsast : Symbolism of 

the Damn 

The erection of a Dar-i Meher 

Reward or retribution for the priest, for proper or improper 

consecration 
About the garments worn by priests . . 
Punishment of an unqualified Yaozdathragar 
Four kinds of Yasnas offered to the Yazads 
About the merit of Yasna and Myazd . . 
Marnier of reciting and consecrating Vendidad 
A Yasna-service which is virasta and gumani and draydn 
The proper occasions when the formula avanghao and staomi 

are recited in the consecration of Vendidad : — When is 

the Ehub valid and when vitiated . . . . . . 

The proper manner of consecrating Damn . . . . ... ■ 26-31 

About the varas (hair) of the sacred bull . . - . . . . 31-32 

Barsam twigs to be gathered from the pomegranate or the 

tamarisk only . . , , , , , , . . , . , . 32 



• ■ 



11 

11 
12-13 

13 
13-14 

14 

14-15 

15-17 

17 
18 

19 
19 
19-20 
20-21 
21-22 
22-23 
23-26 

■ . 
26 



» 
ni - 
h 

400-402 

; 

402-403 
403 



403-404 

404 

404-405 

405-407 

407 

407-10 

410-12 



412-13 
413-16 

416-18 



418 



CONTENTS 



XX111 



• 



Page of the 
Text : 

Mtr. it 



Page of the 
Translation. 



About the horn sent to India from Iran and about the urva- 

ram . . . . . . . . .,; 

The Navazud or Navar initiation 

Can a Herbad who has gone into a Dakhina be again fit for 

Herbadship ? (see II,. p. 9) 
About the division of the dioceses (husht) by the Herbads 

and their emolument (nirmad) 
The ceremony of Geti-Kharid or Navazud 
On Zinda-ravan ceremony 
Genealogy of Zartosht 
Zartosht and the future prophets 
The Resurrection 

The day Khordad of the month Farvardin 
About 9,000 years of existence 
The faces of the soul 

The spiritual parts in the body of men : their functions 
The meaning of dreaming a dream 
Divisiqn.of the things of this world into 25 parts 
Composition of men's body (from Olma-i Islam) 
Mount Alburz 

The signs of the Zodiac and lunar mansions . . 
Seven demons : seven planets : seven heavens 
Ohekat Daiti and Chinvat Bridge . . . . .... 

The seven Keshvars . . , 

The influence of the stars ... 

Ten demons residing in men . . 

The livelihood of the creatures of Qrmazd and Ahriman 

The righteous and the wicked ... . . . . . . .,.,.,.. 

The blind, the deaf and the maimed should be content with 

their lot . . 
Going on a journey without any safeguard . . ... 

The Zend-Avesta . . . . - . . . . . , 

Behram Varjavand, the last apostle 
The Immortals . . . . ... 

Good and bad effects of drinking wine : About meritorious 

deeds . . . . . . . . 

Yovad-shah, son of Agriras 

A vow to be fulfilled on the birth of a male child 

Paraboni to be given to a newly born infant for drinking . . 

Seven wonderful things invented by Jamshed 

Olma-i Islam (first treatise) 

Olma-i Islam (second treatise) 

Bahman Yasht 

Jamaspi . . . , 

Jamaspi, or Abkam-i Jamasp (longer version) 



• 



• - , • 



33 
33-35 

35 

35 
35-36 
37-43 
43-46 
46-48 

49 
49-50 
50-53 

53 
53-55 

55 
55-56 

56 

56 
56-58 
58-59 
59-61 

61 
62-66 

66 

67 

67 

67 
67 
68 
68-69 
69 

69-70 
70 

70-71 
71 

71-72. 

72-80 

80-86 
86-101 
101-11 
101-30 



418-19 
419-21 

. i . 
421 
421-22 

422-23 

423-24 
424 

425 
425 

426 

426-27 
427 
427-28 
428-31 
431 
432 
432. 

432-33 
433 

433-34 
434 

434-35 

435-36 

436 

436-37 
437-49 
444-57 
457-81 
481-93 
493-97 



Xxiv CONTENTS 






■ 


Page of the 


Page of the 


. 


Text : 


Translation 


' 


MU. II. 




Saddar Bundehesh . . 


399^15 


497-578 


Yatha-ahu-vairyo, the foundation of Religion and 101 names 






of God, with longer commentaries . . 


131-48 




Letter brought by Behdin Bahman Suratya (Punjya) from 






Kerman 


149-57 


590-92 


Another letter from Turkabad 


158-62 


592-94 


Another letter from Kerman . . . . . . 


162-63 


• 595 


Vasf-i Amshaspandan 


164-92 


579 


Mar-nama and Burj-nama 


193-94 


579 


Story of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni . . . . . . • . • 


194-99 


579 


Story of an ignoble person who baokbited the Behdins' of Yazd 


200-202 


579-80 


Some Verses about Dastur Noshirwan Kermani 


202-203 




A year of famine and the dreams of a chaste woman with re- 




' 


gard to it 


203-206 


580 


Appearance of Meher Yazd in a dream dreamt by Dastur 




■ - 


Noshirwan 


206-207 


' 


About the kindling of a lamp and its miracles 


207-208 


UI 


Story of Jam and Jame — death of Jamshed 


208-10 


'380-81 


A tale of Afrasiab son of Pashang ' . . 


210-13 


; 581' 


Miracles of Zartosht with regard to the planting of the cypress 




. 


U1CC .. ■• • * ■• •• •■ •■ •• 


213 


on ■ , 


Some statements about religion . ! ... . .' ' . . 


213-14 


: . 


Story of Mazdak and Noshirwan 


214-30 


. S82-S5 


Noshirwan's enthronement ; the marguzan (i.e., dakhma) of 


-■ 


- 


Noshirwan and the pilgrimage thereto of Abu Ja'far, the 




. fi 


Khalif •• .... 


230^13 ' 


'■585-86- : 


The Prince of Iran and Omar Khuttab 


'244-59 


' 586-89 


Mino-Kherad (in Persian prose) . . 


259-66 


•' 589 


Iran-gaviz and its climate . . . . . . . • 


266 


. ild 


Var Jamkart 


266-67 


■ 1 : -' ,;; ' 


Meaning of (1) Nemo-aongham, (2) atha-ima-vachd, (3) Airyamd- 


.•■'■ 


no § 


ishyo, "(4) az-hamd-gunah . . . .(5) Mazdayasno-ahmi, 




■ 


(6) ahm&i raeskcha 


267-70 


; 


Meaning of (1) Khshnaothra — Ashem — Fravarane—panj-gdh 




■ 


i fravarane — bdj of Ormazd — Yaihd — Yenghe-hdtam and 


: 


YesnemcM . . ..... ; . 


271-72 


■ 


Some nirangs or incantations 


272-82 : 


' ' -589 


Janiaspi (in verse) .... 


282-90 


589 


Zartosht's prophetship — his miracles and the establishment 


' 


■ 


of Atash Behram 


290-304 


590 


Some tales hi verse, pointing a moral 


305-31 


590 


Arda Viraf Nama 


331-42 


' 590 


Kissa-i Sanjah . . 


343-54 


590 


Nariman Hoshang's Bivayat, with some questions and 






answers and Cklt&k-i Avesta Gasan . . 


354-^2 


595-602 


' 







CONTENT'S 



XXV 



Narinian Hoshang's Rivayat 

The Rivayat of A. Y. 880 (extracts whereof are quoted in 
the classified compilation of Darab Hormazyar as belong- 
ing to Nariman Hoshang's Rivayat) . . 

Rivayat brought by Paridun Marzban (see pp. 462-63) 

Saddar Bundehesh (a part only) 

Jamshed's palace at Pars 

Youth and old age 

Sage's conversation with Zartosht in the court of Gushtasp 

On the worth of writers and the care of books 

The four Persian dynasties 

The third and the fourth fasl (in verse) — about the destruc 
tion of the Persian empire 

Dastur Barzu's Rivayat 

Asfandyar Sohrab's Rivayat 

Kaus Mahyar's Rivayat 

Dastur Noshirwan's letter to Kamdin Padam 

Letter brought by Kamdin Shapur 

Shapur Bharuchi's Rivayat (see below) 

Faridun Marzban's letter — (see pp. 397-98) 

Shapur Bharuchi's Rivayat 

Letter to Dastur Ru stain Peshotam and others about the new 
dakhma at Surat 

Letter to the Adhyarus of Surat 

[ Introductory Epistle to Kama Bohra's Rivayat ] . . 

[ Maktub-i Maneck Ohanga ] 

[ Some technical words, used in the Rivayats, explained 



Page of the Page of Uie 
Text : Translation 
MU. II. 

383-88 602-606 



389-96 


606-10 


397-98 


610-11 


399-415 


497-578 


416 




417 




417-22 




422 




423-28 




428-30 




430-46 


610-11 


446-51 


612-14 


451-55 


614-15 


455-58 


615-17 


458-61 


617-20 


461-62 




462-63 


620-22 


463-70 




470-74 


622-24 


475-80 


624-25 




625-27 




628-30 


, , 


630-36 



ERRATA. 



Page. 


10 
JS 
JO 
20 
24 

36 

54 

69 
121 
136 
168 
196 

15 
246 
259 
262 
264 
290 
304 
318 
321 
8*8 

364 
381 
385 
389 
409 
429 
487 
551 
589 
590 



Page. 
3 
11 



Line. 


Incorrect. 


C'orrcc-l- 


29 


when 


when a person 


18 


craven 


cavern 


note, 1. 10 


virat 


vigrat 


note 3 


far 


for 


4 


contended 


contented 


note 1 


Oh. 19 


Oh. 39 


note 5 


dies 


dries 


12 


he 


he is a, 


18 


a-naw 


anew 


4 


tenour 


tenor 


note, 1. 14 


removed from 


removed 


16 


Mah 


Meher 


note, 1. 10 


hat 


that 


note, 1. 11 


ustom 


custom 


24 


month 


mouth 


note, 1. 9 


fear 


no fear 


18 


their 


the 


6 


month-veil 


mouth-veil 


12 


befal 


befall 


9 


he is 


is 


25 


Khorshed 


Khordad 


note, 1. 2 


ormula 


formula 


note 17 


Z. A. II. 


7,. A. III. 


4 


naval 


navel 


12 


six 


sin 


14 


inmate 


innate 


23 


checks 


cheeks 


note 8 


wat 


water 


note, 1.10 


c. 


etc. 


28 


yanim-Ma.no 


YCmwi-mano 


last line 


Gimini 


Gemini 


11 


faithfulness 


faithlessness 


last line 


lie 


be 


30 


forwarding 


for warding 


24 


one 


done 



12 



Line. 
note 3 

§ 6 

5 9 

11 

§ 12 



Incorrect. 



Correct. 



}. 



JJU-O 



XXV] 11 
Page. 



ERRATA. 



20 
21 

23 

24 



30 

59 
S9 

142 
184 

180 



287 
365 



Line. 
§13 



14 



§ 15 
note, last line 
10 
note, 1. 1 
note, 1. 8 
note, 1. 9 
note, 1. IS 
note, 1. 32 
note, 1. (i 
note, 1. 12 
§ 92 1. 1 
§ 92 1. 2 
note, I. 13 
24 
28 
7 
last line 
note, 1. 5 
note, I 2 
note 2 



00- 

542 



24 

note, 1. 5 

note, 4 



Incorrect . 

aw 
m-Kf> 

7«fy 

•t'-f 

■"(3 J-»i3 



^^ 






Oorrecl. 

W 

{iter 

l|«XM3 
("■MP III £1 



■"OH-uj 






ABBREVIATIONS. 



A.=Antia's manuscript of Darab Hormazyar's Rivayat. 

Av. = A vesta. 

Bd. =Bundehesh . 

Bk.=Antia's MS. of Barzu Kamdin's Rivayat. 

Ch.=Chapter. 

Com. or Oomra= Commentary. 

Dd.=Dadistan-i Dinik, 

Dk. or Dink. — Dinkard. 

Ed.=Edition. 

■ 

F.S.M. = Manuscript of Darab Hormazyar's Rivayat presented by Framji Sorabji 
Meherji Rana to the Meherji Ran a Library of Navsari. 

H. F.=Rivayat manuscript written by Hormazyar Framarz. 

l.=line. 

MK.=Minu-Kherad. 

MSS. =manuscripts. 

MIL = Lithographed edition of Darab Hormazyar's Rivayat brought out by 
Manekji Rustomji Unvala. 

om.=omit or omitted. 

PP.G.=Pahlavi-Pazand Glossary, by Hoshaugji and Haug. 

Paz.=Pazand. 

Pah.=Pahlavi. 

Per. = Persian. 

Riv.= Rivayat. 

S.B.E.=Sacred Books of the East. 

S.D.B.=Rivayat manuscripts of the Mulla Firuz Library of Bombay, presented 
from the Library of Sheriarji Dndabhai Bharucha. 

Sd. Bd.=Saddar Bundehesh. 

Sls.=Shayast la-Shayast. 

Vd. or Vend.=Vendidad. 

Visp.=Visparad. 

Vol.=Vohime. 

Y. or Ys.=Yasna. 

Yt.=Yasht. 

Z. A.=Darmesteter's "' Zend-Avseta.' 

ZS.= Selections of Zadspararu. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The Rivayats are a repertory of useful information throwing considerable 
light on the religious beliefs, customs and practices of the Persian Zoroastrians 
and of the Indian Parsis who lived between the end of the fifteenth and of the 
eighteenth centuries of the Christian era. Not only is the information on ritualism, 
manners and customs, given in the body of the different Rivayats, of great import, 
but the introductory epistles generally written in a florid and ornate style are of 
great historical value as throwing glaring light on. most points of Mediaeval Parsi 
history, and on many a note-worthy person of the townships of Navsari, Surat, 
Ankle'sar, Broach and Carnbay, the then chief strongholds of Parsi population and 
we learn incidentally from one of these epistles that the place of honour is for once 
assigned to Navsari, as therein the Broach congregation is advised by the Iranians 
to refer their case at issue to the Dasturs of Navsari, 1 A study of some questions 
from towns other than Navsari and Surat lead us to infer that the religious know- 
ledge of the Parsis inhabiting those towns was at the lowest ebb. Such being the 
case, it was well for the Indian Parsis to conceive the happy idea of sending 
messengers to Iran for the sake of proper guidance in matters religious, as, hi the 
absence of such an initiative, they would have, for a long time, remained in dark- 
ness, because in the epistle sent with the very first Rivayat, an astounding statement 
is made that the Persian Zoroastrians Avere not aware whether there were, in India, 
any followers of Zoroaster, until the Indian Parsi, Nariman Hoshang of Broach 
went to Persia 2 and made the Persians aware of the condition of their Indian 
brethren, thus showing that the emigration of Zoroastrians from Iran must have 
been very gradual. These Rivayats show that the Persian tradition continued 
and flourished in Yazd and Kerman and other strongholds of Zoroastrianism even 
after the Arab Conquest and that the Zoroastrians of Iran followed the religious 
injunctions with rigorous precision. The usefulness of the Rivayats lies not only 
in the direction pointed out above, but they occasionally solve many a difficult 
point of Persian customs and ritualism, which had baffled the attempts at their 
decipherment and which were interpreted sometimes by shrewd guesses and 
conjectures only. It may be safely inferred from the translation of all these Riva- 
yats that the writers thereof, in order to bear out what they say, generally take 
their stand not so much on the original Avesta as on then Pahlavi translation, 
as also on some purely Pahlavi books, e.g., Pahlavi Vendidad, Pahlavi Yasna, 
Shayast-la-Shayast, Bundahishna, Nirangistan, Dadistan, Dinkard, etc. In this 
connection, it may' be noted that one of the four longer treatises, translated here 
with comments, is the Bahman Yasht and a great part of this Yasht freely done 
into Persian by the Iranians in their own queer way can only be better done into 
English with the assistance of the Pahlavi Bahman Yasht now extant. No wonder 
then, that European scholars interested in Parsi lore and religion have expressed 
a strong desire to be acquainted with the contents of these Rivayats which deal 

1 MU. II p. 462 1. 2. 2 MTJ. II p. 391 11. 12-14. 



XXX11 INTRODUCTION. 

with the Mediaeval History of the Parais, their manners and. customs and with a highly 
developed ritualism. These Rivayats naturally contain many a rare and old 
Persian word, which though they may have been used by priests and laymen alike 
in ordinary parlance even in their time have now, being too technical become 
obsolete and therefore a list of such words generally excluded from extant Persian 
lexicons is here furnished with their signification . 

Although the Rivayats have given rninute and elaborate details, even to a 
fault, as regards the observances in connection with na-sa, sagdid, dahhma and 
other subjects whose name is legion, in conformity, as the writers say, with the 
sacred texts and have laid stress on their being minutely followed so much so that 
it is for once hinted that the whole Iranian empire was subverted on account, mainly, 
of the fault of a single individual 1 remaining indifferent to a certain prescription 
of the religion, still on account of evil times^ and of oppressive foreign domination 
when redress cannot even be had at the hands of the highest authority of the realm, 
viz., the jiiddin king, and when under such circumstances' they found that many 
Zoroastrian usages and customs based on religion- had to be reluctantly abandon- 
ed,'' they despairingly tell us to hope for the best and resign ourselves to the 
wiU of God saying that such unavoidable infringement of a particular usage cannot 
make one sinful- 1 . But this counsel of despondency and despair is given only for 
cases of utter hopelessness. In cases where one cannot conform to the injunctions 
with rigorous precision, one cannot put off entirely the practice thereof, but should 
try one's level best to do it for mah-sUi or mah-dadaslanl, i.e., with an eye to the 
greatest good.' 1 They felt the oppressive yoke of foreign domination so much 
unbearable 7 that nearly all of them thought that the crack of doom was at hand and 
that the evil times they lived in were even worse than those of Zohak, Afrasiab, Tur 
and Alexander* and their evil effects had attained to such a pitch that the 
-distracted and distressed"" Behdins living in -'the desert" 9 of Iran wished for the 
advent of the future apostle Behram Varjavand, i.e., Soshyos, nay, they announce 
that the signs of his arrival had already been seen by them. 10 

The Persian Zoroastrians abhorred so much the ways of the jud-dins living in 
their midst and were suspicious in their dealings with them to such an extent, that 

1 The Rivayat of Kamdin Shapur (Mil. I. p. 191) U. 7-5)) quotes the instance of the father 
of Salman-i Farsi. 

2 W J^I />U\ — ^jljo, /jUi — .jjljj j.& (MU. I. p. 106 1. 17} p. 1061. 8; p. 107 

1. 19 &c). ■ - - 

3 MU. I, p. 29 1. 7 yU./ ^ Jy j J ^u; i 1^ j I from the laws of the ancients, 
and of the Poriodakeshas. 

-1 Of. MU. I. pp. 196-197; also— 

There are several usages which are not now-a-days observed in their entirety 
■5 Of. MU. I. p. 105 11. 17-19. 

« MU. I p. 43 11. 16-17 (Earn. Shap.)— p. 268 (Kam. Shap)-p. 103 1. 6 (Kaus Mahyar) :- 

7 MU. II p. 462 11. 13-16 (See, Translation, p. 621). f ' * U " J 

&M.U. lip. 379 11. 7-10 (See, Translation, p. 598-99). 
'■> MU. II p. 460 11. 7-S (See/Transiation, p. 619)'. 
lo See MU. II pp. GS-OO' (Translation; pp. 433-34), and p. 150 11. 1-4 (p. 591 of translation) 
and p. 159 11. 18-19 (pp. 593-94 of translation' ) 



INTRODUCTION. XXXUl 

whenever information was wanted on some observances, the Irani priests showed 
their hesitation in putting in black and white what they feared would be revealed to 
the jitddins, as the missives were oftenor sent through the medium of Mahomedans.' 
Hence they often exhorted the Indians to go to Iran and learn there at first hand 2 
and when they sent such missives to India, words like nirang, sagdid, gomez, 
Musalman, etc., were generally written in Avesta characters, lest some inquisitive 
Juddin message-bearer should try to learn the contents thereof surreptitiously. 

Comments will be found in the notes appended to the translation, but some 
important points are noted below. 

Marriage :— Fifteen is the marriageable age for boys, 3 but in the case of girls, 

■ the period is less than this. A girl of marriageable age, if she declines to espouse 
a husband, is a Margarjcin, and if the parents do not marry her, they also incur 
sin. 4 Infant marriages are deprecated. 5 A girl may be betrothed at nine and 
married at thirteen and the period may be somewhat long but not short. 13 Accord- 
ing to some, when a girl is fourteen years old or not less than twelve years old, she 
should be married. 7 Some held that she should be betrothed at nine and married 
after the first menstruous period was over.8 Once a marriage contract is made, it 
should never be broken : but if, after the contract is made, it is found that the 
father of the bridegroom or bride is a criminal, then it may be laid aside ; but if 
the daughter is given in marriage to another, after the contract is made, without any 
justifiable cause, all the parties involved in the contract are responsible." Female 
members could not give away the girls under their charge in marriage. It was the 

■ privilege of the male members of the family to do so. If a daughter, was fatherless, 
she should marry with the permission of the uncle or, in his absence, on consultation 
with a person nearly allied to her in lineage and descent or with her guardian. 10 It 
was the custom with the Persian Zoroastrians to give the mahr or the marriage 
gift— whatever one can afford— to the daughter; 1 -! but the Indian custom here is 
quite the contrary. This mahr was announced at the time of tying the marriage 
knot. Fully qualified priests— those who were initiated Herbads and who were 
themselves married and masters of a family— had the privilege to perform the 
marriage ceremony. » Marriages among near relations called Khetyodath, are highly 
spoken of and extolled. As there must have been some hindrance, in the time of 

■ the Hindu Rajas, in contracting such marriages, we are exhorted with greater force 
to continue such marriages, now that the Musalmans are the masters of the Indian 
soil, because, as the writer says, the Musalmans can uphold us in the matter of 
making such matches.1 3 Widow-remarriage was counte nanced, not only with a 

1 MIT. I. pp. 126-127 (1. 1):— a- *,.'.>■*> *b&»J? ttjUW-;* *"«!* ^ = of. also p. 85 

1. 17 :— ^sS iSdlv&S (jjtii j M?J j|j OJi! 

8 MIT. I. p. 74 11- 1-6 (Nariman Hoshang) and p. 75 1. 16 (Maktub-i Ardeshir). 
3 Of. also Avesta : — narsh. panchadasangho . 

1 p 177 11. 14-19 (Shap. Bhar.). 

5 p . 177 (Bah. Puj). p . 177 (Kamd. Shap. and Shap. Bhar). 

1 p. 177 (Bah. Puj). s P- 177 (Surat. Adhy). 

9 pp. 179-180 (Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama). 

10 p. 179 1. 2 and p. 182 11. 15-19 (Dastuv Barzu and Kamd Shap.). 

11 p. 183 (Nar. Hosh.). 

12 p. 183 11. 3-4 (Kaus Kamdin). 13 pp. 308-309 (Nar. Hosh.). 



XXXIV tNTROJlTTOTION. 

view to an increase of progeny, but that if there were children by such marriage 
the merit of the good deeds done by them would be also shared by the parents, 1 
A widow, according to one opinion, must remarry after 4 months and 10 days, if 
she has no suckling child ; but if she has, then she should remarry after 18 months, 8 

Five kinds of marriage are mentioned in the Rivayats, 3 and from the informa- 
tion given about them, we may infer that a different status was created in respect 
of a man or a woman marrying under different circumstances ; — ■ 

(1) A pddshdli-zan was a virgin who married with the consent of her parents. 
All the children born of her were her husband's in this world and the next,- On the 
death of her husband, she was the sole guardian of the family and had a full share 
in the administration of the inheritance. According to the Pahlavi Madigan-i 
Hazar Dadistan, she was a woman who enjoyed all the rights of a wife in the house 
of her husband, as sanctioned by the law. According to the Madigdn^ and another 
Pahlavi Rivayat, the word pddshd (which is generally translated 'privileged') is 
applied not only to a woman, but also to a man. (The same is the case with Cliagar 
[see below]). Thus the children born of her are called pddshah-frazand ;tihe husband 
is called pddsMh-ped, &c. Padshah, in all such connections, must therefore mean, 
'able,' 'free', 'exercising full rights/ &c. 

(2) Chagar (Chakar or Ghdkar) — -zan : — Soine compare the word cltakar with 
Pers. chakar and translate ' serving,' * According to the Rivayats, a widow 
who remarries is called Chagar-zan or Ghagar-wiie. If she has no children by the 
first husband, then half the children born of her by the second husband should 
belong to the first husband, i.e., in religious ceremonies and other matters, their 
names should be connected with their dead step-father. 

Whatever meaning may be assigned to chagar, a chagar-y/oman was of an 
inferior status. Hence if a man marries a second time, then the status of the 
second wife is regarded as inferior (chagar) to that of the first wife. And from the 
Rivayats also it appears that she is of an inferior status as the mahr or the marriage 
gift declared for her is 1000 dirams, whereas for the Pddshdh-v/iie, it is 2000 dirams. 
Although of an inferior status, the second wife must not necessarily be a widow. 
She may be a widow or a virgin. The man marrying thus a second time is, therefore, 
called, in Pahlavi books, chagar-shui (i.e., the chagar -husband) and the woman, 
cjiagar-za,n (i.e. chagar-wife) . If she is a widow and remarries, then if she has children 
by her first husband, they are called chagar -frazaml, and these chagar-frazand 
called their step-father chagar-pedar. 5 

(3) Satar-zan : According to the Rivayats, if a bachelor dies at 15 years of 
age, then a virgin is betrothed and married to a man in the name of the deceased 
and she becomes the spouse, as it were, of the deceased in the next world. Half 



1 p. 186 11. 11-13 (Kamd. Shap.). 

3 p. 1S5 11. 10-11 (Kaus Kamdin). 

3 pp. 180-183 (Kaus Kama, Manek Changa and Kaus Kamdin). 
i" i See S. B. E. Vol. v. p. 143, and Vol. xviii p. 119. 

s For Bartholomae's remarks on a -padshah-zan, i.e., a rightful wife and a chakar-zan, i.e., 
a 'collateral wife, see " Ueber ein sasanidisehen recht," I, translated by L. Bogdanoy in the 
Journal of the K. B. Cama Oriental Institute No. 18, pp. 33-41, 



the number of the offspring born of her should have their names connected with 
the deceased. We find nothing informative of a satar-zan {lit., the adopted wife) 
in the Pahlavi literature. 

(4) Ayulcan (or Ayiik ayln : Pah :— ))fJ^)~ ?Mn '" 

The statement about the ayulean-zan is nearly the same in the Rivayats and in 
Pahlavi. She, being the only daughter {ayuJc=ordy) of her deceased father is the 
sole mistress of the family, 1 and if she marries and bears offspring, then the first 
son is the adoptive son of her father. The ayuk-zan inherits the whole patrimony. 2 
According to Pahlavi books, if a person has no padsMh-mie, a son, an adopted son, 
or a daughter, but if he has a. sister, then this sister after the brother's death . is 
ayuken of the brother, i.e., if she marries, then her first son should be the adoptive 
son of the brother. 3 

(5) Khudash-rai-zan : According to the Rivayats, a girl who in defiance of her 
parents' will marries a man of her own accord is called a khudash-rai-zan {lit, a self • 
willed woman). In Pahlavi, such a woman is caUed usrain-zan. An usrain-zan, ac- 
cording to Pahlavi literature, is one whose father or guardian does not marry her 
to any one at the age of fifteen ; or, if her father tells her to marry a certain person, 
she goes against his will and repudiates the contract. The word usrain is explained as 
)(-*0£^ <$})> {javlt ayojashna) in Pahlavi, 4 meaning, literally, 'a separate 
union,' i.e., an union effected without tbe parents' consent, or against the parents' 
will. 'According to the Pahlavi as well as the Persian Rivayats, such a girl has no 
share in her father's property. 

Although five forms of marriage are declared in the Rivayats, the mahr or 
marriage-gift announced at the time of marriage is given only for two kinds of 
marriage, viz, for the pddshah-zan and the chagar-zan. 

If the husband and wife do not avail themselves of their conjugal rights, they 
are sinners. 

Divorce : Adultery : If a man is impotent, the wife cannot claim divorce ; 6 
but if a woman proves to be sterile, the husband may wed another although he 
cannot efiect divorce with the first wife'. If the husband turns Musalman, then the 
wife should wait for a year ; if, within a year, the husband does not revert to the 
old faith, then she may remarry and she is still to be regarded as the padshah-wite 
of the second husband, and not as the chagar— wife*. Absentee-husbands, who 
on their return find that their wives have wedded others, can enforce remarriage 
with their first wives, and the children born of them by their second marriage may 
be left in charge of their respective fathers. 9 (See, also, the Pahlavi treatise, 
Madigan-i Hazar JP&fogwjlQOl), p p. 3-5, and its translation by Bulsara pp. 68-77.) 
f^eTl^a^rnlk, Ch. 53 § 12. ^ 185 11- 5-10 (Kama Bohra). 

8 For a more detailed account, see the chapter on tft W in the Madigau-z Hazar 
Datastan (1901) S. 21-24, and Bnlsara'a forthcoming translation, pp. 152-167. 

i See Pah. Rivayat-i Hemid-i Ashavahishtan. 

6 p 195 11. 17-19 (Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama) 

6 v . 189 1. 8 (Shap. Bhar.) : » P- 139 11. 16-17 (Nar. Hosh.). 

8 p. 183 11. 13-14 and 11, 16-19 (Kama Bohra and Shap. Bhar.). 

8 pp. 186-187 (Dastur Barzn). 



If the wife of a Behdin commits adultery with a Behdin, the former should be 1 
jrat to death, if the Behdins have the power, i.e. if they are the ruling nation ; but, 
as the rulers are anirs, i.e., foreigners, this cannot be done 1 and hence she should be 
made to repent of her misdeed and punished. Again, in the infliction of the punish- 
ment, care should be taken that the woman or the man may not turn darvancl 
thereby. If the husband of the delinquent wife assents, she may contract another 
marriage ; if not, she may not be left alone without a guardian. 2 A padshdh-wiie, 
who has committed adultery, if she repents of her misdeed and is adecmately punish- 
ed for it, may still retain her status of a p'dcMiati-mie ; but this is not allowable 
in the case of an Ayukan or Chakar-wife. 3 Such misdeeds are called sins affecting 
the accusers (hamemal) ; and no meritorious deed will uproot them, except that the 
accuser is satisfied somehow or other.* If a Behdin or a Herbad commits adultery 
with a juddin woman, the sin is very grievous. Innumerable ma-rgarzan sins may 
arise out of this heinous act. The Herbad in such a case is unfit for Herbadship 5 . 

Adoption : One of the important institutions of the Zoroastrians was adoption. 
We see from the f oUowing how this institution was regarded in the times immediately 
following the Sassanids, e.a., in the time of Dastur Manushchihar in the 9th century 
of the Christian era and with what view-point it was held in the age of the Bivayets, 
from the fifteenth century and thereafter. About adoption, the Rivayats say as 
f ollows :— 

(1) A satar (an adopted son) should be provided for a man 15 years old, dying 
childless. (2) A satar older or younger than the dead is allowed. 7 (3) A satar 
should be appointed from amongst near relatives. 8 (4) Orphan boys who have 
no relatives may be adopted by any one who is chddless. 9 (5) In case an 
adopted son dies, another should be adopted. 10 (6) High priests only should appoint 
an adopted son for the deceased in consultation with his relatives 10 (7) One of the 
priestly class can be adopted as a son by a layman (Behdin), and vice versa. 10 (8) 
A priest adopted by a Behdin may follow the profession of Herbadship. 10 (9) One 
and the same person can be adopted by forty persons. 11 (10) If one has no male 
issue, but has a daughter, one can pass the Bridge, i.e., there is no need of 
adoption, 12 but the widow should remarry and if she gives birth to a son, he should 
be adopted for the former husband. (11) Adoption should be made from those on 
the father's side ; if not, from the mother" s side ; but if this is not possible, 
from near relatives. 13 

Adoption according to the Pahlavi Dadistan-i Dlnik. (1) There are three 
lands of guardianship or adoption : (a) butalc, existent, i.e., if there is the Padshah - 

1 The writer here regrets that ancient usages are not now-a-days observed in their entirety, 
as the times are evil, owing to the domination of foreigners. 

2 pp. 196-197 (Kama. Bohra, Nar. Hosh. and Kaus Kama). 

a p. 198 11. 4-5 (Shap. Bhar.). * p. 202 (Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama). 

5 pp. 197-198 (Nar. Hosh.). 

6 p. 173 (Shap. Bhar.). 1 p. 173 Sha B ar.), p. 174 (Dastur Barzu), p. 175 
(Bah. Puj.). 

8 p. 173 (Shap. Bhar.), p. 174 (Kamd Shap.) 9 p. 174 (Kamd. Shap.). 
10 p. 174 (Kamd. Shap.). U p. 174 (Kamd. Shap. and Dastur Barzuji). 
!2 p. 175 (Shap. Bhar). 13 p. 175 (Kaus Kamdin). 



iNl'feoDtJOTtotr. sxxvn 

wife or the only daughter of the deceased, they are fit for adoption ; (b) Kartah, i.e., 
he who is accepted and provided in one's life time ; (c) gumdrtak, i.e., one whom the 
Dasturs appoint from amongst the near relatives of the deceased. 1 (2) A man 
leaving property worth 60 stirs, if he has no wife or child living, should adopt one to 
manage his household affairs. 2 (3) If one does not leave any property, adop- 
tion is not necessary 3 (4) It is not necessary to appoint an adopted son or guardian 
so long as the wife is living. 4 (5) An aevak-ae (i.e. ayuhan) daughter, i.e., the 
only unmarried daughter of the deceased may perform the function of adopted 
son-ship in the house of her deceased father. 3 (6) One who s the nearest in the 
same family and who can conduct the namgdnih of the deceased, i.e., who may 
preserve the lineage and property of the deceased, should be adopted. 6 (7) Such 
guardianship of the family may be provided in the space of a year. 7 (8) Fit for 
adoption is a grown-up sister, or brother's daughter, or brother's son or one from 
near relatives or the ptidshah-wiie or the ayolc-ayin, i.e., the only daughter. 8 (9) 
One who has accepted one or many adoptions is still fit for another adoption. 9 
(10) A grown-up woman is fit for one adoption, but a man is fit for many. 10 (11) 
Unworthy persons, such as slaves, infidels, anirs {i.e., non- Aryans, i.e., non-Zoroas- 
trians) or n: -garzdn sinners are unfit. 11 (12) If a daughter or wife is unfit, another 
may be appointed. 12 (13) He who is chosen as the guardian, if he does not manage 
the property well, and throws away the namgdnih, i.e., who does not preserve 
the lineage intact, is a margarzdn sinner (60 § 3.) (14) The adoptive son or guardian 
should provide maintenance for the family and continue ceremonies and other good 
works (ch. 53 § 10). 

Nothing is said iii the Avesta about adoption. Dastur Erachji S. Meherji 
Rana, from an obscure passage in the corrupt Vishtasp Yasht, and with a far- 
fetched interpretation of it, says that thereby adoption is meant (Behbar-i Din-i 
Zartoshti, p. 157). Another passage quoted in support of the theory of adoption is 
Vend, 18 § 51., but there the reference is to a man who wastes his semen virile 
unconsciously in sleep. Yet one more passage, Atash Nyaish § 5, is emoted by 
some who say that the word azo-bujem occurring therein, and meaning " delivering 
from affliction" [i.e., from hell— according to its Pahlavi commentary) shows that 
adoption is meant by it. These passages may be summarily dismissed. The main 
object of ' adoption ' according to the Rivayats, is that the deceased may pass 
safely the Chinvat Bridge to the other world on the dawn of the fourth day, that his 
lineage may continue in this world and that religious ceremonies and other meri- 
torious deeds may be performed in the name of the deceased in order to propitiate 
his soul hi the other World. AU the Rivayat writers, with one exception, 13 say that 
a male member only should be adopted, whereas according to the Dadistan, it may 
be a male or a female member as the principal aim of adoption according to it is 
chiefly to look after and manage the property of the deceased. It was not necessary 



l Ch. 58. 2 Ch. 56 § 2 ; 59 § 2. 3 Oh. 60 § 2. i Ch. 53 § 9. 

6 Ch. 53 § 12. e 56 § 3. 7 56 g 5. 8 53 g 9 ; 56 §§ 6 and 8. 

9 57 §2, 10 57 §3. n 57 §4 » 62 § 6. 

13 Shapur Bharuchi (p. 175 11. 10-12) : — " A daughter who is devout and devoted to her 
father may be adopted, but the first son born of her may be appointed as the adopted son of 
her father." 



xxxviii tNTRODTJotad^. 

that a male member only was to be chosen for adoption, but the surviving Padshah - 
wife or a grown up daughter could manage the adoption by undertaking the direc- 
tion of family affairs. 

The Law of Succession : If we examine the prescriptions about testamentary 
law as given in the Rivayets with those of the Pahlavi Dadistan, we find that they 
are very nearly the same. Regarding the partition of the property left by a person, 
we gather the following information from the Rivayats : — 

Out of the property left after one's death, debts should be first paid off and the 
dowry of the wife should be given away to the wife. As for what is left, they should 
act in accordance with the behest of the deceased. If no will is made, the wife 
should have the money brought by her from her father's house. If something is left 
over, two parts go to the son and one to the daughter. The Padshah — wife gets the 
same share as the son. The Ayulcan — wife only gets her dowry, 1 but the money 
left over goes to her children. The Chalcar — wife gets only the money which is hers, 
and the Satar — wife should have the marriage-gift promised to her. If a child is 
blind or crippled, his or her share is twice as much as one sound in body. 2 If a 
man has no children, the Padshah — wife gets the whole property. 3 If there are 
children by the Chagar — wife, each must have half as much as the share of the 
children by a Padshah — wife.* If a man leaves two daughters and if there are no 
other relatives, a satar should be appointed who must be given as much as is the rule. 
Out of the remaining portion, one share should be set apart for the Behram fire, 
and of what is left, it should be equally divided between the daughters. 5 A Khudash- 
rdi — wife can have no patrimony, but if the father gives something to her of his own 
accord, it is allowable. fi If a man is married to a satar (adopted child) of another 
person who has bestowed property on her, then the husband must keep the capital 
intact but he can expend the income on good works. 7 If one's son is dead, one 
should adopt another, but the property of the dead son must be given to the 
Padshah — wifeS, or according to another view, the property of the deceased son 
goes to the adopted son. 9 The trustees must fulfil the trust-conditions. If even 
meritorious deeds are done other than those sanctioned by the trust, the trustees 
are responsible for it. If the trust-property is appropriated by the trustees, they 
are margarzan sinners. 10 



The Law of succession, according to the Pah. Dadistan : — (1) A man in serious 
illness cannot dispose of his property by a will or otherwise (Ch. 53 § 6). If he is 
fully conscious in sickness, he may. (Oh. 53 § 7). Property disposed of during un- 
consciousness is as if a man dies intestate (Ch. 53 § 8). Unless the deceased has 
disposed of his property by a will, the property goes to the wife, daughter or sons 

1 The £M/w7«m-daugliter gets the whole patrimony on her father's death, (p. 184-Kam 
Bohra). 

3 p. 56 and p. 188 11. 13-17 (Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama). 
3 pp. 187 (Kama Bohra). 
■l p. 187 (Shap. Bhar.) 
8 p. 187-188 (Kama Bohra). 

8 p. 184 1. 14. (Kama Bohra). 7 p. 184 1. 19 (Kama Bohra). 

8 p. 174 (Kama". Shap.) " 9 p. 175 11. 6-7 (Kaus Kamdin). 

1 * p. 59 (Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama). 



Xl INTRODUCTION. 

time to reflect over the matter, and may be deterred from taking a false oath,. An 
oath cannot be administered, if the capital involved is not worth 48 dirama of silver. 
A payment in silver (3 dirams & 2 ddngs) was given to the a^ministerer of the path 
for his work. The accused, if found guilty, should be punished in proportion to the 
crime ; e.g., if he be a thief, he should be punished in proportion to the theft commit- 
ted by him. If damage has been done to cultivated fields or trees, as much com- 
pensation should be exacted as the loss entailed ; or, if one has sold to another a 
diseased animal which soon after dies, and if evidence is brought forward to this 
effect, then the price given for the animal should be restored to the purchaser. 1 

Jud-dins or Dr.rvands, i.e., Non-Zoroastrians. In the Rivayats, the word 
Darvand (Av. dravantov dregvaht) is generally used in the sense of a 'non-Zoroastrian,' 
but in one place, Kaus Kama gives the correct definition of a dravand, thus : — 
Those who obey the commands of God are Behdins, but those who do not are 
darvands. 2 

Food cannot be cooked in a pot manufactured by Juddins. If such a pot is 
polished and tinned by the Zoroastrians, then this will do only out of helplessness. 3 
Ghee (i.e., clarified butter) made by Darvands should not be consumed' by Zoroas- 
trians : the latter should themselves prepare it.* Hides tanned by Juddins should 
not be used. 5 Fruits grown from seeds sown in the ground should be bought of 
darvands, but, dried fruits, preserves, etc., if made by juddins, should not be con- 
sumed by Zoroastrians. 6 Zoroastrians should not use the ink prepared by darvands, 
as, at one stroke of such a pen, one farrndn sin is incurred. 7 A gosfund (i.e., a small 
cattle) should be slaughtered by Zoroastrians only and not by darvands. 8 The 
water of a pool or of a pond, if a darvancluses it, cannot be taken into use by Behdins; 
but if the pond is in a desert place, then laymen only can use water thereof out of 
necessity, but the priests cannot. 9 Dung-manure of juddins should not be used, 
as it is full of impurities (nasd). It may be used out of helplessness (mah-dddastdni : 
i.e., for the greatest good), if the sin incurred thereby is less than the good work. 10 
If Juddins are appointed for the work of cultivation, there must be Zoroastrian 
supervisors over them, so that they may take proper precautions about any nasd 
(dead matter) lying in the field. If a Zoroastrian and a non-Zoroastrian hold a 
piece of land in partnership, then it is the duty of the Zoroastrian to inspect the field 
and see whether there is any nasd or dead matter lying therein, but this secret should 
not be revealed to the juddin, as, perhaps, out of enmity, he will do harm. 11 

Juddins should not carry the biers of the Parsis. 12 

If a Juddin dies in a boat wherein there are Zoroastrians, then the latter are not 
riman (i.e., polluted), if they have gone on business pertaining to the religion, but 

I Cf ., with this, the various statements on Evidence as given in the ' Madigan-i Hazar 
Datastan (1901) ; ff. 91-92 ; 97-98 ; 72-73 and Bulsara's translation thereof, pp. 12-33. 

2 I. p. 283 11. 5-9 (Kaus Kama). 3 I p. 240 II. 1-2 (Kaus Mahyar). 
i I. p. 271 (Kaus Mahyar and Dastur Barzu). 

6 I. p. 272 (Shapur Bharuchi). e I, p. 271 (Nar. Hosh.) 

7 I. p. 675 (Shap. Bhar.) 8 I. p. 261 (Kaus Kamdin). 

9 I. p. 92 11. 11-15 (Kaus Mahyar). 1° I. p. 38 11. 12-17 (Kama Bohra). 

II I. pp. 84-85 (Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama). 

13 I. p. 107 1. 12 (Nar. Hosh). and p. 142 (Jaaa) and p. 144 Jl. 8-71 (Nar. Hosh.) 



INTBODTTOTTOH. XXS1X 

(Oh. 62 § 3), First, debts should be paid off, and then the property should be 
divided among the relatives (Ch. 53 § 6). For the person who is blind, crippled 
maimed, his or her share is twice as much as that of one who is sound in body. 
(Oh. 62 § 4). If no will is made, the Padshah -wife gets two shares and the son 
gets one share (Ch. 62 § 4), or if the deceased leaves daughters only, then also the 
Padshah wife has two shares and one share is given to each unmarried daughter. 
(Oh. 53 § 9). The adoptive son or guardian should provide maintenance for the 
family and the ceremonies and other good works should be done by him out of the 
income of the property left by the deceased. (Oh. 53 § 10). Unmarried sisters 
of the deceased should be maintained out of the income of the property by the 
guardian (Ch. 53 § 11). 

The Law of Evidence and the qualification of the Judge and the Witnesses. Much 
can be gathered about the law of evidence and the legal proceedings of the Persians, 
from the smaller and larger Saogand-Namah (MU I. pp. 44-54) : A judge must 
possess all legal knowledge and have a share of all kinds of general knowledge. The 
evidence of jud-dins, i.e., non-Zoroastrians, may be accepted on account of mah- 
sudih or mah-dadistdni i.e., for the greatest good of the greatest number. 1 Brothers 
can be accepted as witnesses, if they are not concerned in the law suit instituted by 
one brother against another. 1 If a witness is found to be irreligious or a heretic, 
he should be discarded, and sanction for another should be given in his stead. In 
ordinary cases, three witnesses are required, but if there is only one witness available, 
then for the other two not prodxiced in the court, an oath should be administered to 
the party concerned. If the witness is a vajr-gar, i.e., well- versed in law, e.g., 
a judge, or a Barsam-gar, i.e., one well-versed in all religious rites, or one who is a 
spasddr, i.e., always thankful to God, i.e., a truly virtuous person, or some such 
worthy, then such a witness may be accepted in place of three ordinary witnesses. 
If the evidence of the witnesses is not accepted by one party, then a petition should be 
made to the higher judicial functionary, i.e., the king. If the accused does not 
turn up for three consecutive days, the judge should proceed recording evidence in 
his absence. A perjurer should be regarded as an outcast and should be ostracised. 
The judge should make representations on the enormity of swearing 2 to the parties 
in the law-suit, and the Saogand-Nameh should be recited thrice before the ad- 
ministration of the oath, i.e., the consequences of the hamemdl sin and the gravity 
of lying and of taking false oaths should be explained to them by the judge. This 
should be done by the judge for three consecutive days, quoting the case of Siavakhsh 
and Sudabeh, and Ardai Viraf and Adarbad, so that the parties may have sufficient 

1 MU. I p. 53. 

2 If a man has committed a hamemdl sin., i.e., a sin in connection with other persons like 
himself, that sin will be uprooted not by swearing, but by satisfying the accuser. If at the time 
of taking a false oath, a person has vowed that a meritorious deed will be done by him in com- 
pensation for it, then he must do that work as he has vowed for it, but that will not atone for 
his crime of false swearing (p. 44 11. 9-11- and p. 45). 

About breaking an oath, Shapur Bharuchi's Rivayat (p. 43 11. 16-17) on the authority of 
the Dinkard, Book VI (Vol. 12 pp. 39-40) says thus : — The commandment of God is more 
excellent than the oaths taken by men, i.e., if one has taken an oath in a certain condition, and 
if any harm is done thereby to the religion, then one can break the oath and do the work accord- 
ing to the religion, and there is no crime therein, because one should look to the mah-sudili. 



fiSTTBODTTCTION. xli 

they are regarded as rvman (and therefore they should wash themselves ceremonially) 
if they are going on mundane affairs. 

A contract made with juddins should he carried out. Nothing should be 
extorted from them, but if they turn inimical, then only violence should be used. 3 . 
If amddin commit any misdeed and do not follow the advice of Behdins and quarrel 
with them, then, even if he is put to death, the Behdins are not responsible for the 
crime. If one takes away by force anything from the juddins,. .then the extortioner 
shall have to pay four for one in the other world, but if a jtiddin shows signs of 
enmity, it is allowable to rob him of his possessions. 3 

Nothing should be given as a gift to the darvands, but sometimes it is a merit 
to do so. 4 If a darvand offers anything to the Atash Bebram, it may be accepted. 
Any asho-ddcl {lit., the gift to the pious) from him may be accepted. 

The evidence of juddins is accepted for mah-sudi or mah-dadastdni (i.e., for the 
greatest good of the greatest number), if they are found reliable." Juddins may be 
converted to Zoroastrionism if they so wish it and if it is found that thereby there 
will be no harm to the religion. 7 

Priests — Dasturs and Herbads: Pahlavi should be studied by priests. If a 
Dastur does not study Pahlavi, he will not be able to establish the truth of the 
religion (lit., he cannot show the miracles of religion). 8 

One-tenth of then income should be given to Dasturs by the laity ; but up till 
now, no effect of this religious injunction has been produced on the Behdins. Tins 
is an injunction laid down by religion. Hitherto the priests have been under the 
protection of Ormazd and the Amshaspands, (i.e., the laity do not conform to this 
injunction). 

After describing how the Yasna-service should be performed in the Panji-i keh 
and meJi (i.e., in the Fai'wardegan days), the writers Dastur Shehriar Ardeshir Erach, 
and Giv Asf andyar Giv say that that person is a Herbad who knows how to celebrate 
the Yasna of GathabyS, Gahambar & Rapithwan. 10 Again, the Iranians are grieved 
to learn that the teaching of the Vendidad (for the Maratib consecration) has fallen 
into desuetude, in India. They say that the Yasna and Visparad only should be 
recited from memory, and it is not difficult to teach Jud-div-dad from a book (and 
which is always to be recited from a manuscript in the higher ceremonials). Every 
Dastur ought to know how to properly consecrate the Vendidad. 11 

Dasturs, i.e., members of the priestly class, should not eat the food cooked by 
Behdins, i.e., laymen, nor should they consume the flesh of a goat slaughtered by 
Behdins, i.e., the food for priests should be prepared by members of the same class. 

1 I p. 131 11. 13-11 (Kam. Shap.) 

2 I. p. 57 11. 9-11 (Nar. Hosh.) 3 I. p. 282 11. 11-18 (Nar. Hosh.) 

'1 I. p. 346 U. 10-13 (Shap. Bhai-). 6 Shapur Bharuchi (not given in MU.) 

■ 6 I. p. 55 (Kama Bolira and Kaua Kama). 

7 MU. I. p.p. 279-283. 

8 I. p. 9 11. 13-15 (Nar. Hosh.) " I. p. 400 11. 4-6 (Bah. Puj.). 

io I p. 464 (Kama Bohra). . . 

11 p. 4S2 11. 9-13 (Jasa). 



Xlii INTBODTTCTION. 

While eating, the priests should not come in contract with the Behdins. 1 A Daslur 
incurs sin, if he orders punishment to be inflicted on a sinner out of proportion to his 
sins. 2 If a Dastur himself is a sinner, he cannot prescribe punishment for a crime 
committed by a Zoroastrian ; but several qualified priests met in conference should 
decide, by a majority, the form of punishment to be undergone by the sinner, 3 or, 
in such a case, the leader of the Behdins, i.e., the laity, can prescribe punishment 
to the sinner in consultation with other learned priests.* 

The fifteen characteristics of a priest : — All modern copies give 15 characteristics 
of a priest, as in the Persian Bivayats, the 15th being ndbar zivdn which is tradi- 
tionally explained as ' living the life of a Navar (i.e., of a fully cmalified priest with 
the Jchub) ; but the original in Pahlavi (see Dadistan, pursesh 47 § 38) gives only 14 
characteristics, the last, i.e., the 14th characteristic being Khub Nirang which is 

C \ 

qualified by the phrase )y*>0 -*» • ) J -*iy)*3 (a-vahdr va azifdn) read generally 

navar zivdn, which correctly means " undivided and faultless," i.e., one knowing 
well the ceremonial (khub nirang) should give his undivided attention to it and per- 
form it faultlessly. Thus, though navar zivdn yields a good meaning, it is read and 
explained incorrectly from the Pahlavi. 5 

Priests should wear trousers. Loin-cloth is not allowed. The Yasna-service 
with such a piece of cloth on is defective. 

Atash Adarans and Atash Behrams: What we call here Atash-Adarans were 
put to a different use in Iran as appears from the following statements : — 

(a) Household fires used three times should be taken to Atash Adarans and 
when four months and ten days pass, those fires should be carried to the Atash 
Behram. If it is not possible to carry Atash Adaran to the Atash Behram within 
that period, it should be carried there in a year. 7 (b) Ordinary household fires 
should be carried to Adaran fire and the latter to the Behram fire. 8 (c) Fire used 
for three days should be taken to the Atash Adarans, but in Navsari there is no 
Atash- Adaran (which is not commendable). 9 (d) Adaran fires should be established 
and household fires used for three days should be taken there and these latter 
should be carried to the Behram fire during the Farvardegan days 10 (e) In every 
village, there should be Atash Adarans. Every three or seven days, household fires 
should be taken there, and the Adaran fires should be taken to the Atash Behram 
every year or every three years. 11 (/) The fire of the house should be carried to the 
Atash-gah, i.e., the Adaran fire on the day Ardibehesht or Adar, or Sarosh or 
Behram of every month. 13 



1 I p. 575 (Kans Kamdin). 2 I p. 36 11. 14-15 (Bali. Puj.) 

3 I. p. 37 11. 2-4 (Suratya Adliyarus). 4 I. p. 38 11. 1-2 (Nar. Host). 

5 I p.p. 485-486 (Kama Bokra and Nar. HobIi.) 

c I p. 575 11. 6-9 (Shap. Bhar.) . - 

? p. 67 (Kamdin Shapur). p. 74 11. 8-9 (Kamdin JSliapiir). 

9 p. 68 (Shapur Bharuchi). 

10 p. 72 (Kaus Kamdin.) H p. 72 (Jafca). 

13 pp. 75-76 (Maktub-i flustam Marzban). 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

This decision about the collection of household fires is not observed in India. 
The ceremony of the consecration of the Atash Adaran 1 in Persia is not in accordance 
with that followed here. The former is much more simple. In fact what are 
called Atash Adarans were established in Iran simply for the purpose of bringing in 
household fires to them. In every village, or where there were ten houses of Behdins, 
one Atash Adaran was established. Following the Iranian practice, the Kadimis 
carried every year the fire of their Atash Adaran here to the Atash Behram during 
one of the five Gatha days, and it was left there to be extinguished. A great controversy 
raged on this point and the custom has since been dropped. (See the pamphlet 
" Adar-Khoreh " by Rustani Mulla Kaikobad, published in A. Y. 1216). 

Atash-Behram— Its Consecration : (See MU. I. pp. 74-75— Kanidin Shapur) : 
Compared with this ceremony for the consecration of Atash Behram in Iran, the 
Indian ceremony is much more elaborate. (See Modi : " Religious customs and 
Ceremonies of the Parsis" — pp. 211-239). All the Rivayat writers recommend the 
collection of 16 fires in accordance with the Vendidad, but the order of the list varies 
generally in all cases. Among these 16 fires, according to the practice as observed 
in India and according to Kamdin Shapur's Rivayat (MTJ I. p. 74), the fire from 
lightning is included ; but Nariman Hoshang's Rivayat (MU. I. p. 74 11. 4-6) says 
that although this fire holds a high rank, it is not to be used in the preparation of the 
Behram fire, but it can be used in the preparation of the Atash Adaran. The 
Vendidad, for obvious reasons, does not include the lightning fire in its list. Again, 
according to the Dinkard, the Pajag Nask contained information about fat-offering 
to the (Behram) fire. The Dadistan (oh. 88), the Epistles of Manushchehr (I, ch. 
8 § 3) and the Nirangistan all lay stress on this fat offering to the fire. Following 
this ancient practice the Rivayat writers 2 exhort the Indians to carry it outin India. 
So much importance is given to this practice that Ardeshir Noshirvan says that 
when one dies, then fat must be offered to the Behram fire on the dawn of the 
fourth day after one's death so that Adar Khoreh may remain at the head of the 
Chinvat Bridge and make the passage safe for the soul. Where this practice is not 
followed, then all ceremonies, he says, are of no avail. According to others, 3 fat 
should be offered to the Atash Behram on the dawn of the fourth day after death, 
but if there is no Atash-Behram, then out of helplessness, it should be placed on 
the fire when the Afringan ceremony is performed. Noshirvan Marabou's last 
testament* also exhorts everyone to offer the fat ( stf. ) of the gospend as 
znr (Zaothra) to the Behram fire on the dawn of the fourth day so that Adar-Khoreh 
and the Amshaspends may assist the soul in its journey towards heaven. The 
reason given by him for this practice is that before passing the Chinvat Bridge, 
the soul first enters Behram Firuz-Shah, i.e., (the abode of) the victorious Behram 
fire, and therefore frankincense and fat should be offered to it. 

Again, on the authority of a solitary writer, 5 it is said that any ordinary person 
cannot see the Behram fire, but a Herbad who is a Navzud, i.e., qualified with the 
greater khub ceremony, may put on Penorn (the mouth veil) and can see it. No 

1 p. 73 11. 3-12 (Kaus Kamdin) and p. 73 1. 1 (Kamdin Shapur). 

2 p. 75 (Maktub-i Rustom Marzban) — p. 70 (Shapur Bharuehi) — pp. 163-170 (Bahman 
Punjya) 8 p. 264 11. 6-8 (Shapur Bharuehi). ■< pp. 161-103. 

s JfU, I. p. 76 11. 10-11 (Bahman Punjya). 



Xliv INTRODUCTION. 

indirect evidence even is found anywhere for this injunction. Such a decision was 
given by some Dasturs, perhaps, on the consideration that the consecrated fire — 
the quintessence of purity and the son of Ahura Mazda — was too sacred to be seen 
with the naked eyes of an ordinary person. This decision was, for some time, 
enforced here by the Kaclimis, but the custom is now rightly dispensed with. 

About various Ceremonies and Ceremonial Injunctions: Recital of Daily 
Prayers : A recital of a certain number of Yatha-ahu-vairyo's and Ashem Vohu's is 
laid down for certain prayers meant for daily recital ;' thus, it is said 1 that for the 
Khorshed and Meher Nyaishes, 103 Yatha's should be recited ; however, some 3 are 
of opinion that no Yatha's are to be substituted for Nirang Kusti and the Khorshed 
and Meher Nyaish.es. This shows that according to the opinion of some Dasturs 
simple forms of daily prayers must be recited from memory or from a book, If 
the Yatha's are now recited in place of the daily recitations of prayers by men 
and women, they recite them according to their own whims and fancy and 
not as stated in the Bivayats. 

Patet : Patet (i.e., the renunication of sin) should be performed by one in one's 
own life-time. This injunction of the Avesta is differently commented on by 
different writers. Thus one Rivayat 3 says that if one orders another to recite a Patet 
for one, then the recitation of the Patet by that other person is the same as though 
it had been recited by one who orders it. Yet another* says that a person should 
perform Patet i.e., repent of his sins, in his own life-time, and if this is impossible, 
then only Patet should be performed for him at his order during the three nights 
after death, and if this is still impossible, then it is said that the earlier it is done, 
the better. 

As against this idea held about Patet we can quote the following opinion of the 
Dadistan-i Dinik :— •" Among the various good works, that one is important which 
one does oneself with one's own toil ; then comes that which one makes progressive 
by one's own order (in one's lifetime) ; then comes that wherefor one has made a 
testament after one's death ; the lowest is that which others do for one. 3 

The Gah-Sarna Ceremony: The whole of the AhunavaitiGatha is here recited 
for the Gah-sarna. It appears from Kamdin Shapur's and Jasa's Rivayat" that 
Yasna 28 to Yasna 31 § 4 was recited at home and the remaining portion was finish- 
ed off on the road. (See, also, Gah-sarna recital by Dr. J: J. Modi in the Sir J J 
Madressa Memorial Volume, pp. 415-420). A certain piece attached to the 
Bahman Yasht published by Dastur Kaikobad of Poona gives the first three ha's of 
Ushtavaiti Gatha as the portion to be recited for the Gah-sarna (See the Photozinco- 
Edition p. 23). Shayast-la-Shayast Ch. X § 6 also mentions the first 3 ha's of tin 
Ushtavaiti Gathas as forming the Gah-Sarna. Again, Venclidad 9 and 10 lay 
special stress on the recital of some special formulae for the expulsion of the druj- 
mm ; hence some are of opinion that these formuke (bishamrut, thrisMmrui &■ 
cJiathrushdmrut) only constituted originally the Gah-Sarna. 



e 



l MTJ. I. p. 15 1. 17 (Kamdin Shaptur) and p. 16 1. 3 (Bahman Punjya). 

3 MTJ. I p. 16 1. 10 or p. 326 (Shapur Bharuchi). 

3 MIT. I p. 36 11. 17-19 (Shapur Bharuchi). i MU. I p. 37 11. 6-1S (Kama Bohra) 

o I)adistan-i Dim, pursishna S. o jjtj. I pp . 142-143. 



INTRODUCTION, xlv 

Bending the legs of the dead : According to Kamclin Shapur's Rivayat 1 and 
the still later Rivayats, the legs of the dead body before its being laid on the bier 
and taken to the Dakhrna should be bent and not stretched out, i.e., the body 
should be cross-legged. This decision gave rise to bitter controversies here in 
various towns of Gujarat inhabited by the Parsees, especially Surat and Navsari. 
No uniform practice regarding it is observed now-a-days by the Parseesv The 
practice varies in various localities. This decision is given from a right or wrong 
interpretation of Vendidad 5 §§ 10-11, which is translated differently by different 
scholars. But there is no doubt that such a decision is arrived at on the principle 
that the less space polluted by the nasti, the better. (Of. the injunction about the 
building of a Dakhma (MU. I. p. 100) which should be circular in form so as to occupy 
the least space of ground). When the controversy about this point was at its height, 
cpiestions regarding the same were again put to the Irani Dasturs by the Surat 
congregation and in reply, the letter 3 of A.Y. 1138 gives the following fanciful 
reason in support of the theory that the legs of the dead body should not be kept 
stretched out : — "The dead have to make a journey to the next world, which is the 
last journey and no ordinary one. In the journeys undertaken by us in this world 
for going from one place to another, legs which are stretched out must needs be 
used. But when our,sojourn here is ended, the journey to the next world must be 
represented by crossing or bending the legs. God had ordered the angel Sraosha to 
bend the legs of Gayomart, when he died in Sarandib, to show that his worldly 
journey was at an end." 

In connection with this controversial point, see the Pazend Rivayat of Kamclin 
Shapur (Antia's Pazend Text, pp. 222-23) where it appears from the foot-notes that 
the MSS. are tampered with to serve the purpose of the opposing parties. 

Bathing the dead : The Rivayat of Bahman Punjya 3 on the authority of Dastur 
Nosherwan Marzban says that a dead body should never be washed with water. 
If necessary, when one is on the point of death, one should be bathed. Those who 
wash the dead body with, water must expiate for the sin. Others* say that a woman 
in menses, when she dies, should not be bathed with water. She should be purified 
with cjomez only. If gomez cannot be had, then no water should be applied but the 
body should be wrapped at once in Sudreh and Kusti. If one has committed a sin 
in this way, with regard to water, one should cause 7 Vendidads to be consecrated 
for the expiation of one's sin. 

The practice is not acted upon in all cases, but the principle laid down for the 
injunction is that water should not come in contract with Nasa. 

Tying the mouth of a dead body with a veil or Padan : All Rivayats from Iran 5 
exhort the Indian Parsees to keep the whole face of the dead body bare so that it 
may be fully exposed to the gaze of the dog and sac/did properly performed. At 

i MU. p. 141 1. S. 

2 Sea T 30 pp. 55-78 (of the Navsari Meherji Rana Library). 

3 MU. I pp. 163-170. 

* MU. I p. 235 11. 2-11 (Kamdin Shapur and Shapur Bharuehi). 

5 MU. I. p. 112 11. 12-13 ; p. 112 11. 18-19 ; p. 113 II. 5-6 ; (Kama Bohra, Kaus Kama) :— 



Xlvi INTRODUCTION. 

first the word isjj (fui) only was used in connection with this, which some took for 
the ' forehead ' only and not the whole face ; but when the Persians knew that their 
injunction was not complied with, they wrote 1 expressly to the effect that the face, 
the eyes, the nose should all be open to the gaze of the dog. It appears that the 
Navsari priests were not satisfied with this and they, under their spiritual guide 
Dasfcur Jamasp Asa, the Rivayat in whose name has but recently come to light, 
put the question to the Iranians again and suggested that the object of putting 
on the cover (padan) was to avoid the vermin entering the open orifices of the dead 
body, and moreover, that it symbolized an act of repentance for the dead person's 
sins, but it appears from the answer given by the Persian priests that they stuck to 
their practice and so we see in Navsari that the Persian custom is done away with. 

Ceremonies on the death of a child : About a child dying one day old to seven 
years old, the Rivayats 2 say that one Srosh ceremony and the Cheharum, that is, 
the fourth day's ceremony should be performed for it, and no ceremony for the 
Dehum, Siroz and Salruz, i.e., for the 10th, and 30th days and the anniversary day. 
The reason for the ceremony as given in Kaus Kamdin's Rivayat is that the soul 
of the child upto seven years does not become separate from the souls of its parents. 
If the parents have been sinful, then, by the performance of the Srosh ceremony, 
the child's sonl becomes separate from them and intercedes for them in heaven. One 
Rivayat 3 says that if a boy or a girl, twelve years old dies, then three Srosh cere- 
monies, and the ceremony on the 10th and the 30th days only should be performed 
and nothing more, y^ 

The Three Days' Srosh Ceremony: The Oothamna & the Chaharum: All 

nearly give a uniform description of the ceremonies of an adult for the four days 
after his or her death. About the Oothamna ceremony one Rivayat 4 says that 
Patet should be recited in the house of the dead in the Aiwisruthrem Gah and 
another"' says that Patet should be recited at the 4th gah (i.e., the Aiwisruthrem 
gah) of the 3rd day. Yet another 15 says that Patet should be recited for the dead on 
the 3rd day, with the recital of the karda Yo. vanano. Kayadhahe — (which can 
be recited in the Aiwisruthrem gah only.) If we understand these writers 
rightly, it follows that what we call the Oothamna ceremony was to be performed 
during the 4th gah. The modern practice here is to hold this ceremony in the 
3rd, i.e., the Ooziran Gah. Again, it is only the Rivayat of Bahman Punjya 7 , 
which says in addition that a cow should be presented as asho-ddd (i.e., the gift to 
the pious), quoting in support the passage of Yt. 13 gaomata zasta, &e. He further 
says that suddb should be used for the 3rd day's ceremony. All uniformly lay 
stress on the Srosh ceremony for the first three days after death. With regard to 
this latter ceremony, Kamdin Shapur's Rivayat8 states that if during the first 



1 MTJ. I p. 114 11. 14-15 (Shapur Bharuchi) :— 

2 MU. I p. 160 11. 13-16 (Kaus Kamdin and Dastur Barzu). 

3 MU. I p. 173 11. 17 (Kamdin Shapur). 

4 MU. I p. 152 11. 17-19 (Kama Bohra). 

5 MU. pp. 163-170 (Bahman Punjya). • • - - 

« MU. I. p. 157 (Kamdin Shapur). • 

7 MU. I p. 156 and pp. 163-170. s MU. I p, 160 II. 1-5. 



INTRODUCTION- Xlvii 

three days, three Yasnas of Srosh are not practicable all at once, one ceremony 
must be performed during those days, and after the Cheharum, i.e., the fourth day's 
ceremony, as many Srosh ceremonies as are left over, viz., two, should be performed. 
If this ceremony is impracticable within the first three days for some unavoidable 
reason, then that ceremony should be performed within 15 days and on the 10th 
day after the commencement of the ceremony of Srosh, the Dahum, i.e., the 10th 
day ceremony should be performed and the Siruze, i.e., the 30th day's ceremony 
should be performed, counting from thence. If it is impracticable to begin the 
ceremony within one month, then it may be begun during any day of the year ; 
and if the year during which death occurs also passes away, without any ceremony 
being performed, then it should be begun the next year. 

Ceremonies to be performed according to one's means and capacity : In case 
of helplessness (j'^ l J) if one is unable to perform any ceremonies, one can rest 
content and resign oneself to the will of God rather than involve oneself in trouble 
and debt to perform them. In connection with this, we occasionally meet with the 
beautiful and sound adage &i*»j*. jU. I l^»jjU.l i.e., if one is able, one 
should exert oneself ; but if one is helpless, one should rest contented ; e.g., one 
Rivayat 2 says that if Behdins cannot afford to consecrate the Damn ceremony on 
the anniversary day of a person, they can only recite the Slaomi (Yasna 26) instead. 

The Afringans : Recitation of the Tdo-ahmi-nrndne or Yd-visadha Kardas in 
the Afringan ceremony : — According to the practice in Iran, 3 the Icarda of tdo-ahmi- 
nmane is recited in the Afringan ceremony on the rojgdr of the death of a person. 
The Icarda of Yd-visadha is to be recited on each of the 10 farvardegan days only. 
Now there is one remark made in MU. (pp. 370-71) which is to be particularly noted, 
and it is that on the day Farvardin of month Adar and on the day Khorshed of the 
month Dae, the Afringan of Ardafravash with the Icarda of tdo-ahmi-nmane should 
be recited according to the Rivayats from Iran, but Darab Hormazyar on the 
authority of +i&> &3j_,U.«_j1 ^Ij-jtj'f " Kitabaha-i Avesta-o-Zand-i Qadim " 
says that the karda of Yd-visadha should be recited. The above statement shows 
that the Iranian practice is to recite the Icarda of tdo-ahmi-nmane only in all Afrin- 
gans except on the ten farvardegan days. What is quoted by Darab (p. 371) on 
the authority of the " Ancient Books of Avesta and Zend " is in accordance with the 
Indian practice only, as all these " Ancient Books " are found to be written in 
India, on further investigation (See remarks below). In connection with this, 
Dastur Barzu's Rivayat states in one place 4 that two dahams (i.e., two kardas of 
t&o-ahmi-nmane) and one Afringan of Srosh only should be recited during the 30 days 
of any month, except that the karda of Yd-visadha is recited only during the 10 
farvardegan days. 

It may be stated in connection with this that in Navsari and in some places 
under its diocesan jurisdiction, the karda of Ydvisddha only is recited during the 
30 days of any month. 

1 MU.Ip. 193 1. 1. 

3 MU I. p. 502 (Kama Bohi-a). •...'•• 

3 MU. I pp. 358-59. ~ '; s • •,-•', •.-,.- < 

i MU. I. p. 353 11. 2-U. ' " 



XlVlli INTRODUCTION. 

Afringan of Vanant. This Afringan is said to be recited 1 on the day Ormazd 
of the month Earvardin in the Aiwisruthrein-gah, whereas the practice in India is 
to perforin that ceremony in the Havan-gah. 

Afringan of Gahambar : — It is stated in the Eivayat of Kamdin Shapur' 2 that 
during the Gahambar festival, two Afringans of C4ahambar, one of Daham and one 
of Srosh should be recited and then the benedictory formula called Chithrem BuydtP 
said to be pronounced by Zartosht on behalf of Bahrain Varjavand, i.e., Soshyos, 
should be pronounced, before the recitation of the Hamazor-i Gahambar, i.e., the 
Afrin-i Gahambar. The practice with the Kaclimis here is still to recite two Afringans 
of Gahambar as stated in the above Rivayat, but the Shehenshahis recite only one 
Afringan thereof, as is also stated by Dastur Bazu. 4 The Chithrem Buycld 
formula mentioned above is here dispensed with by both the sections, viz., the 
Shahanshahis and the Kaclimis. 

The Dibache {I.e., the Introduction) of the Afringan as given by Darab Horma- 
zyar (MU. I. pp. 35-1-358) on his own authority furnishes several interesting points. 
Among the names of the departed worthies invoked in this Dlbadie we find the 
following : — 

(1) Ervad Meher-panah Ervad Sroshyar. 

(2) Ervad Mehervan Ervad Kaikhusro. 

(3) Bayo Pandit Shoban Pandit. 

(4) Shoban Pandit Jeshal Pandit. 

The first two names invoked are those of learned and indefatigable scribes 
like Darab himself : Mehervan Kaikhusro, we know, is the famous scribe of important 
codices like Kl, K5, K20, J2 etc. and Meher-panah Sroshyar was a learned scribe 
from whose copy the tales of Arda Viraf and Gosht-Fryan are latterly copied. It is 
very creditable to Darab that he has thought it fit to include such names in the 
famous category of worthies to be always invoked in important Jashan ceremonies. 

Again, in this Introduction, we have the following clause invariably :-—(].) 
Yazashn karda-hom (2) Damn yashta-hom, (3) Myazcl h^mi-rdinim. As regards 
this, Darab says that if the Yasna is performed that day for the dead, then only the 
first clause should be pronounced in the Afringan ceremony and similarly for the 
second clause; but this practice is nowhere observed here, because whether the 
Yasna or the Darun ceremonies have been performed or not, the whole clause is 
repeated in the Myazd or Afringan ceremony by the Mobeds. 

One more point in this Dibache draws onr attention : after the names of the 
departed worthies are invoked, the following is to be recited, says Darab, which 
is not here the practice with the Shahanshahis or the Kaclimis :— 

Jashans or religious festivals.— The Khordad-sal Jashan (roz Khordad, mah 
Earvardin) is caUed Nauruz-i Sultani 8 or Nauruz-i Khurdacli,? and also Barad 



1 MIT. I. p. 364. 2 MU. I. p. 351 11. S-il. 3 See MU. I. pp. 408410. 

i MU. I. p. 353. s For translation, see pp. 31S-19. 

8 MU. I. p. 355 1.1. 7 MU. I. p. 365 1. 2. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xlix 



(iirt). 1 The Khordad-sal-gah or Averdad-sal-gah (roz Khordad mah Asfaadarmad) is 
called Nauruz-i sultani or Nauruz-i Daryai 2 and again Navruz-i Zavuli 3 The 
Jashan of roz Asfandarrnad, mah Asfaadarmad is called Jashn-i Burzigaran. * The 
day Ormazd of Farvardin month is called Navruz-i Buzurg or al-'Azhn. 5 The 
Rapithwin Jashan which is said to be consecrated on the day Khordad of the month 
Farvardin is called Jashn-i Sarin ; 6 but another Rivayat states 7 that this Jashan 
is to be consecrated on the day Ardibehesht of the month Farvardin. Some 
state 7 that it is also to be consecrated on the clay Marespand of the month 
Meher, to celebrate the outgoing of Rapithwin {i.e., of summer). 

The Afrins.— In the Gahambar Jashans, the Afrin caUed Chithrem BuyaclS 
was recited just before the recitation of the Afrin-i Gahambar, which practice is 
dispensed with. The Afrin-i Haft Amshaspand" as recited here by theJUhehenshahis 
is also called Afrin-i Dahman. The Kadimis call the first part of the Afrin-i 
Rapith-win — Afrin-i Dahman and the second part thereof they call Afrin-i 
Farvardegan. 

Ashirwad Ceremony. — The Ashirwad (Marriage benediction) is called Nekah-i 
Paimani Pahlavi or Nekah-i Padshah-zani. 10 The year given here is A.Y. 1061 — 
the year in which Darab Hormazyar finished one MS. of his Rivayat. Of particular 
interest is the phrase Har do tan ramashni awazun bad, which is here rightly said by 
Darab to be recited thrice (by the chief officiating priest only), as also supported by 
the Sanskrit version. The modern practice here is to recite this clause only once 
and that too by the two priests at the very commencement when both begin to 
recite the benedictory formulas together. 

The Nirasigdin Ceremony and the Bareshmim v — An account of the Nir- 
angdin ceremony is given both in Pazend and Persian, which seems to be a word- 
for-word translation of the ceremony described in the original Pahlavi. One des- 
cription of this ceremony draws our attention to the fact that according to the 
teaching of Mediomah, 11 300 pebbles should be thrown in the vessels of gomez and 
water on the recitation of the 100 Ashem's, & 200 Yatha's whereas according to 
others, only 9 pebbles should be thrown into the vessels on the recitation of the last 
9 Yatha's, which is also the modern practice. The Bareshnum ceremony and its 
various forms are described most minutely as usual, some portions being most 
difficult t'o decipher, as this latter portion of the first volume of MU. is written in 
a different hand (see especially pp. 601-602 and pp. 590 et. seq., forming part of 
the Rivayat of Jasa). 

l MU. I. p. 517 1. 2. "- MU. I. p. 358 11. 2-3 and p. 373 1. 4. 

3 p. 510 1. 11 The MS. F. S. M. gives this name as Nauruz-i A.wwali, i.e., the first 
Nauruz. , 

4 MU. I. p. 371 1. 15 (Kamdin Shapur) and p. 571. 

5 MU. I p. 516 1. 15. 

o MU. I p. 317 (Kamdin Shapur) and p. 31S (Dastur Barzu). 

7 MU. I p. 316 (Kaiis Kamdiii). 

s MU. I p.p. 40S-410. (Translated pp. 31S-19). 9 MU. I p. 403. 

10 MU. I p. 423. 

11 MU. I. pp. 578-79. This is also eoiilirmed by Mauushchehr in his Epistles. See also 
MU. I p. 100 1. 2. 

7 



1 INTRODUCTION. 

The Paragna Ceremony : — A most elaborate description of this paragna 
ceremony is furnished in Jasa's Rivayat, 1 which learned priests would do well to 
study and mark the differences to be observed now-a-days in their practice and 
this Iranian exposition of the same : e.g., it is said that the aiwyanghan can be 
taken from any tree except the pomegranate and the tamarisk (J^j j^). 2 Notice, 
also, the difference in the ceremonies of taking the aiwyanghan, as practised in 
Iran and India 3 : 

Indian. — Khshnaothra Ahurahe Mazdao, Ash em 1. 
Iranian.— ,, ,, ,, ,, 3. 

Indian. — On the recitation of Vohu vahishtem, &c, the leaves of tlie-date or 
any other tree should be plucked. \ 

Iranian. -At the time of plucking the aiwyanghan, nothing should be recited. 
Indian.— -The introductory formula for binding the Barsam is Khshathrahe 
Vairyehe ttc. 

Iranian. — The formula is simply Ahurahe Mazdclo Baevato Kharenanghato 
&c, &c. 

Sudreh and Kusti : — The different terms used for Sudreh i.e., the sacred 

1 * j. 

shirt are : — 
(l)^w va*— (2) ^ ( Pah. ^e-'O )— (3) ^-ijij —(4) <*>£m i»U —(5) 

W»L>**— (6) <-£**) —(7) <-*•+} --or simply ^'^ (MU. I. p. 576) whereas the Pahlavi 

\ 
.Dadidstan gives only two terms for Sudreh, viz., (1) ?y»£j^->j£j (perdhcm) and 

(2) JJ<£25) £)*>) (Yohuman vastarg).* 

As for !£*■?>£ (Kasli) of the Rivayat, we have in Pahlavi two different terms 
representing the same, whatever their origin may be : — 

(1) ^£25^ — (Ktistlk) and (3) -J^Hi^ (tashkSk). 

The Age of Investiture : — All Rivayat writers agree on this r)oint that the 
proper age for investiture with Sudreh and Kusti is the 14th or 15th year f e.g., 
the Shayast-la, Shayast" says that there is no sin in walking without Sudreh and 
Kusti {vashat diibarashnA) for 15 years and thereafter it is a sin. Again, on tie autho- 
rity of the Duvasrujid nask wherein the age of the Navzud investiture was given, 
it says 7 that Kusti should be tied at the age of 14 years and 3 months. As. against 
this uniform practice of the Iranians, Darab Iiormazyar who has given an account 
of the investiture with Sudreh and KustiS as followed in his time, says that 7 years 
and 3 months is the proper age for investiture, but with the express statement that 



1 MU. I pp. 467-482. 2 MO. I p. 491 1. 1. 

s MU. I. p. 469. 

-i The word $_)&>"' (MU. I. p. 29) as used by Darab aud in a Rivayat of Shamir tSharuchi 
is of later origin (p. 161 1. 12). 

s MU. I p. 22 and 23 (Kamdin Shapur) and p. 23 1. 4 (Maneck Changa) and p. 23 1. S \/Jasa). 
fi Ch. IV §§ 9-10. '1 Ch. 10 § 13. 

S MU. I. pp. 39-30. 



INTRODUCTION. -11 

the age may be more 1 but not less. From certain other passages of the Riva- 
yats, e.g., persons entitled to partake of the Gahambar chashni, 2 or the giving of 
consecrated damn and gmhoda to a. menstruous woman in case of helplessness 11 
we gather that the age for investiture is 14 or 15 years. 

In Darab's time, the Navzud ceremony was performed in the Ooziran-gah 1 
also, whereas in Navsari it was the practice, upto some 30 years ago, to perform 
the ceremony only in the Havan-gah. Again, after the words vidhvdo mraotu, the 
firstclauseof Ormazcl Yasht, viz., peresat ZaraihusMro, &c, which is wrongly recit- 
ed by many priests even now, was not recited in his time. After the completion 
of the ceremony the child performed the hamazur with the whole anjuman assem- 
bled. 5 

An Account oi the various Rivayats — Nariman Hoshang's Rivayat, A. Y. 
847. I. [not given in H. F.]. — It was in A. Y. 847 that one Behdin Nariman 
Hoshang brought to India the first Rivayat from Iran. Nariman stayed at Yazd 
for a year and learnt the Parsi language from Jamasp [Shehriar] (MU. II. p. 389). 
For that period he did business at Yazd on his own account. Two other Rivayats 
of A. Y. 855 and A. Y. 880 sent through other messengers are generally quoted 
after him. With the first Rivayat, Nariman also brought a treatise on the Dialogue 
between Ormazcl and Zartosht (II. pp. 354-368) and the Ohitak Avesta Gasan. 
(II. pp. 372-77). The former was written by Hoshang Shiavakhsh Shehriar Bakht- 
africl Shehriar Behram Khusroshah Noshirvan at Sharfabad from a copy of Jamasp 
Shehriar Bakhtafrid and completed in A. Y. 847 (wrongly written 747 [MU. II. 
p. 368] ), and the latter treatise was written by Shapur Jamasp Shehriar Bakhtafrid 
Shehriar Behram [Khusroshah] Noshervan at Sharfabad from a copy of Rustom 
Shehriar Damhar and completed in A. Y, 847 (MU. II. pp. 371-72 & p. 377). These 
two books were written in Avesta characters because the Persians were informed by 
Nariman that the Herbads and Behdins of Cambay, Navsari, Broach, Surat and 
Anklesar were not versed in Pahlavi. This being the case, the Zoroastrians of 
Persia invited two mobeds to go to Iran to learn the language, as the commentary 
on the ritual they wanted to know was all written in that language. Moreover, it 
was difficult for the Persians to send instructions about all the niceties of the ritual, 
for they did not rely on that sort of instruction, as interpolations or omissions 
might occur thereby somehow or other in the original. Nariman, however, was 
tauo-ht some minor points of ritual and for obtaining further information, the 
Indians are exhorted to go to Iran. They write that the way by land is nearer : 
from Candhar to Sistan is the nearest way and that there is no clanger on the road 
from Sistan to Yazd. 

This Rivayat is addressed among others to the renowned Behdin of Navsari 
Changashah. One Hoshang Ramyar of Broach is incidentally mentioned. Chan- 
o-ashah who is styled anjumani and ndm-Jchusrav (i.e., celebrated and famous) is 
highly extolled for his able leadership and for the fact that he was chiefly instru- 



l aajb —better *&^ij '- (F-S.M.) 2 MU. I. p. 429 (Kaus Mahyar). 

3 MU. Ii p. 222 11. 10-19 (Kama Bolu-a, Kaus Kama, Kaus Kamdin). 

4 MU. I p. 29. ■' MU. I p. 30. 

« See Grundriss der ir. Phil., Band 11 (West ) p. 89. - - 



Ili INTRODUCTION. 

mental in securing the exemption of the Behdins of Navsari from the payment of 
the capitation-tax. 

This Rivayat is written by Shapur Jamasp Shehriar Bakhtafrin and completed 
in A. Y. 847, and signed by — Jamasp Shehriar, Siavakhsh Behram, Kaikhusro 
Siavakhsh and Hoshang Siavakhsh 1 

Rivayat of Nariman Hoshang A. Y. 855. II. We learn from the Rivayat 
of A. Y. 880 that a letter was written to Persia by Behram Shah Changa Shah and 
the response thereto was sent with Noshervan Khusro and Marzban Asfandyar 
addressed among others to the renowned Changa Shah, leader of the congregation 
of Navsari and signed by the leader {solar) Zinda Razm Kershasp, etc. Rivayat 
written by Shapur Jamasp and completed in AY. S55 (MU. II. p. 388). 

The Indians had again written to their Persian brethern to send some crualified 
Herbads from Persia to show them the ritual, but the Persians in response say that 
they camiot do so as there are only four or five persons well- versed in Pahlavi and 
that they do all the important affairs of the religion. This being the case, some most 
important religious affairs are not done, e.g., they say that the Varas ceremony was 
performed in Iran, some 160 or 170 years ere that time and the well- versed performers 
of these rituals bad disappeared, they knew not where. Moreover, they say that 
Herbads from Persia cannot be sent as the ancients have not allowed them to go by 
water and the boats, again, are manned by juddins. They, again cannot come by 
land for fear of the miscreants. 

We learn from this Rivayat that higher liturgical services had been withheld 
for two years at Navsari. for some unknown reason, and hence the Persian Dasturs 
exhort the Indian Zoroastrians not to withhold religious affairs from execution on 
any account. 1 

The Rivayat of A. Y. 880. 2 In this Rivayat, we are informed that no reply had 
been sent to the letter addressed to the Indians in A. Y. S55, but one Kasra Yazdayar 
who had gone to India more than a year previous to the date of this Rivayat, A. Y. 
880, brought with him a letter from that place. 

The Persians again exhort the Indians to learn the Pahlavi language and say 
that there are several considerations why priests well- versed in that language cannot 
be sent to India. Again, we are told that until Nariman Hoshang went to Persia, 
about 35 years before the present date, the Persian Zoroastrians did not know 
whether there were any followers of the good faith in India. 

The letter is again addressed to the famous Changa Shah, amongst others. 

Letter written in A. Y. 880— A.H. 016, and signed by Dastur Marzban Rustom 
Shahmardan, and others. ;; 

Letter sent with Behdin Kans Kamdin's Rivayat. [not given in MU. and H JY] 



1 See pp. 602-806 

2 All the different excerpts from this Rivayat are quoted by Darab Hormazyar in his 
Compilation after Nariman Hoshang. 

3 See pp. 606-610 



INTRODUCTION. 



liii 



A Behdin Kaus Kamdin was sent by Dastur MeherjiRana of Navsari and others 
to Persia for acquiring some religious books and for information on various ritualistic 
questions. The Iranians in response say that two wise and learned Dasturs may go 
to Iran, learn the languages and carry away the books. 1 Perhaps on account of 
insecurity of the roads and other causes, the Iranjs were not disposed to send books 
with the messsenger. Again this epistle bears no proper date, but in the midst of 
this Rivayat we find the following : — 

"' The date on which this came from Yazd was the day Rahman of the month 
Bahman, (A. Y.) 922 : the writer was Jamshed Behram Khusru."' What we can 
gather from this is that this is not the actual date of the Rivayat when it was finish- 
ed and sent to India. It was usual with the Irani priests of one town to send copies 
of the interrogatories they received from India to the various centres of Zoroastrian 
learning : for instance, if the Dasturs of Kerman received any communication from 
India, they would read it not only in their own congregation, but it was sent to 
Yazd and other centres for further elucidation. 2 Thus it seems that the interroga- 
tories brought by Kaus Kamdin from India were sent to Yazd by the priests of, say, 
Kerman, and the reply of the Dasturs of Yazd to their own Irani brethern is there- 
fore dated A. Y. 922. This is, perhaps, one solution of this question. Now, as some 
points about the Barsom, etc. as mentioned in Kamdin Shapur's Rivayat (A. Y. 928) 
are expressly mentioned in this Rivayat, it appears that this Rivayat of Kaus 
Kamdin must have been received in India after A. Y. 92S. Hence, it may be 
surmised that the communication by Jamshed Behram. Khusru, sent in A. Y.922 from 
Yazd to Kerman or any other Zoroastrian seat of, learning, is sent tolndia with this 
Rivayat without any alteration therein by the Dasturs of Iran, some years after 3 . 
This conjecture is all the more probable as is seen from E60 (Navsari Meherji Rana 
Library MS. of Kaus Kamdin's Rivayat.) In this MS. after this communication of 
A. Y. 922 as reproduced in Kaus Kamdin's Rivayet, we meet with another set of 
interrogatories with their responses beginning with pavan shem-i DaMr Auharmazd 
Amshaspanddn, and after this communication, we meet, further down, with the 
same introductory formula, showing that these last were separate responses from 
those sent from Yazd. 

Another point noticed in this Rivayat is that pious Behdins of India got some 
of their religious services performed in Iran, as, here, the Persian Dasturs acknow- 
ledge the receipt of 50 shcihis for the performance of the Zinda-Ravan and Vendidad 
ceremonies on account of two Behdins named Neryosang Minochehr and Nagoj 
Minochehr. 

The addressees are : — 

Navsari :— (1) Dastur Mahyar Vachha (2) D. Behman Chanda, (3) D. Khurshed 
Behram, (4) H. Shehriar Dhayyan, (5) H. Rana Chacha, (6) D. Asdin Kaka, (7) 
D. Peshotam Chanda, (8) H. Mobed Mahyar, (9) H. Manka Nagoj, (10) H. Kaikobad 



1 AJrAJ l*-' j J"* ^ ^MA 

2 See MU. II. p. 430 1. 16 (Translation, p. 610) and MU. II p. 150 1. 5 (translation, p. 591). 
See also p. lxii 11. 6-9 of the Introduction. 

' 3 See the note above, and compare the remarks on the possible date of this Rivayat by 
Prof. Hodivala in his " Studies in Parsi History," pp. 311-316. 



Hv INTRODUCTION. 

Mahyar, (11) H. Vachlia Shehriar, (12) B. Beliman Khnrshid (descended from 
Herbads— e \*Jji, i l)' 1 ), (13) H. Shapxrr Vachha, (14) H. Bebman Behram, 
(15) H. Padam Narsang, (16) H. Jaisang Hushaug, (17) H. Peshotan. Khurshed, 
(IS)B.Toyii Horn (descended from a Hirbad family). (19) B. RanaHom. (descended 
from Herbad family), (20) H. Shehriar Cbanda, (21) H. Sayar Behram, (22) H. 
Padam Rustom ; and the Herbads who are the servants (khidmatgar) of the Atash- 
Behram, e.g., (23) H. Sayar Khnrshid, (24) H. Asa Karndin, (25) H. Horrnazyar 
Padam, (26) H. Behram Karndin, (27) H. Khorshed Dhampal. (28) H. Khorshed 
Horrnazyar, (29) H. Zal Karndin, (30) H. Faridun Padam. 

(31) Belulinan-i Behdin Rana Kaikobad Maneckshab, the leader of good dis- 
position (Kadlchuda-i hu-him), (32) B. Narsang Manekshah Behram, (33) B. Nagoj 
Maneck, (34) B. Asfandyar Khnrshid, (35) B. Minochehr Bahmansha, descended, 
from Manekshah, (36) B. Karva Rana, (37) B. Mehr Dhayyan, (38) B. Faridun 
Asa, (39) B. Dhayyan Asdin, (40) B. Ava ( fjT) Dhayyan, (41) B. Dhayyan 
Sagar tabib, (42) B. Mahr Sagar tablb. 

Sural : — (1) H. Nariman Hormazclyar, (2) H. Karndin Rana, (3) H. Mahyar 
Ghanda, (4) H. Bahman Faridun, (5) H. Narsang Mobed, (6) Behdin Khorshed 
Behram (the Kadkhuda, i.e., the leader), (7) B. Jaisa Behram, (8) B. Kunvar Beh- 
ram, (9) B. Maneck Hushang, (10) B. Padam Champa (S.D.B., &k'> [ ^ & E60 l *' 1 ^)- 

AnkUsar: — (1) H. Dada Asa, (2) H. Shehriar Rustom, (3) H. Shehriar 
Kaikobad. 

Broach : (1) D. Padam Ram, (2) H. Ardeshir Peshotan, (3) H. Jaisang Karndin, 
(4) H. Ramyar Adar, (5) H. Vika Behram, (6) Behdin Hansa Hira, (7) B. Asa 
Padam, (8) B. Ghanda Poman (w u ^). 

Cambay : (1) D. Darab Mahyar, (2) H. Ghanda Bahrain, (3) H. Khnrshid Jiva, 
(4) H. Rustom Mahyar, (5) B. Asa Nakhva (E. 60— Ia^G Nakhuda). 

The signatories : — 

(1) D. Anushirvan D. Rustom, (2) Mavindad D. Rustom. (3) D. Behram D. 
Mehraban, (4) D. Kaikhusro D. Siavakhsh, (5) D Khusro D. Mavindad, (6) 
Mavindad D. Hoshang, (7) Zaratusht D. Jamasp, (S) Khusro D. Siavakhsh, (9) 
Behram D. Mavindad, (10) Mehraban D. Noshirvan, (11) Shehriar D. Mavindad, 
(12) Farrokhzad D. Yezdyar, (13) Rustom D. Behmanyar, (14) Ardeshir D. 
Iranshah, (15) Jamasp D. Jamasp, (16) Siavakhsh D. Shehriar and others. 1 

Lett? r sent with Jasa's Rivayat. — [not given in MU. and H. F.] — This 
Rivayatwas sent from Persia in A. Y. 885. As the excerpts from this Rivayat are 
all quoted as az rivayal-i Jam (or, Behdin. Jasa), it may be safely presumed that 
the msssenaer who brought it must have been one Behdin Jasa although it is not 
so stated in the Rivayat itself. In the letter prefixed to this Rivayat, the Irani 
Dasturs acknowledge the receipt of a letter from the Indian Dasturs and in answer 
thereto, they send this Rivayat treating of Vajr-i Davar {i.e., the decisions of the 
nidges), of nirang-i Parah5m and Barsam, of the vadardagdn (i.e., the dead), 
and of the Dakhma. 

1 See Navsari Meherji Rana Libtrary MS. E60. . •. 



INTRODUCTION. 



lv 



The addressees are the following : — 

Navsari : — (1) Maneck Changa, 1 salar-i Behdin (i.e., the chief of Behdins), (2) 
Dastur Nagoj Asdin, (3) D. Jesang Dada, (4) D. Pahlon Annan. (5) D. Khorshed 
Vaohha, (6) D. Cliacha Vachha, (7) D. AsaDhayyan, (8) D. Hira Dada, (9) D. Asa 
Rustoni, (10) D. Behram Rustom, (11) D. Nagoj Rustom, (12) D. Rana Jesang, 
(13) D. Vachha Jesang, (14) D. Chanda Pahlon, (15) D. Mahyar Asa, (16) D. Cban- 
yan Asdin Sanjana, (17) D. Danpal Jesang Sanjana, (18) D. Hormazyar Ram 
Sanjana, (19) D. Behram Khorshed Sanjana, (20) Behdin Kamdin tabib, (21) B. 
Asdin Mehrwan, (22) B. Dhayyan Rana, the brother's son (berddar-zdda) of Changa 
Shah, (23) B. Asa Behram bin Changa, (24) B. Rana Jamasp, (25) B. Manek Behram. 

Swat :— D. Khorshed Dosa Vachha, D. Chanda Vachha, D. Jesang Narsang, 
Behdin Hira Mahiar, Narsang Rana and Khorshed, B. Jiva Bhikha and Karwa 
Bhiklia. 

Ankksar : — D. Behram Hormazd, D. Jaisa Khorshed. 

Broach : — D. Mahiar Narsang, Uslad Ram Kanhanan. 

Cambay : — D. Khorshed and D. Shapur. 

The signatories : — 

(1) D. Mehraban Noshirvan Shehriar D. Mavindad; (2) D.Ardeshir D. Mavindad, 
(3) D. Marzban D. Rustom Shahmardan, (4) D. Mahvindad Rustom, (5) D. Sheh- 
riar Mehraban, (6) D. Jamasp Shapur, (7) D. Behram Rustom, (8) D. Yovadshah 
Rustom, (9) D. Aderbad Mavindad, (10) D. Jamasp Rustom Mobed, (11) Behdin 
RaisFarkhab, (12) B. Rustom Farkhshutan, (13) B. Bahman Marzban, (14) B. Sheh- 
riar Khorehfiruz, (15) B. Rustom Shehriar, (16) B. Asfandyar Gusha, (17) B. 
Shehriar Yazdyar, (18) B. Firuzan Shehriar, (19) B. Isfandyar Iran, (20) B. Farrukh- 
bakhsh Navruz, (21) B. Fariburz Rustom, (22) B. Darab Navroz, (23) B. Surkhab 
Rustom, (24) B. Shehriar Kaikobad, (25) B. Asfandyar Minocher, (26) B. Gurdan 
Marzban, (27) B. Damhar* Rustom, (28) B. Gushtasp Faridim, (29) B. Giv Asfand- 
yar, 3 (30) B. Musafar Khusro, (31) B. Saadin Mazban. + 

Asfandyar Sohrab's Rivayat or Maktub-i Manek Chassga (MU. II, 
pp. 446-450— H.F. f. 195)— Behdin Asfandyar Sohrab brought a letter from Iran, 
generally known as Maktub-i Maneck Changa, from the name of the chief Behdin 
of Navsari to whom it was addressed, in addition to many prominent Dasturs 
and Behdins of Navsari, Surat. Anklesar, Broach and Cambay. 

The Iranians do not give any longer treatise about religious matters, but they 
exhort the Indians to put into practice what is communicated to them in a previous 
letter sent with Behdin Shapur (i.e., the much larger Rivayat of Kama Asa or Kama 
Bohra). 



i For the identification of several names in this list, See Prof. Hodivala's " Studies in Pars. 

History" pp. 290-291. 
g^ej soS.D.B. 



3 He wrote in part the Rivayat of Kama Bohra. 

l For this Rivayat, see S.D.B. No. 24S of the Mulla Firoz Library. 



Ivi INTRODUCTION. 

On his arrival in Persia, Behdin Asfandyar Sohrab was ordered to undergo 
the Bareshmirn purification and as he had gone thereafter to Jarun, 1 he was again 
given Bareshnum by the Iranians. 

The signatories to this epistle are Hirbad Noshirvan H. Asfandyar and twenty 
others. Letter written on clay, Aniran, month Bahrnan. No date. 3 

Rivayat of Kama Bohra. (H.F. ff. 1-3 & ft. 70 et. seq.).— This is the longest 
Rivayat. It is known as the Rivayat of Kama Bohra or of Kama [or, Kamdin] 
Asa Khambaiti. H.F. gives the extracts of this Rivayat under both the names, 
whereas MU. (Darab Hormazyar's Classified Rivayat) gives all the excerpts, long 
or short, under the heading of az Rivayat-i Kama Bohra except only once where an 
extract is headed thus :— az Rivayat-i Kama bin Asa (MU. I, p. 326, 1. 19). 3 The 
Rivayat is known after Kayomal-din bin Asa whose name is found in this Rivayat 
in the Cambay list of worthies. The name of the messenger who was sent to Persia 
is given as Shapur Asa who may be a brother of Kama Asa and who is again men- 
tioned as Behdin Shapur in Asfandyar Sohrab's Rivayat. It is to be noted that 
Herbed Shapur Hira, the worthy who tops the list of the Cambay Zoroastrians is 
very respectfully mentioned thus : — herbad, ravan-bazeshk, tan-yozcldthra, hii-him, 
rast-goftar, i.e., the Herbad who is the physician of the soul, the purifier of the 
body, of good disposition and the speaker of truth. 

This Rivayat is dated A. Y. 896 and there is a long list of the signatories con- 
sisting of the Dasturs and Behdins of Persia. 

After the names of these Dasturs the name of the deceased Giv Isfandyar who 
had partly written this Rivayat and who must have died during its preparation is 
given as Anush-ravdn Behdin Giv Isfandyar. 

This Rivayat is written by Dastur Shehriar Ardeshir Erach Rustom in con- 
sultation with {liam-pursagi) Giv Isfandyar Giv and addressed, among others, 
to Rana Jesang of Navsari, and Shapur Hira of Cambay.' v Some explanation 
about certain phrases used in the colophons of this Rivayat as well as of other 
Rivayats will not be out of place here. H.F. gives the colophon of this Rivayat 
in Pazend thus : — 

This, if turned into Persian, will stand thus : — 



1 a* is the ancient city of Ormaz in the Persian Gulf. 

2 See pp. 612-14. 

3 Yet another passage (MU. I, p. 1S8, 11. 10-13) is found elsewhere quoted under the head- 
ing of az Rivayat-i Kama, bin Asa. (See Bartholoniie : Gatalogus Codicum maim *p. 43). 

si For the long lists of the addressees and the signatories, see p. 626 and " Studies in Parsi 
History," pp. 305-308. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ivii 



The question is how to read and explain the phrases underlined. Prof. Hodi- 
vala in his " Studies in Parsi History " (p. 297 et req.) leaves the question unset- 
tled after a long dissertation thereon. Dr. Sir J. J. Modi has given a plausible ex- 
planation of it in his Introduction to the Rivayat of Darab Hormuzyar (p. 16 note). 
The real difficulty here lies with the word 3 I read as equal" to Pers. ^ (ba). It 

must be noted that such colophons in Pazend or Persian are written with stereotyped 
phrases borrowed from Pahlavi colophons, which latter, if copied by ignorant scribes, 
are deciphered and read in a ridiculous way. For instance, take the very first 
colophon of the Dinkard, which is written, it seems, by an intelligent and learned 
scribe :— Dk. Vol. II (Madon's Edition) p. 946, 11. 20-21 :— 

which Dr. West translates as t: After the year 20 of that Yazdagard " (leaving out 
i| from the translation) [S. B. E. Vol. 37. Intro, p. xxxiv.). This colophon wa s 

written by the scribe in A.Y. 369. Passing on to the second colophon, Written in 
A.Y S65, we meet with a slight mistake which can be easily amended : (Dk. Vol. II, 
p. 949, 11.' 20-21):— 



Here ~?\ (veil or 61) is used for the proper word fgM (valman) — a mistake often 
made by copyists, as the Pazend equivalents of both are very nearly the same when 
pronounced, — i.e., 5 and 51. Again passing on to the third colophon written in 
A.Y. 1009, we notice the blunder usually made by the writers of Pazend and Persian 
colophons :— (Dk. Vol. II, p. 951, 11. 21-22 and p. 952, 1. 1.) :— 

sjbspj ^) _0)j iytpj -»$€ nyy-G W&KJ j^Mj ' "W £ -■ Hy 

Here the word ^1 (valman) after J is omitted and the original right wor d ^J 
(bag) is transcribed _JLJ> I (bam) which is the Pahlavi equivalent of Paz. or Per, (ha). 

Again, compare the following colophon in Pahlavi, as attached to the Rivayat 
of Nariman Hoshang ending with the Chiialc Avesla Gdscln (MU. Vol. II, p. 377, 
11. 14-15) :— 

This mistake is repeated in Pahlavi, Pazend or Persian by many scribes. The 

word j$h (valman) used for ■=>) (ml) can be easily accounted for, but ^J (which 

was invariably read as ba by them and not as bag) was difficult for them to account 
for ; so mistaking it as the preposition ba used in Persian, they inverted the order 

of the original words and wrote down fi) -JJ1) (bard valman ^j I si) for JJ ffi) 
(valman bag). 



lviii INTRODUCTION. 

A slight acquaintance with Pahlavi could not have induced them to make such 

an impossible change, as JUU (bard) used as a preposition here as in the Persian 

language is never used in classical Pahlavi as such with the meaning of Persian 
s> (ba, — to, for, etc.) except in the sense of " besides, or, except." 

■ Now-M bag is used in all these contexts in the sense of " divinity." (Av. -"i** l)- 

We know that the Sassanian kings styled themselves bag or bagi : of. bagi SJmJimun ; 
bagi Arlakhsldar ; bagi Papahi (Pah .-Paz. Glossary:, Intro, p. 46), where this bagi 
is translated, dlahd (—God) in the Chaldseo— Pahlavi and theos in Greek : Hence 

■ 3 J f£' (valman bag) means "that divinity," or, "' His Majesty." 

Again the words <_jjl r{ g-ljl are wrongly transliterated and inverted for the 

Pahlavi phrase i| tf) &) (ndf valman bag) as found in various Pahlavi colophons 

where 0*) ('««/) is the same as napi of the Sassanian Inscriptions, moaning 
'grandson' : or 'descendant' : cf. napi bagi PapaH, i.e., grandson of the divine 

Papak. (P.P.G. p. 46). This t>>) (ndf) therefore is first read vaj and from va/} to 
avdj (j'jl) is the shortest way. 

For further elucidation of these phrases, we shall cjuote thefollowing passages: 

I. Gf. Shikan-gumani, Oh. X §§ 69-70. 

" From (that time) forward, it (i.e., the religion) came in succession, to the bayand 
(bagana), i.e. the divinities [referring to the Sassanian kings], the exalted kings 
descended from the Kayans." 



...."■ in the reign of that divinity, or, His Majesty, (Paz. oi-bag — Pah. J I r§\\ 
the emperor Shahpur, son of Auharmazd." (See S.B.E. Vol. 24, p. 171, §§69-70). 

II. Karnamak (Ch. XIV, p. 22, p. 45 of Antia's Edition) : — 

\ 
)J*GJ 4)t =lekiim bagdn=Yo\vc Majesty (said of Artakhshtar Papakan) 

III. Rivayat of Darab Hormazyar, Vol. II p. 265 1-19 top. 266 1, 1 (Persian. 

Minokherad) : — 

i yi [j.« for] ij-w f»I^J A/0 7 j i5J I ^\&a. j»la-£j 5/V___yi 



MfeoDtrc'rtoN. li x 

I.e., With whom did the bayi [i.e., the bagi or divinity, or majesty, or kingship by 
divine right] begin and with whom did it end ? Bayi (i.e., bagi) commenced with 
Ardeshir Babak and ended with Yazdagard Shehriar. 

IV. (Of. Pah. Texts by Dastur Jamaspji p. 141) :— 

i AtfVSOO ^ Yiffa WW _jj i^l ^ -» VH> if i-ny 

i.e., after the year 20 o/ *Aai eKwi% [or, His Majesty] Yazdagard king of kings, son 
' of Shehriar, the descendant of that divinity ('i.e., His Majesty), the victorious 
Emperor Khusro son of Auharmazd. 
(For Dr. West's translation, see Grundriss der iran. Phil : Band II, p. 119). 

Maktub-i Maneck Changa : The Rivayat of A. Y. 904. (H. F. if. 37(3-79) 
This is a short Rivayat brought by the messengers Asfandyar Yezdyar and Rustoin 
of Cambay, but the Iranians tell their Indian brethren to also act according to the 
instructions given in the longest communication sent previously (in A. Y. 89(5) with 
Shapur Asa. The Persians also extol the religiousness of the Indian Parsis, as they 
were informed by the messengers that a new Daklima had been erected in India. 

Rivayat written in AY. 904. l 

Kamdin Shapur's Letter (MIL II, pp. 458-461). (not given in HP.) Eerbad-zucle 
Kanidin Shapur seems to have visited Iran twice. When he first visited Yazd, 
he had with him only an empty box with a pen and a letter, and a second time, 
when he went there he had with him only, a saddle of leather* bearing the name of 
Herbad Padam (Ramyar) of Broach ■■ who had sent him there for procuring some 
books on religion and with certain interrogatories. Kamdin was provided with 
religious books asked for, e.g., Saddar Bundehesh, Saddar-i Saddar, an illustrated 
Viraf-nameh, a book of decisions on the Proper and the Improper and of the dis- 
quisition on the enthronement of Atash Behram and a writing on Varan and the 
Varas {i.e., the hair of the sacred Bull) itself. About the Varas, the Iranians say 
that no Varas is allowable other than the ancient varas, i.e., the varas prepared in 
ancient times by the Poiryo-tkaeshas. In the Rivayat of AY. 855 generally quoted 
as Nariman Hoshang's Rivayat, it is said that the last varas was prepared about 
160 or 170 years ago, and that no knowledge of its ceremonial preparation was left 
to the moderns. 

This letter is dated AY. 92S : A. H. 966 and is signed by the Dastura of Turka- 
bad, Sharfabad, Khorasan, Sistan and Kerman. The congregation of the Behdins 
of Khorasan is said to number 3,000 souls. 4 



1 gee pp. 628-30. 

a JU,. (MTJ. If, p. m, 1. 11)— of. lsJUj a saddle of leather (Stoiitgttss). Instead ol 



this word, Antia's MS. of Btii-zo Kamdiu's Compilation of the Rivayats 
a shirt, i'B-> the Sadra. 

8 Seo S.B.E. Vol. 2-1 Intro, p. 30. 

i See pp. 017-20. 



Stves w ,j.-»j *»« 



• INTRODUCTION. 

Faridun Marzban's Letter (MU. II. pp. 397-98 and II pp. 462-63) (not given in 
MI .). On,e Behdm Fariclun Marzban who had gone from India to Persia, perhaps on 
business, brought a letter to the chief Dastur of Navsari, Dastur Mahyar (Meherji 
Rana) and to its prominent Behdins. He did not bring with him any longer com- 
munication on religious matters as in the case of other Rivavats. but two items of 
minor importance are only found in it. As Paridun seems to have gone to Persia 
alone on his own account, the Persian Dasturs exhort their Indian brethern to send 
more than one person on so long a journey, as, if such a lonely traveller dies on the 
way and if his body is burnt by Juddins, no ceremonial can be offered for his soul. 

This letter is not dated, but the approximate date can be safely inferred from 
the well-known names of the dignitaries of Navsari, to whom it is addressed. ;1 

Letter of Dastur Ardesbir Noshirvan of Kerman to Dastur Kamdin Padam 

of Broach. (MU. II, pp. 455-458 : HP. f . 460). Dastur Ardeshir Noshirvan had 
proceeded to Multan to return to Persia from Akbar's court, when he met there 
Behdm Kaus Mahyar, the messenger sent by Dastur Kamdin Padam, the high- 
priest of Broach. Dastur Ardeshir, in his letter, exhorts Dastur Kamdin to go to 
Iran and assures him that the roads are not infested by the Uzbegs as they were 
before. Ardeshir complains in this letter about many shortcomings appearing in 
matters pertaining to religion : e.g., he says that there is only one Atash Bahrain at 
Navsari, and at places like Broach and Surat where there are no Atash Behrams, 
the ceremonies for the dead— chiefly the 4th day's ceremony— cannot be said to bo 
appreciably performed in the absence of the sacred fire not being ceremoniously fed 
with the fat of a gospend (a goat or a sheep) on that day, as by this particular de- 
ficiency in the ceremony, Adar Khoreh, i.e., the spirit of the Sacred Fire, will be 
displeased and will not welcome the soul of the deceased. 

If Dastur Kamdin does not intend to visit Iran, then Dastur Ardeshir tells him 
to write a letter to Dastur Meherban (Noshirvan) of Yazd or to Dastur Behramshah 
of Kerman. Letter written in A. Y. 967. 3 

Kaus Mahyar's Rivayat. (MU. II, pp. 450-455-H.P. f . 438). A Behdm Kaus 
Mahyar Rustom of Oanibay was sent to Persia by Dastur Kamdin Padam of Broach 
without any letter of recommendation. On his way to Persia, he met Dastur 
Ardeshir Noshirvan at Militant Kaus brought a letter from Iran addressed to the 
following dignitaries : — 

(1) Dastur Hoshang Asa : (2) D. Kaikobacl Homajyar : (3) D. Noshirvan 
Asdin: (4) Behdin Noshirvan Bahman and (5) Kaikobacl Noshirvan— all of 
Navsari and some more renowned Dasturs and Behdins of Surat, Broach, Anklesar 
and Oambay. This letter is not dated, but it may be approximately laid down at 
A. Y. 968-970. 

The signatories to this letter :— According to MU. Vol. II, p. 455, the only 
name of Zartosht Jamasp is given, but there is a blank before this name in MU. as 
well as HP. The Mulla Piroz Library MS. of Ervad S.D. Bharucha's Collection 



1 See pp. 620-22. 
- See pp. 015-17. 
3 lfcw Uio letter addressed by liim Lu Ivmudiu Padam of Broach in A. Y. 0t>7, see silpm. 



INTRODUCTION. 1A - 1 

gives the following names of the signatories: (1) D. Adarbad Mitroyan; (2) D. 
Mavindat D. Anoshervan and (3) D. Zartosht Jamasp. Hodivala (" Studies in- 
Parsi History," p. 323) gives the first two names differently as they are " confusedly, 
written" in the MS. used by him. It appears from the names of the signatories 
affixed to another letter (See MIL Vol. II, p. 462, 11. 3-5), that the order of the signa- 
tories to this letter of Kaus Mahyar as given by Prof. Hodivala is correct : e.g.,. 

(1) Meheraban (or, Mitroyan of the MS. in the Mulla Piroz Library) Noshirvan ; 

(2) Adarbad Mavindat and (3) Zartosht Jamasp. 1 - 

Behdin Bahman Asfandyar's Rivayat. (MIL II, pp. 149-1(52). This Rivayat 
is generally quoted as that of Bahman Punjya, who is said to have been a 
brother of Nanabhai Punjya of Surat. As Bahman was an inhabitant of Surat, he 
is also called Bahman Suratya. He brought three letters with religious decisions 
two from Kerman, and one from Turkabad in Yazcl. The Kerman Dasturs write 
to the Indians in the first letter that the answers to several questions were written 
by the chief Dasturs of Yazd and hence they did not see any necessity to alter them- 
The MSS. of Vishtasp Yasht and the Visparad are sent from Kerman and the 
Dasturs of the latter town promise, if need be, to send duplicates thereof. In 
return they ask for duplicates of other MSS. which the Indians can do without. 

In the second letter brought by Bahman Punjya from Turkabad, the Iranians 
inform their Indian coreligionists that Bareshnum was administered to Bahman, 
as he had come by water, crossing the sea and that he had gone on a pilgrimage of 
Khatun Banu the royal princess, daughter of the last king Yazclagard, who was 
engulfed somewhere in the mountains of Pars. A Vendidad MS. is sent to India 
as a joint present from D. Khusro Noshervan and D. Rustom.* This letter was 
written in A. Y. 996. 

The addressees are very nearly the same as in the first letter, the .name Karndin 
Kaikobad being added to the list of Navsari worthies. 

There is a long list of the signatories, headed by D. Behram D. Ardeshir. 

The third letter brought by Bahman Asfandyar is also dated AY. 996= A. H, 
1036, wherein the Irani Dasturs exhort the Indians to use Sidab in the Gaharnbar 
ceremony, a quantity wherof is sent with Bahman. 

Dastur Shapur D. Hoshang, D. Vekji {i.e., Behman Kaikobad), and D. Barztt 
(Qavamuddin) are only mentioned by name as the chief addressees of Navsari, 
the signatories being the following : — ■ - 

(1-3) D. Noshervan Marzban 3 and his brothers Dasturs Faridun and Behram 
Marzban Kermani; (4) RustomD. Noshirvan; (5) D. Marzban Faridun, (6) D. 
Behram Rustom Bandar Shahmardan ; (7) Khusro D. Behram, (8) the scribe, D. 
Rustom Noshirvan Marzban.* ■ 

1 See pp. 014-15. 2 This MS. is now in .the Mulla Firoz Library. 

3 The versification of the various themes of the Rivayat brought by Bahman Punjya is 
done by this Noshirvan Marzban Kermani, a devout and erudite Dastur who has composed all 
his various themes in good rhyme and rhythm. These poetical versions on, a great .many religious 
subjects are worth studying as thoy throw a flood of light on many a custom and usage ' of 
the Persian Zoroastrians. '. -.iA See pp. .593-95, 



Ixii iNTROtotrcTioii'. 

Dastur Barzu's Rivayat. (MU II, pp. 430-455— HP. pp. a-o). Dastur Bafzii 
Kamdin^had addressed a letter from Navsari in A. Y. 1015 to the Dasturs of Yazd, 
Kerrnan and Ispahan and sent it with a messenger named Behram Meherban 
Yazadi. To this letter an answer seems to have been sent 2 in A. Y. 1019 with 
Shehriar Rustom Sandal wherein the writer Behdin Mulla Minocher Mulla Siavakhsh 
Minocher of Kerman says that the Indian letter was read before all the Dasturs 
and Dahmobeds and Kad-khudas (i.e., headmen) of Kerman and that a separate 
copy thereof, was sent to the High-priest, the Dasturs and Dahmobeds of Yazd for 
the solution of the questions. As no categorical reply to his questions was vouch- 
safed to Dastur Barzu for some time, the latter sent another letter with nearly the 
same questions repeated as in the previous letter, with two messengers named 
Ardeshir Shehriar Yazadi and Shehriar Rustom Kermani. The Iranians now 
acknowledge both the letters and send a reply, which was delayed for so long on 
account of adverse times, some seven or eight years after the receipt of the first 
letter dated A. Y. 1015. This letter from Iran is written by [Meherban Dastur] 3 
Behram Dastur Meherban Suraki at the instance of the High priest Dastur 
Mavindad D. Beheram D. Ardeshir. 4 

Letter addressed to Dastur Rustom Peshotan and others on the contro- 
versy of the new Dakhma erected in Surat. (MU. II, pp. 470-474— H. P. f . 459). 
Nanabhai Punjya, a wealthy and pious Behdin of Surat began to erect a new 
Dakhma (Tower of Silence), but he died before its completion in A. Y. 1037. His 
corpse was preserved in an old Dalchma and after two months it was removed to 
the new Dakhma on its being completed. A fierce controverey raged as regards 
this matter and a letter was addressed to the Dasturs of Iran thereanent by the 
honoured and renowned Dastur Rustom Peshotan, 5 Behdins Kunverji and Hirji' 8 
and Herbad Barzo Adarbad, and was sent with a messenger Behdin Meherban bin 
Sandal. To this, the Iranians sent a letter from Kerman and decided that the 
procedure adopted with respect to a charitably disposed and pious man like 
Nanabhai was quite in consonance with the tenets of the religion. Incidentally, 
the Iranians refer to a letter being sent, ere this, on the same subject. 

Letter signed by Rustom Dastur Ardeshir and six others. 7 

Letter to the priests of Surat— Maktub-i Suratya Adhyarus (MU. H j 

pp. 474-480— HF. f. 456). Herbad Rustom Khorshed Asfandyar had addressed a 

1 Great uncle of Darab Horrnazyar, the compiler of the largest classified Rivayat (here 
called MTJ.). 

2 This reply is not incorporated by Darab in his classified Rivayat, nor by Hormaziar 
in his compilation. For this reply, see Navsari Meherji Rana Library No. 45 (of Dastur 
Erachji's Collection) pp. 265-270. 

3 Hodivala omits the name in brackets in his " Studies in Parsee History." p. 330 but 
see MU. Vol. II, p. 445, 1. 13. 

4 This Dastur was the writer of the 3rd Colophon of the Dinkard (A. Y. 1009). (See Dinkard 
by Madon, Vol. II p. 952). His father Behram was the High-priest of Turkabad in Yazd 
according to the Rivayat of Bahman Asfandiar (See MTJ. Vol. II, p. 101, 1. 15). See also 
translation, pp. 592-95. 

5 The author of the Gujarati Siavakhsh-Nameh, Zartosht-Nameh, Viraf-nameh and 
Asfandiar-Nameh, in- verse. 

6 Sons of Nanabhai Punjya. 7 See pp. 622-24. 



INTRODUCTION. 



lxiii 



letter to the Iranians on the subject of the new Dakhina erected at Surat by 
Nanabhai Punjya, with several other questions, in A. Y. 1038, at the instance of 
Dastur Barzo Karndin and others. To this a reply was given by the Persians in 
A. Y. 1039 — A. H. 1081. No mention is made in this reply about the new Dakhma 
as it is stated that a reply thereanent had been already given two or three times. 
Letter signed by Mehrban D. Rustom and 12 others. 1 

Kaus Kama's Rivayat. A. Y. 962. (?) We cannot say with any certainty 
who Kaus Kama was. In Darab Hormazyar's classified Rivayat we find Kaus 
Kama and Kaus Karndin used indiscriminately in many cases. There is only one 
MS. (N. M. R. L. No. F 60) which gives Kaus Kamdin's Rivayat in extenso. 
Comparing the contents of this MS. with the subjects in MU. given under the head- 
ings of az Rivayat-i Kaus Kama and az Rivayat-i Kaus Karndin, we can say that 
these two are different Rivayats although there are many questions common to both. 
Again on comparing Kaus Kama's Rivayat with that of Kama Bohra, we can 
safely say that the former borrows a major portion of the latter's Rivayat which is 
the longest of the series. Thus, if we set aside those portions which are very nearly 
common to the Rivayats of Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama, there remain four or 
five subjects to be distinctly attributed to the Rivayat of Kaus Kama : e.g., MU. 
I. p. 56 11. 3-15 ; pp. 81-82': p. 118 11. 7-9 ; p. 283 11. 5-9 ; pp. 290-291. Dastur 
Erachji S. Meherji Rana in one of his Gujarati pamphlets on some controversial 
ritualistic matters, while quoting some Rivayats, says that Kaus Kama was a son 
of Kama Asa i.e., of Kama Bohra ; but the Dastur does not give his authority. 
Prof. Hodivala, in his " Studies in Parsi History " does not mention the Rivayat 
of Kaus Kama, perhaps on the supposition that Kaus Kama and Kaus Karndin 
are one and the same personage. But in a MS. No. 248 of the late Ervad 
Sheriarji D. Bharucha's Collection in the Mulla Firoz Library, the following note 
(p. 184) giving the date of Kaus Kama's Rivayat is to be found, which statement 
is nowhere met with in other MSS. giving the Rivayat of Kaus Kama : — 

^Jiv-Ji j\ jjj ujlel vij* "~Hj^ J •*"*} wOV J* j** l i J d^tri V 1 *^ *^ f'* 5 

(j li.wj.j.ij *m3 yjt«*Us j'jj-f*" &jr*-^5i j 1 j* j <£*■'*£> j **°tJ ji J'*" pl A > Ji* ! . t '* 



i>.' 



Thus, according to this colophon, the Rivayat of Kaus Kama was finished in 
A. Y..962. The writer of the Rivayat is not here mentioned, but the MS. of'-Hor- 
mazyar Framroj, (HF. f. 168) gives the name of Zartosht Jamasp Shapur as the 
writer, without any date. This Zartosht was the great grandfather of Jamsap 
Hakim, (Jamasp 2 Dastur Hakim Noshervaii Zartosht Jamasp Shapur &c.) and 
was a signatory to the Rivayat of Kaus Mahiar (about A. Y. 970). 

Rivayat of Shapur Bharuchi. This Rivayat is difficult to identify. Dr. West 
(in Grundriss : Band II, p. 126) suggests that it resembles the excerpts from the 
Rivayats of Kama Bohra and Karndin Shapur. Prof. Hodivala, in his " Studies 
in Parsi History " referring to the opinion of West on Shapur's Rivayat says that 



1 See pp. 624-25. 

3 For Jamasp's pedigree, see Hodivala, " Studies in Parsi History " p. 2S2 n. IS ; Catalogue 
of K. R. Cama Oriental Institute, p. 139 ; Descriptive Catalogue of some MSS. of the Mulla 
Piruz Library, p. 3 and p. SO and Bartholqmae : Catalogus .... (Miinchen), p. 37. 



1X1V INTRODUCTION. 

" it is not impossible that this so called Revayet-i-Shapur Bharuchi owes its name 
to some confusion in the mind of Darab or in his sources " (p. 343 note). Darab 
Hormazyar's Classified Compilation (MU. Vol. II) has given an extract (p. 461 II 
11-19 to p. 462 11. 1-5) wherein only two questions have been answered by the 
Iranian Dasturs and the remaining portion alludes to the death of Dastur Padam 
Ram (See S.B.E. Vol. 24, Intro, p. 39) of Broach, after whose death there seems 
to have arisen a dispute in the Broach Anjuman as to his successor ; and this ques- 
tion being referred to the Iranian Dasturs. the latter tell the Broach congregation 
to settle the matter amicably among themselves, or, failing that, to refer the 
■ question to the Anjuman of Navsari. The signatories to this letter are : (1) Zartosht 
D. Kaus; (2) Mehraban D. Noshirvan; (3) Khusro D. Farrokhzacl; and (4) Azarbad 
D. Mavindad. Now the Rivayat of Kamdin Shapur (A. Y. 928) is addressed to 
Da&tur Padam Ram and Mehraban Noshirvan, one of the signatories who is the 
writer of K43 (A.Y. 938) [See S.B.E. Vol. 24 Introd. p. 18) Hence the date of 
Shapur Bharuchi's Rivayat may. be approximately ascertained. 

Now it is not the case that only two questions, as said above, are disposed of 
in this, i.e., Shapur Bharuchi's Rivayat. Darab Hormazyar's compilation MU. 
II. gives a certain portion extending from p. 463 1. 14 to p. 470 11. 1-3. This portion 
does not give any letter of Introduction, nor the names of the addressees or the sig- 
natories, with any date as is the case with all such letters appended at the end 
of his Rivayat by Darab Hormazyar. The reason is that this portion seems to be 
dislocated from the smaller portion mentioned above, but all the questions herein 
inserted can be traced to the classified portion in the body of the two litho. volumes of 
Darab Hormazyar. Similarly, a dislocated piece of this same Rivayat of Shapur 
Bharuchi is found inserted in Dastur Ardeshir Noshirwan's letter (MU. II. pp. 
455-458). On page 457 U. 16-19 and p. 458 11. 1-2 of this letter will be found a 
portion of Shapur Bharuchi's Rivayat. This portion is rightly excluded from the 
letter of Dastur Ardeshir Noshirwan in H. P. f. 460 ; and, again, the same inter- 
polated piece here is rightly found in its place in Darab's Classified Rivayat under 
the heading of ' Az Rimyat-i Shapur Bharuchi' .1 Again No. 235 of Ervad 
Sheriarji D. Bharucha's Collection in the Mulla Firoz Library gives a separate 
Rivayat bearing the name of Shapur Bharuchi. Although, as hinted by Dr. West, 
many portions of Shapur's Rivayat are common with that of Kama Bohra whose 
is the longest Rivayat of the series, still Shapur's Rivayat treats of innumerable 
questions quite apart from those of Kama Bohra or of Kamdin Shapur. Nay, he, at 
some points, corrects the misleading statements made by Kama Bohra. One im- 
portant, and, notable example will suffice : It is stated in MU. I. pp. 116-117 in Kama 
Bohra's and Kaus Kama's Rivayats that ' two menstruous women or two women 
who have given birth to a still-born child may carry the dead to the Dakhma in 
case of necessity '. This absurd statement made in Kama Bohra's Rivayat is 
given, it seems, on the authority of the Pahlavi Shayast-la-Shayast. (Ch. II § S) 
which is not properly understood. The S.L.S. states that women free from men- 
struation or who have not given birth to a still-born child will do in case of necessity. 
(Cf. Pah. Vendidad S § 10). Shapur Bharuchi's passage gives the right inter- 
pretation in conformity with S.L.S. 1 thus :— (MU. p. 117 1. 9) "Even two women 



1 (See, MU. I p. 70 1. 6 : MU. II p. 2G11. 12-13 ; MU. I p. 490 1. 2. ; MU. II p. 34 1. 8). 



BSTTBODTTCTION. )-XV 

will not do, for there is fear (of the corpse not being j)roperly handled). Two unclean 
(vadyab) women will not do." [■■■■■ 

Again, one of the pieces of Shapur Bahruchi's Rivayat (in MS. S.D.B. 235), 
while speaking of the performance of sagdid, if the dead is lying covered up with a 
piece of cloth, refers to the Rivayat of Kama (Bohra) written on the same subject 
and tells us to use similar means as prescribed in Kama's Rivayat, thus : — 
Jl+c W T <3'lj-« tc**>l tf^ /♦.ji?'* it/ /C fe' (j^tf vjj-iS-o ji /.xJUa. ( _ r; | 



j,jS CM_ b ^M 



(See Kama Bohra's Rivayat : MU. I. p. 112 11. 11-17). 

*ij j ftmjI.tJlV 3 1 (Az Ketab-i Avesta-o-Zand). 
Besides the various Rivayats used by Darab Horrnazyar, he has laid under 
contribution some old Avesta books written in India. Whenever these latter are 

used, he does not quote them, as is usual with him, as ^'jj j' " az Bivayat-i 

" but quotes them as &>jj Ia«_jI t_> li-S" 3 1 az Ketab-i Avesta-o-Zand, i.e., "from 

the Avesta and Zand book." The reference to this book or books with this 
heading is found 7 times in MU. Vol. I. and 4 times in MU. Vol. II : — 

Vol. I :— p. 109 11. 7-9 Vol. II :— 

p. 315 U. 4-6 p. 12. 

p. 351 11. 11-19 p. 20 

p. 371 11. 1-2 p. 53 

pp. 507-509 p. 69 
p. 516 U. 10-19 to 517 11. 1-11 
p. 519 U. 17-19 to p. 520 11. 1-14 

We shall show that these Zend books were Indian MSS. and not Iranian : — 
I. p. 109 11. 7-9. The Dasturi recited in the ceremony of the Bareshnum 
purification is given first on the authority of the Iranian Rivayats of 
Kamdin Shapur, Jasa and Bahman Punjya, and then from " Ketab-i 
Avesta-o-Zand." This shows that the latter was an Indian MS., i.e. 
Darab has given the ' Dasturi ' as recited in India along with the 
formulae used in Iran. 
■II. p. 315 11. 4-6. The formula recited on applying gomez to the open portions 
of the body on rising from bed is shikasteh shikasteh sliaitan &o. Thi6 
piece, as here given, is recited by the Shahanshahis only. If the 
Qadimis at all recite it now in India, they have changed its wording. 
This shows that the formula is extracted by Darab from an Indian MS. 
III. p. 351 11. 11-19. The description of the Parvardegan days is from " an 
Avesta and Zand book." It is a simple account of what ceremonies to 
offer during those days and is very nearly in conformity with the 
account of the Farvardegan days as given in the Rivayat from Iran 
just following, viz. of Kamdin Shapur (p. 352 11. 1-10), except the 
inclusion of the controversial and spurious phrase a*^ d,^ ]j a, U 
In connection with this, it is to be especially noted that Dastrur Burzoji 
who has compiled, before Darab Hormazyax, a Rivayat as voluminous 
.as his, has included this piece in his Collection, rightly omitting the 
words aij^? :Jjj, \j ^a-U which seem to be spurious (See BK. p. 319 — a 
MS. of the Sir C. J. N. Z. Madressa) (See further remarks below in VI). 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION. 

IV. p. 371 11. 1-2, This description as given by Darab conclusively proves 
that fj*; o.Jj j IS-jI ^l^Uf ar e quite distinct books from the Rivayats 
brought from Iran. They are, no doubt, Indian MSS. from which Darab 
points out the way of reciting certain Afringans as different from the 
accounts given thereof in the Rivayats. It does not necessarily follow 
from the word pJOJ " ancient " used here that the books were brought 
from Iran. They were merely the works of Ervads and Dastars of 
India. Such fi*> ^lfiu.3 (nuskhaha-i qadim) are spoken of as MSS. 
written in India only. (See Antia's MS. of Darab Hormazyar's 
Rivayat (f . 330), herein inserted after MU, I. p. 527. 

V. pp. 507-509. The Baj of 1200 Yatha and Ashem to be recited in the 

Faryardegan days. Both bajs begin with the Pazand formula panam-i 
Yazdan Ahuramazda Khodai awazuni &c. and there is again the Pazand 
formula Ahuramazda Khodai awazuni mardum, &c, to be recited here 
in an undertone. This clearly proves that the bajs are written here- 
in India by the Shahanshahis and recited by them alone. The Iranis- 
and, for the matter of that, the Qadimis here never make use of the 
Pazand formula indicated above. 
VI. p. 516 11. 10-19 to p. 517 11. 1-11. This piece under the heading y Uf j I 
^ijj U«,l begins with c^ijl ^O.^ yl w j. e . ; -these are the 
customs of the Behdins," i.e., of the Behdins of India only. This is 
a very fanciful account of how to pass the Farvardegan days. During 
the sixties of the last century the " Rahnumai " and the " Rah-i 
Rast-numai" associations carried on, between themselves, controversies. 
. as regards what ceremonies to perform and what - not to perform 
. during the Farvardegan days on the authorities, as thev stated, of 
the sacred texts. The latter association quoted this portion of Darab's 
Rivayat as emanating from the Rivayats of Iran, but the " Rah- 
numai ,: Association, rightly contended that this was a spurious piece 
composed by some one in India. This Association conclusively proved 
that this piece was found in a MS. of the Yasht written by one Ervad 
Jamshed bin Kaikobad some 175 years before the controversy was here 
at its height. (See Rahnumai Mazdayasna, Journal No. 23, pp. 68-82, 
A.G. 1860, wherein a literal Gujarati translation of this piece is given 
on pp. 81-82). Again, the controversial phrases 4^^, lj ^U ( p 5 i 6 
1 11) and filttiJ u0> (p. 517 1. 10) occur in this piece. As said above, 
the first phrase occurring in the description of the Parvardegan days- 
mentioned above, (see III above) is not found in Dastur Barzu Kamdin's 
Rivayat. and this whole piece is omitted by him in his collection. The • 
, words uC - U & <J Jti are not found in Persian dictionaries. Machi is a 
Gujarati word '.meaning JJ a- kind of stool " and this fact alone shows 
that the writer, whoever he be, speaks of a custom in vogue among the 
Indian Parsis, and not among the Irani Zoroastrians. As here machi is 
otherwise called hurak or humg, this latter word must bear a similar- 
signification. Soma, explain this hurak or humg as equal to Pahlavi 

yjm (hurak) or ^V .(hurag) which, is found in the sense of 'fire' or 



INTRODUCTION. lxvii 

' embers ' or ' burning coal ' in Pahlavi texts, e.g., See Pah. Yasna I § 6 
(Spiegel p. 31) and Shikand gumani-vijar, Cli. 14 § 25 (khurg) where- 
the word is used in this sense and which is explained by Neryosang as 
angara, i.e., embers. Dastur Khurshedji E. Pavri, in his Gujarati 
" Risaiaha-i Khorshed, part III ", similarly explains the word hurak 
(p. 136). Whatever interpretation may be assigned to the word, it is 
not the case, as stated by Dastur Pavri, that this statement about 
machl or hurak (i.e., a seat) is first found in the Rivayat of Kama Bohra 
(p. 134). Kama Bohra's Rivayat was a composition of the Irani 
priests, whereas this statement about the machl and hurak is only 
found under the heading *ij 3 &»jl v^-J 1 (az Ketdb-i Avesta-o-Zand)- 
and we have shown here that this book or books has not its origin in 
Persia but in India. Ervad S. D. Bharucha, quoting Yt. 13, 73 says in 
his Ristastan (p. 372) that hudak (and not hurak) may be perhaps 
traced to Av. airime-anghad {i.e., sitting at rest), meaning that in the 
Parvardegan days, the froJiars should be propitiated in a secluded 
or lonely place, i.e., a place only reserved for them. This word hurak is 
again found in the Pahlavi Vajarkard-i Dini (a work not regarded as 
truly original, but a composition of some learned Dastur of India, made 
up of various Pahlavi pieces found in original works patched up with 
statements on different subjects in Pahlavi with hitherto unknown 
Avesta quotations, perhaps emanating only from the pen of this able 

writer) thus: — ^J^IlVft? -A))] y)* 3 hurak bard yetibundnishna (p. 

57 1. 1) in a passage where the author speaks of the establishment of 
a hurak during the ten Parvardegan clays and says that the Avesta 
should be recited (before it). As in our Persian passage, mdchi and 

hurak are taken as identical, it is better to take yf* (hurak) or 

J 3)*J (hurag) as another form of J Y)* 3 (hurang — which may be better 

pronounced aurang — (Pers. >-&jjl), i.e., a throne, an elevated seat. 
[Por the elision of the nasal sound, cf . Pah. sag and sang (i.e., a stone) 
or Old Pers. badaka— bandaka (i.e., a slave), etc.] In the Pah. 
Vajarkard quoted above the author says in the account of the 
enthronement of fires (which immediately follows the account of the 
ten Parvardegan days) that a stone stool or a raised stone seat 

JCJO -* ^rV aurang-i sangin should be placed (^M^yf 5 ) in the 

gumbad, i.e., the Sanctum-sanctorum, and thereon the fire should be 

enthroned (*)*?}$ 'ft) yetibundnd) (p. 59 1. 13). Thus, then, in this 

connection JJ^ (hurag, or better, aurag) is the same as 3VY 3 (aurang), 
meaning, a raised seat, and in fact the word mdchi bears a similar 
meaning in Gujarati. It may be finally noted here that the Pahlavi. 

J>y*» (hurg) is the same as Pazand khurg (S.G.V. Ch. 14 § 25) and that 



Ixviii INTRODUCTION. 

it may be compared with Persian ,uS>5. (IcMrak) which, strangely 
enough, bears both the meanings, viz., (1) " hot .coals," or " embers " 
.! . and (2) '" a three-legged stool (See Steingass : sub voce.). . 

. VII p. 519 11. 17-19 to p. 520 11. 1-14. This piece is simply an amplification 
of the piece mentioned above, viz., III. p. 351 11. 11-19 and of a Rivayat 
of Kaus Kamdin, MU. I. p. 506 11. 12-19 to p. 507 11. 1-8. - 

The passages given under the heading *3j j IJU'^I ^llf'i) i n Vol. II. call for 
no special comment. ' ' ' 

MU., HF., and BK. .--—For an account of the literary activities and the pedi- 
gree of the compilers of these Rivayats, viz., Darab Hormazyar, Hormazyar 
Framarz, and Barzu Kamdin, all being members of a very distinguished and 
learned family, see Modi's exhaustive Introduction to Darab Hormazyar's Eiva- 
yat, Vol. I (1922) and Hodivala's " Studies in Parsi History," especially 
pp: 21, 65, 87, 92-93. 

Again, for the identification of most of the distinguished personages of India 
and Iran, mentioned in the various Rivayats, see Hodivala's learned essays on 
"The Dates of the Persian Rivayats " in his " Studies in Parsi History " (1920) 
p. 276 et seq. 






THE PERSIAN RIVAYATS. 



MU. I, pp. 2-3. 
THE AVESTA ALPHABET- 

Here are to be found three different groupings of the Avesta Alphabet. The' 
first is arranged according to the Arabic alphabet ; the second grouping has the' 
order as given by the old Indian Dasturs, whereas the third grouping is in the 
order assigned to it by the Iranian priests. These three groups differ from one 
another in the order of the succession of letters. Lepsius, in his ' Das ursprungliehe 
Zendalphabet ', pp. 293-383 (Berlin, 1863) has given lithographed tables of these 
alphabets. The first grouping of the Avesta alphabet (preceded hy the Pahlavi 
alphabet) of the Rivayat corresponds to No. 5 of the tables of Lepsius. The second 
grouping — as used formerly by Indian Dasturs — corresponds to Nos. I and 2f of 
Lepsius' tables, and the third grouping of our Rivayat, formerly used in Kerman 
and Yazd, corresponds to Nos. 3 and 4 of Lepsius. No. 4 not found in the Rivayat 
very nearly resembles No. 3. 

Besides these groupings of the Avesta characters, there is another order of 
the alphabet given in the ' Zand-Pahlavi Glossary.' From the fourth to the 
twenty-fourth chapters of this Glossary, the words are given under a certain order, 
Geldner is of opinion that " such Avesta alphabets originally stood at the opening 
of most Khorda Avesta and Yasht MSS. They have been destroyed, however, 
in almost all old MSS. and have been supplied sec. m.\ consequently they are for 
the most part pal^ographically worthless."! These groupings, although they 
cannot be properly accounted for, are regarded by some as certain aphorisms like 
those of Paiiini. 3 We find that a sacred character is still attributed to this group- 
ing of the letters of the alphabet and at Udwada and places under its diocesan 
jurisdiction, a child, on the day when it is invested with Sudreh and Kusti, i.e., 
when it is ceremonially taken into the Zoroastrian fold, is made to recite this 
peculiar grouping of the Avesta characters before the recitation of the Zoroastrian 
Confession of Faith. 

MU. I, pp. 3-13. 

The Nasks. 

It should be noted that the order of these Nasks given in Bahman Punjya's 
Rivayat (pp. 3-4) is the same as that of the Dinkard, Book 8 (Ch. I § 12), which 
makes Vendidad and the Hadokht, the 19th and the 20th Nasks respectively; 
but the Rivayats of Kama Bohra, of Nariman Hoshang and of Dastur Barzoji (and 
not Shapur Bharuchi, as stated in the Litho. Edition, p. 9, 1. 16), as well as the 



1 Avesta : — Prolegomena, p. II, note. 

2 See S. D. Bharucha's Article in Spiegel Memorial Volume, pp. 55-56 and Hoshengji, 

and Haug ; Zand-Pahlavi Glossary, Introduction, p. XLV, note. 



Dini VajarkarcU begin with the Yaslit or Stud-Yasht (which is the last in the order 
given in Bahman Punjya's Rivayat), and end with the Hadokht, which makes 
the Vendidad and the Hadokht the 20th and 21st Nasks respectively. The three 
Rivayats with the Dini Vajarkard, moreover, reverse the order of the Chidrasht 
and Spenta and also of Duvasrujid and Husparam. Again, it is to be noted that 
the Nask called Vashtag in the Dinkard is known as Dad in Bahman Punjya's 
Rivayat and as Hasht, Khasht or Khusht in the other Rivayats. 2 

The following quotations from the Dinkard and the Yasna support what is 
said in the Rivayats about the Ahunavar : 

(Spiegel's Pah. Yasna 19 § 4). & W)^ WHHyl 



i.e., Ahunavar is that spirit which propagates the religion, and which religion 
is formed from the Ahunavar." 

)5^J3} J ^rt?KXVj -w J W J jO"j lie) tfisWHXStV 

(Madon's Dinkard : Vol. II, p. 789). § Q JQO* 

i.e., " The Yatha-ahuk-Veryok is the origin of religion and therefrom is the 
formation of Nasks." 

.».uW i )tv» ni ijHsVof i)c j >\n? -> -o-^ _j*> ^vl, . 



j ifeK^ fjO<\ Wj 3 W^J .% JjjV=M j^W J»1J jC ,*W5 

j mw -ny* )H ^Hsr* ^u^o u W-W ^ f iyv®m 6 

(Madon's Dinkard : Vol. II, Book 8th, p. 679, 11. 10-20). 

1 This MS., the only one of its kind, now in the possession of Dastur Kaikobad of Poona 
has been transcribed for the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute and preserved in its Library. 

2 Vashtag and Dad (or, Dadag) and Hasht or Khasht are corrupt readings of the same 

Pahlavi word ^«JO) with slight changes. If we remove the initial perpendicular 
stroke ( i.e., \ \ from ^<oo( , the remaining form gives the reading Datag (or, Dad.) 





60 



i.e., " Moreover, in the three lines 1 of the Ahunavar, which is the foundation 
of the reckoning of religion, there are 21 words. Just as the Ahunavar is the 
foundation of the reckoning of religion and its three lines are an emblem of the 
tripartite division of the reckoning of the religion, so the 21 words of the three 
(lines) indicate the 21-fold subdivisions of these three divisions, as it is declared 
that the Ommiscient Creator created one discourse from one single word. It 
is evident that there were 1000 3 sections of these divisions, such as the Has and 
Fargards which are in the Nasks, from the testimony and knowledge of the religion 
owing to the teaching of Zartosht of the revered frohar in the country of Iran ; and 
after the destruction which came on from the ill-fated villain Alexander created by 
Wrath, not so much as there had been (originally) was recovered as would be 
possible to regard it as the original writing." 3 

The following table gives the 21 words of the Ahunavar with the corresponding 
21 Nasks and the original Has or Fargards or Kardas or Sections contained in 
them : 



Words of Ahunavar. 


The Nasks. 


The Sections contained 
in them. 


(1) Yatha 


Studgar 4 


22 


(2) Ahu 


Vahishta-Mathra 5 


22 


(3) Vairyo 


Bagh 


21 


(4) Atha 


Damdad 6 


32 


(5) Ratush 


Nadur 


35 


{6) Ashat 


Pajan ' 


22 


(7) Chit ■ 


Ratushtaid 


50 (of which 37 lost 
and 13 recovered). 


(8) Hacha 


Baresh 


60 (of which 48 lost 




■ 


and 12 recovered). 


(9) Vangheush 


Kishasrub 7 


60 (of which 45 lost 
and 15 recovered). 


(10) Dazda 


Vishtaspad 8 


60 (of which 50 lost 




i i 


and 10 recovered). 




180 lost ; 50 recovered. 



1 The first indicating the Gathic, the second the Hadha — MSthric and the third, the Datic 

group. 

2 The Has, Fargards or Sections (as shown in the tabular form below), as contained in 

all the 21 Nasks according to the Rivayats are 825 as against 1000 of the Dinkard, of 
which 180 are said to have been lost on account of the devastation of Alexander. 

3 3|)«jo^- — Per. j»\w,j the original of a book, any writing of authority. 

. See Dr. Modi's "The Religious Ceremonies and.Customs of the Parsees" pp. 346-347. 

* First in Bahman Punjya's Rivayat and the Dinkard, but the second in all other Rivayats. 

6 Or., Varshta-Mathra. 

8 So in B. P.'s Rivayat, but Duazda Hatasat in other Rivayats, 

1 Or, Kashkasrub. 

8 Or, Vishtasp-Sasta. 



Words of Ahunavar. 


The Nasks. 


The Sections contained 
in them. 


(11) Manangho 


Dadi 


22 




(12) Shyaothananani 


Chidrasht 3 


22 




(13) Angheush 


Spentah 2 


60 




(14) Mazdai 


Bayan Yasht 3 


17 




(15) Khshathremcha 


Nayadam 4 


54 




(16) Ahurai 


DvasrQjid 6 


65 




(17) 5 


Husparam 5 


64 8 




(18) Yim 


Sakadam 


52 




(19) Drigubyo 


Jud-div-dad 


22 




(20) Dadat 


Hadokht 


30 




(21) Vastarem 


Yasht 1 


33 






Total 8258 



MU. I, pp. 4-13. 

Contents of the Nasks. 

As the translation into English of the three different accounts of the Nasks 
according to the three Persian Rivayats is furnished by West in addition to the 
translation of the description of the Nasks as given in the later Pahlavi work called 
Din-i Vajarkard, (See S. B. E. Vol. 37 : pp. 418-447), it need not be given here, but 
the following emendations in that translation should be particularly noted : — 



I. p. 4, 1. 6 : {jj&LwjJ j ij-i^ o*i«5 ji should be. 



15 



i !>.=k C^AJk^ 



(See 



Barzu Kamdin's Bivayat), or ^ l&wjj _, ^la.e. o,i*j,j i.e., in praise of God and 
the Arnshaspands. (Cf . Nariman Hoshang's Rivayat—^ KiAj* j y I i Jo ^ j lyfjji ji>) 

p. 4, 1. 6 :— c*«l (_£«-■&) Uwil i_£.~3 (_£j j o^-ij A**?- Jl (^1 is-US" a+a. Ij ^jI ^ ya. j 

Dr. West : — " and for this purpose they form an assembly . . . " ; better 
thus — " When this (Nask i.e., the Stud Yasht) is taken as a whole, it is one Nask 
out of the total of 21 Nasks of the Avesta." 

p. 4, 1. 7: — liiJIy^j urh- j **. [) ^ West: — "In that mode, they recite 
this." Better thus :— " They recite this (Nask) with two kinds (of intonation)." 
The same clause is used similarly in Nariman Hoshang's Rivayat, where it is 
translated as above by Dr. West, but it should be corrected there as indicated 
(Cf. XIII : Spend Nask). 

1 Vashtag in the Dinkard and Hasht, Khasht or Khusht in Rivayats. 

2 This is the order of B.P.'s Rivayat, but it is reversed in other Rivayats. 

3 Or, Baghan- Yasht. 4 Or, Nikadum. 

6 This is the order of Bahman Punjaya's Rivayat, but it is reversed in other Rivayats. 

6 64 according to Kama Bohra and Nariman Hoshang ; 60 according to Dastur Barzoji's 
Rivayat and 65 according to Dini-Vajarkard. 

7 Or, Stud-Yasht— Last of the order in B. P.'s Rivayat and the Dinkard, but first in the 
order of other Rivayats. 

8 This total of 825 is as against 1,000 Kardas of the Dinkard (See above). 



p. 4, 1, 10: o.*3ljj uiJLs _, c*aj ^ j W Ji ji i.e., "about the religion 

and about the intention and character of Zaratusht." Dr. West omits w m ji 
i.e. " about the rehgion." 

p. 4, 1. 10 :— ^£3 \fj jl &}&> fj L tJ IS" j i.e., Virtuous deeds of Zaratusht. 

Here Ju.jfy =Pah. -»09)») : Dr. West reads :— oAJIjj jl <jS4j ^*J ^',j^ 

V. p. 4, 1. 14 : — .jlis»»l or <sl j **1 Olshausen and Mohl as well as West give 
the meaning " assistance," but the word is a corruption of Damdad, as this fifth 
Davaada-Homast Nask is the same as the Nask Damdad according to the Dinkard 
and also the Eivayat of Bahman Punjya, where it is the fourth of the series. 
p. 5, 1. 3, 1. 15, 1. 17 ; p. 6, 1. 9, 1. 10 ; p. 7, 1. 1, 1. 10 :— 

»iU ^jaj ^jf Dr. West :—" Whatever remains in this." Better thus :— 
" Whatever resembles this." 

VH.. p. 5, 1. 6: ij4 l ? t* u^ The MS. BK. omits this clause. MS. 
F.S.M. correctly changes ' T to l rJ Olshausen and Mohl retaining I, trans- 
late thus :—" The person who recites the Has." West changes l» into l,j^ 
on the authority of another MS. and translates :— " The person who takes the 
things." But ^j is here the same as l H P rice > value, donation. Thus the clause 
may be translated :— " The person who collects the money or donation (for the 
sake of the Gahambar ceremonial)." Cf. Dinkard VIII, Oh. VII § 3 where the 

sS-JQ-G J ty^-^C i- e - " tlie donation for the feast " of the Gahambar is spoken of. 

p. 5 5 1. 8 : *•« 'j /«+r j <MJ3**te b ^ Dr. West : " They learn this and it is 

the same for all." Here »m \j f* t as found in most MSS. should be corrected 
according to MS. F.S.M. (of Navsari Meherji Rana Library) into p**j j t \j s* z 
and then translated thus :— " They learn this as well as all manners and customs 
(as regards the Gahambar). 

XL p. 6, 1. 4 :— <&*J l£*> l u lyijf* bj &'** J>* (Kama Bohra). 

p. 8, 1. 17 : — o>««l t>Jii v^ Ijj (Nariinan Hoshang). 

p. 11, 1. 4 :— isJjS u^J l j^jj w't 4 ^ J<> (Dastur Barzoji). 

Dr. West :— (1) " Who was skilful in making it current in the 

world " ; but in (I) l r j seems to be an interpolation. Without this word, the 
translation would be : " Who had undertaken upon himself to make it current 
in the world." Or, according to BK., the sentence in (1) stands thus : — 

i.e., " The good had undertaken upon themselves to make the religion of Zartosht 
current in the world." In (3) l f fjj is the same as Pah. 'HX^Jr = current. 

XIL p. 6 5 1. 12 :— vlAlri ts^ 



6 

Dr. West :— " Secondarily, the cultivators." Better thus :— " The praise 
of the cultivators." 

p. 6, 1. 13. aJjU pk> ^^ tej(?<W)l,s [jlJjlJ 

Dr. West : — " Of tax-gatherers — in war they appear excited." 

Better thus : — " They are the keepers off (of those) who raise an insurrection 
with perverseness." 

XIII. p. 6, 1. 18 :— »wl^ 4 j Ijf cfi ? 

Dr. West : — " By the seven reports that they recite." 

Better thus :— They recite this (Nask) with seven (different) intonations, or 
with seven-fold voice." (cf. I.) 

XV. p. 7, 1. 2 :— jjJW i>jiyi,J o.«l (joLi w j| j 

West:— "And this is noble. Praise be to the Sacred Being, the Exalted." 

Better thus :— " And this (Nask) is especially (recited) for the praise of God, 
the Most High. 

XVI. p. 7, I. 3 :— Ifita. oajjf <j_jj.aj jt, j l^U y.K^l J( j 

Dr. West :— " About decrees as to riches, introducing inmates among out- 
siders." Better thus : — " About decrees as to merchandise and clearing (the goods) 
from the ware-houses." 

XVIII. p. 7. 1. 9 :— cjMj J& j f&j* ^jj (KamaBohra). 

^•k J l r$- J f»V [ly'J'jJ for] akljjji (Dastur B.arzu). 

Dr. West : — " Robbers of human beings and quadrupeds." 

Better thus :— " About the lives (or, souls) of men and animals." For this 
clause, the MS. BK. gives u Uj jl t o. _, yUy <yf &j& 00 j) 

P. 8, 1. 10 : <M%4< »j«ix. tyf A S &kijjj>-.)jj J} (»jW3- as given in MU. 
should be changed to fSjtlss* according to BK.) 

Dr. West :— " The five days of the Guardian Spirits which they call the select 
(Ar. Jisuo chosen, select). 

This word Mulchtara is taken by some for MuMad or MukWman, by which 
name the Parvardegan days are generally known. Instead of Sj lisle, the Rivayat 
MS. of Dastur Pramji Sorabji of the Navsari Meherji Rana Library (=MS. 
P.S.M.) substitutes 'JJ&* &~.*L i.e., " the stolen five days," i.e., the five days 
added at the end Of the year to make it consist of 365 days i.e., of a solar year. 

XXI. The last three lines of Nariman Hoshang's Rivayat (MU. I, p. 9, 11. 13-15) . 
about the Nasks may be better translated thus.: — ■ 

And the purpose of this being written is this that it. is known to these humble 
ones (i.e., the Iranian congregation) in this manner that these books are in this 



placet (i.e., in Iran) ; and it has been written by those devout ones (i.e., the Indian 
Parsis) in such manner that 3 ' among us, no one is able to read Pahlavi characters '; 
now the interpretation of these Nasks is in Pahlavi, and the Dastur who does not 
know the Pahlavi characters is not able to demonstrate the miracles of the religion 
and whatever there is in regard to the Zand (i.e., the commentary) of these Nasks 
has been (here) written. 

Contents of the Nasks. 
MU. I, pp. 2-13— A Hat of Errata. 
Page. Incorrect. Correct. 

p. 4 1. 5 jJa^Xw &y~> 

p. 4. 1. 13 iJL>H "-£.!>* _>J isls"'- u** <^i*S> 

p. 4. 1.15 tf*>. Ji> ji (j^jyij* (BK.) 

p. 5. 1. 1 &bjf*ijZ£ji'/j>'<J*eji &&£ *J j <-&¥ j A d> <J-**jt (F. S. M. & BK.) 
p. 5. 1.8 Ud *W* (BK.) 

„ „ 1. 11 (^Ulj **^l-» (BK.) 

„ „ 1. 16 j.#H j*J (F. S. M.) 

„ „ 1. 17 »j*W j£M (F. S. M.) 

,, „ 1. 19 *jjy°ki j f*; 1 * 3 j tJ** *Uj* '*• (*^* 3 J ^ £ (BK.) or 

ajj^c Uj *iU3 ^ Joe (p. s. M.) 

p. 5 1. 19 fi^y. W JI w J J (BK.) 

p. 6 1. 3 Aiijlw ^iiJUj 

„ ,, c«l lii^j 8i SiiSjf »i (BK.) 

p. 6 1. 11 (S l * le J '* £ J CS 1 * 1 " J 

p. 6 1. 12 jUj <jUj 

p. 6 1. 13 e>tf*3jf<ijjjk (illf^jbjlj 

p. 6 1. 16 (i> 1 *^ W £ 

,, „ /^ (i>l>^i5'j /- S; T ijo ^Ij ji (BK.) 

p. 7 1. 2 After ufil&j F. S. M. & BK. add :— 

p. 7 1. 2 y*-«> _/*•« 

„ „ 1. 4 ij *>■> ^^*i 

„ „ 1. 6 is'^ji j ls 1m j *£ 

„ „ 1. 7 j""*? BK. j.j i>3 for jJjaj 

.,, » h 1° UJJ j A ySjA 

1 Dr. West : " that these books are of those tendencies." 

2 West takes the whole para, from here to the end as the sayings of the Dasturs of India, 
but the context does not warrant us in assuming this. 



si jj 

35 J) 



Page. Incorrect. Correct. 

p. 7i. io y>f ^iij 

,, ,, 1. 11 o'*j.ixci oUyA 

,, ,, 1. 15 ISU^Ij ajIj s'SjU 

p. 8. I. 3 vi* Ji W* (BK.) 

p. 8 1. 10 tj Isuj ij &&*> 

» » !>*■ Lrf 

„ 1. 12 c^^-ilSa. j ^tjljl,} jji.ij jyt+ftjvj ej'_y*i,-} 

p. 9 1. 6 u*^ _j v-J'^J ^i-fc v* 1 * (F. S. M.) 

p. 9 1. 13 k- .3 '*ij j a v-J W fj a 

p. 9 1. 15 8,b gjlj 

p. 10 1. 5 ii>^*^ t>*«"J or it>**"Jjrf 

p. 10 1. 8 A+ c d*c or ^U* 

1. 10 v'-tf v'^ iyi' 

1. 17 u,'*^j t57 ( «J ( ^ »'*(i'.Jj 

p. 11 1. 1 0.& Jv= 

p. 11 1. 2 tJ^U Jji* ^,1* 

p. 111. 11 ttJ^fi jlj'j jD^WjId jlj 

p. 11 1. 12 lAi 1 * 5 (A l JJ ^jM cs'iij 

p. 11 1. 14 ^1(4/ j'ijij /.Wf *_/ it. j«j _, (BK.) 

p. 11 1. 15 «2«.'".3 j j c*»3j j j | 

p. 11 1. 15 ^ 'j* c I ^ o l_>=i*^ j i 

p. 11 1. 16 (j'f^*" ts44f*° 

p. 11 1. 18 »**, ii_/ 8ai, 

p. 12 1. 1 ^) ^**J 

p. 12 1. 5 /{J ^Jjjj j.j oJji for/JJ w>> (BK.) 

(see MU. II, p. 439 1. 1) 

p. 12 1. 6 vk^jj j& yf dji 

„ Is 7 **£ ^T j &i£ V-^-fj ^1" j 

„ „9 uixAj (.fer^l w«^ fKa.1 (BK.),butH.F.,F.S.M. 

lAj*?* f &»• I (see also Vol. II, 
p. 439 1, 5.) 

p. 12 1. 13 For *&*k (* l +J <$ itAJjS j>i iXJ ^ ^iiUj ^S^j _, ? j| 

BK. has :— (see also Vol. II, p. 439 11. 9-10) :— 



9 



Page. 


Incorrect. 


CWfirf. 


p. 12 1. 14 


ir-'u 


(A 


" J) 


cjIVp^I 


ol^:^*-* 


„ 1- 15 


li«jl 


U-aaJ t_£«-J 


[p. 12 1. 10 


/ijjjj »_,31« jjj^A. 


= »,Ue 2U j a a [j.e^a. 



BK] 

MU. I., p. 13, 11. 3-4. 
Division of the Nasks into three Groups; 

Bahman Punjya [and Shapur Bharuchi\— The contents of the 21 Nasks:— 
First, seven Nasks (pertain) to the religion ; seven Nasks (pertain) to medicine ;. 
and seven Nasks (pertain) to philosophy and astrology. 

MU. I, pp. 13-14 : H. F. ff, 394-95. 
The Number of Ahunavar to be recited on undertaking different Works* 

The measure or proportion of the Yafhd-ahu-vairyd. (From the Rivayet of 
Bahman Punjya) : — 

When a certain work is done, a Yatha-ahu-vairy6 is uttered a certain number 
of times. When (people) go to a certain place, they (first) recite the Yatha-ahu- 
vairyo a certain number of times and then proceed. It is enjoined to recite it on 
all (such) occasions and they are these :— * 

One Yatha-ahu-vairyo is to be recited at that time and moment when (people) 
go to any one place for business,! or when they return home 2 thence after regulating 3 
those works of theirs. At the time when one wants to speak to some one, or 4 , at 
the time when one undertakes work of any kind, or, at the time when one wishes 
to go to the king, 6 or, at the time when one wants to go in the presence of great 
men, or 4 , when one goes on the water or in a river, or, when one has to ask for a 
loan of some one, or, at the time 6 when one asks for the repayment of one's loan 
from any one, or, at the time when one goes out of the house, or, at the time when 
one goes into the house from outside, — on all such occasions, one Yatha-ahu-vairyd 
is to be recited. 

21 Yatha-ahu-vairyo 's are recited at the time 1 when wishes to go on a 
journey so that Behram Yazad may convey him in safety. 

When one invokes blessings on any one, one should (first) recite two Yatha- 
ahu-vairyo's and then one should pronounce blessings. One should recite six 
Yatha-ahu-vairyo's at the time when one commences offering battle to any one 
and (also) when one gets victory in the battle. 8 

i H.F. J^ tsi for MU. jfa. 

2 H.F. aS [ =J for MU. t5 t t 51 ^ 

3 H.F. 4*1** ; MU. ^iy> 

4 H.F. adds kj 

6 H.F. **"'■»• forMU. (*■"* 
e H.F. <**h <J; MU. w l -«_>jf 

i h.f. u^y^ j* forMu. cAyn j 

s H.F. (SJ -V** '"^ 3 1 for MU - iJJJJ-'J* 



10 

When they sow seeds into the ground, i.e., when they cultivate a field, i.e., 
when they practise husbandry, or, when they plant a new tree into the ground and 
whatever they do of a like nature— at such times 9 Yatha-ahu-vairyo's are to be 
recited and then tillage should be done. At the time when one is to cohabit with 
one's! wife, one should first recite 9 Yatha-ahu-vairyo's and then one should He down 
with her. When a conference is held with a maiden,. 11. Yatha-ahu-vairyo's are 
recited at the time. When one goes out to ask for a person's daughter (in mar- 
riage), or when one wishes to give one's offspring in marriage to any one, or when 
one wishes to contract some kind^ of relationship with any one— on such occasions 5 
11 Yatha-ahu-vairyo's are first to be uttered and then one may give one's offspring 
(in marriage) or, ask for (the offspring of another in marriage). 

At the time when people go for the purpose of celebrating the nuptials of their 
children, six Yatha-ahu-vairyo's are to be then recited. 

When one buys quadrupeds,* or, when one drives pegs into the ground for 
picketting them, 10 Yatha-ahu-vairyo's are to be recited. 

12 Yatha-ahu-vairyo's are to be recited, when one ascends^ a mountain, or 
goes to the top of a fortress, or mounts anything lofty, or walks on a bridge. When 
one goes down into a craven or into a trench 6 or goes below or beneath* the bottom 
part of a house— on such occasions also, 12 Yatha-ahu-vairyo's are (first) to be 
recited and then one should proceed further. 

At the time they (wish to) enter a city or a town, 13 Yatha-ahu-vairyo's are 
first recited and then they should proceed ; and at the time when they have entered 
that town or village, even then they should first recite 13 Yatha-ahu-vairyo's and 
then go along and walk hi the city or the village. 

At the time when one has lost one's way on the road, and does not find it out, 
then one should first recite 12 Yatha-ahu-vairyo's and one should then seek one's 
way. 

As for the Yatha-ahu-vairyo's whicb.8 are mentioned for every one (occasion) y 
on every (such) occasion one should first recite the Yatha-ahu-vairyo's and there- 
after put one's step forward, and undertake the work ; (because) the Creator 
Ormazd has given injunctions unto Zartosht that the Yatha-ahu-vairyo is the 
smiter of demons and the protector of the body. 9 

1 H.F. adds &J*- after U j 

2 f^jri^- lit., something. •'■ ■ 

3 H.F., <&3j U)'; MTJ. ujHj'JT _ v ; 

* h.f. &k [ i jW mu. i£ { i j}r* 

6 H.F. &>JJ for MU. u^J 

6 »-*J a trench ; a mine. _■, t 

? H.F. jij J JJ* toiM.XJ.jij Jj 3 .. 

8 H.F. adds ft after jljij Ji 1 ^' 

9 Of. Shapur Bharachi's Rivayat, which is nearly the same as this : MU. p. 14, 11. 11-18. Of, 

the following passages with the above : — 



11 



(a) Dinkard Vol. II, Book IX: pp. 787-88— Mr. Madon's edition :— " Here something is 
said about the power and victory of uttering' the. Yatha-ahuk-vairyok at the beginning oS 
actions : — 

One (is recited) when one wishes to say something (to any one). 

One, when one begs something (of any one), ; one, when one goes to work. _ , 

Two, when one wishes to confer blessings. Four, when one propitiates the ratus or chiefs 
in the Gahambar festival. Five, when (one wishes) to repel the drujas. Six, when (one asks} 
for power. Six, when (one wishes) for success in a battle. Seven, for the Yasna-service of the 
Amshaspands, when one wishes to offer the Yasna-service to the Amshaspands. Eight, when 
(it is) for the ceremonial of the frohdrs of the pious. Nine, when one wishes to sow seeds m tha 
ground. Ten, when one wishes the males (of animals) to have access (to the females). Eleven, 
when one goes in search of a wife (for himself). Twelve, when one desires to ascend a mountain, 
Thirteen, when one wishes to go to a town. Thirteen, when one has lost his way, or, whenona 
wishes to go by the -way of water." 

(6) Shayast-la-Shayast, Ch. 19. (See S. B. E. Vol- V, p.p. 390-93) :— 

viwjf . ixj^ ^ no _jW I _if"w -»U ho *z 7V^i7Wte (l) 
hwp neir^i e>-io_A^ no ow l^-vio ikjo* ■hjjo ew faf h )f W (2) 

lib -J -5-5 W 1 ] W J ^" ** l»wO ■** "^ 1WV1TO ^ v3ey> " ^ (S) 

?. -J w£ j^j W«* ^^jWi-H3 Vio <?£• r (4) 

tia -o-^o^o hnt -»i -fs^ -»\) ^ l«J|M| HR^i ^1 =1 if J __)-" ( 5 ) 

.\iin$e W IKJO ^ ((W^ iwir , - s » nn) ipuo '^ u ^» llf_J"_J B ( 7 ) 

i 

?;«DiMl IJ?H «$«> - B ^- D we ^i i^_r_j» (8) 

»:o janeS* hv iwn^ ■«! -up j» koiMi ineo^ 1-u^i 1 ^ rf ^J" _? -J". ( 9 ) 
.\noixn jhj -f 7 iwy- 5 irweoo^J" i»n«jo -omi ^-»^f -> no-"* -^ Mj^^f _J> 

.•., w ,„Hj i*a-Hs ^ uei ito-hj Si ikji^i iisbiwju jje'4 *> >£o ( 10 ) 

.*. iwiito ^^-V ji i^iitao iW3^ 7 trey i'o^v i W *i i£ 3 (11) 

1 Words in brackets are omitted in MSS., but they are necessary here. 

2 One MS. inserts this word. 



12 






.*. -111WJ 



.. -inw j -ujojj whom 



«j-u a ^k^ic fl -j^ A^ -j£ \m y J> ^k? nw-u ^woi A>r* w (15) 



(1) (About) the Yatha-ahu-vairyo's, i.e., how they are to be recited at every place and in 
performing anything. 

(2) One (is to be uttered by him) who goes forth to an assembly, or before great men and 
chiefs, or on any work ; or, when he goes to ask for his wants and also when ones work is accom- 
plished,— at every one of these situations, one is to be recited so that one's business may flourish 
more promptly. 

'(3) In order that a blessing may be more benedictory, two are uttered, for blessings are of 
two kinds, — one is that which is in the thought, and one is that which is in the word. 

(4) Four (are recited) for going to the Gahambar (ceremonial) more blessedly. 

(5) Five, when one goes to a tone for sins and for repelling the druja ; for punishment is to 
be undergone through the decisions of these five persons — the master of the house, of the 
village, of the town, of the district and the Zarathushtrotema, and one Ashem Vohu and five 
Ahunavars are to be recited by him at the end. 

(6) Six (are uttered by him) who goes to seek power and to the battle that he may be more 
successful. 

(7) Seven, when one goes to offer the Yasna-service to God ; the Amshaspands come more 
readily to this Yasna-service. 

(8) Eight by him who goes to offer the Yasna-service to the Arda Fravash (i.e., the frohars 
of the pious). 

(9) Nine, by him who goes to sow corn ; he utters these for this reason because corn ripens 
in nine months and because the noxious creatures do less mischief when the corn comes forward. 

(10) Ten, by him who goes to seek a wife so that the chances of this work may turn out 
fortunate. 

(11) Ten, by him who wishes to allow the males of beasts and cattle access (to females) 
so that it may be more procreative. 

..„ ( i 2) ^tT' ^ hi "\ wh ° ascends a hi S h m ™ntain so that the glory of the mountains and 
hills blesses him and is friendly to him. 

(13) Twelve, by him who goes to inner districts so that the glory of that district and 
country may bless him and be friendly to him. 

(14) Thirteen, by him who loses his way ; and he should utter them at the place ; or by him 
who passes over the bridge of a river so that the spirit of that water may bless him • because in 
the whole Avesta, the Yatha-ahu-vairyo is greater and more successful (than any other formula) 
as to all rivers, all cures and all protection. 



13 

MU. I. p. 15, 11. 1-6 : H.F., f. 76 (See MU. I., p. 482). 
Number of Ahunavars recited in the different Yasna-services. 

Kama Bohra': — Q. — How many Yatha-ahu-vairyos are to be recited in every 
Yasna-service ? 

A. — The Yatha-ahu-vairyos (to be recited) in the (various) Yasna -services are 

these :: ■...•, 

'7 Yatha-ahu-vairyos to be recited in (the Yasna of) No-navar. 
•5 „ „ „ „! Sarosh. 

2 „ „ „ „ i Siruze. 

4 „ „ ,, „ Gahambar. 

5 „ „ , . ij »i Visparad service with , the 

Kshnuman of Sarosh. 

4 „ ■ ' ,, „ ,, Visparad with the Khshnu- 

rnan of Gahambar. 

8 „ „ „ „ Visparad with the Khshnu- 

man of Ashoan (Arda- 
fravash). 

7 „ „ ',., ; , Visparad with the Khshnu- 

man of Vispesham days. 
12 „ ,, „ „ the Yasna of Rapithwan. 

7 .„ „ „ „ the Yasna for the Vis- 

pesham days. 

(15) The religion is so connected with the Yatha-ahu-vairyo as the hair is more connected 
with the glory of the face 2 ; of course, any one will be in dread (if he wishes) to separate the 
liairiness from the hands and faee.3 

•, itfJlltflJJ iK>)OOJj *\HJ $ m ii l£ WTICTI *)-U)V W \f Z\\'4 iS ^Ky (c) 

(Spiegel's Pah. Yasna 19 § 4) :— 

" Ahunvar is that spirit which propagates the religion and which religion is formed from the 
Ahunvar." . ', ' i . . ! 

■"Off if<j-«! ~> j o^jo<vj •Hsa* i m -j -Him jjo }yJ>t ^nhw (d) -., 

.(Madon's Dinkar-d : Vol. II, p. 789) : — - 

" The Yatha-ahuk-vairyok is the origin of religion ; and the formation of the Nasks 
is therefrom." ... 

(e) Cf. Yasht XXI, § 4 :— 

" O Zarathushtra ! the recital of this word of truth (viz., Aaha, i.e., Ashem Vohu) and 
the recital of the formula Ahuna Vairya increase strength and victory for one's soul and 
religion (or, conscience). 

Cf . Dr. Modi's " the Eeligious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsis," pp. 343-346. 

l o.«u2 Yasht in Pah. as in Persian used for Yasna or Yasht. 



2 or, as the hair (is connected) with the hand and face. 

3 or, with the face and hands ; or, from the glory of the face. There is no word for 
'from ' in the text. (CP^ samdt, from nWf^P {Of. Per. (*f" u to cause dread or fear. 



u 

MU. I., p. 15, 11. 7-8. 

Kamdin Shapur : — The Yatha-ahu-vairyos (to be recited in the different 
Yasnas) :— 

l'> J I. !, ' i. • I 

If it is (the Yasna of) Sarosh, 5. 
„ ,, Ashoan, 8. 

„ „ No-nabar, 7. 

In other Khshnumans of other days, also 7. 

MU. I., p. 15, 11. 10-11 ( = p. 483). 

Dastur Barzuji : — Q. — In every Yasna, how many Yatha-ahu-vairyos should 
be recited ? 

A. — In the Yasna of Nonabar and in the Yasna of the Siruze (i.e., 30 days), 7. 

In the Yasna of Siruze, 2 ; in the Yasna of Sarosh, 5 ; in the Yasna of Ga- 
hambar, 4 ; in the Yasna of the Prohars of Ashoan (i.e., the pious), 8 ; in the Yasna 
of Rapithwan, 12. ■ ,-i 

MU. I., p. 15, 11. 12-15 : H. P. 394 (see MU. I., p. 352). 

Bahman Punjya : — Details about every Khshnuman (of the Afringan) as to 
how many 1 Yatha ahu-vairyos are recited 3 (therein ) : — ■ 

4 Yatha-ahu-vairy6s in the Kshshnuman of the Afringan of Gahambar. 
2 „ „ Dahman. 

8 „ „ Ardafravash. 

and the Gathas, i.e., of the Panii. 3 

5 „ ,, Srosh. 
2 „ „ Siruze. 4 

12 „ ,, ,' .... , Rapithwan. 

7 „ „ are to be recited (in the Kshshnuman) of Hormazd-Khodai 

and all 6 other Amshaspands. 

MU. I., p. 15, 11. 17-19 = H. P. f. 221. 

Number of Ahunavars to be recited in place of various Avesta Prayers. 

Kamdin Shapur : — (If any one does not know the various Avestas to be recited 
in daily prayers, he should recite instead the number of Yathas as given below) :— 

Por Khurshid Nyaish, 103 Yatha-ahu-vairyos. 
„ Mah „ 65 

„ Sarosh Yasht . 103', „ '"„',,; 

„ Ormazd „ 103 „ „ and 10 Ashem Vohus. 

„ Ardibehesht „ 65 „ ..,.■. 



i H.F. a^t MU. (a'»% 

2 H.F. adds A*5l>i 

3 MU.has /■-» i5^J; H.F. only ^^ i.e., the 5 Gatha days. 
* H.F. has this statement about Siruze after that of Dahman. 
S'HF. adds' A* r ' "" 



15 

For Five Gahs ' 65 for each, 

„ Sarosh Hadokht Yasht 75 

MU. I., p. 16, 11. 1-8 = H.F. f. 390. 

Bahman Punjya .-— If any one does not know how to recite the Nyaishes, 
Yashts, every one of the 5 gahs and the patet, and if he recites Yatha-ahu-vairyos 
(in place of them) in accordance with this writing, then there is not the slightest 
doubt as regards this that he will attain to the merit of the (particular) Nyaish, 
Yasht, Patet, any one of the 5 gahs or the Afringan ceremony (which he wants 
to recite). , 

103 Yatha-ahu-vairy6s for Khurshid and Meher. 

Nyaishes (for each). ; 
im ■-.-:, for Arduisur Nyaish. 

R ~ for everyone of the 5 gahs. 

DO 5, jj 

103 js : and 10 Ashem Vohu for Ormazd Yasht. 

!-: for Ardibehesht Yasht. 



65 

75 



for Sarosh Hadokht. 



65 for Mah Nyaish. 

in*,- • " •■■> <•! for Sarosh Yasht (recited) in 

the Yasna. 
121 „ „•■■■• and 12 Ashem for Patet* 

12 i „ for every Afringan. 2 

Every one who acts in accordance with this (and 1 recites the) Yatha-ahu- 
vairyos, he will attain to the merit of them without doubt. 3 ' 

, MU. I., p. 16, 11. 10-11. 
From another Rivayat (i.e., Shapur Bhatruchi' s-see Vol. I, p. 326, and Vol. II, p. 463.) 
Yatha-ahu-vairy6s are not enjoined .to be recited in place of Nirang.Kusti, 
Khurshed and Meher Nyaishes, but Yatha-ahu-vairyos are enjoined to be recited 
in place of Ormazd Yasht and other Yashts.^ ■.,...., •, . 

1 Shapur Bharuchi gives the word A>y (penitence) for Patet. ...... ,, ■.-,; .. 

2 It can be deduced from this that a layman even can recite an Afringan if he knows how 
to perform its ritual. 

3 This list varies a little from that given by Kamdin Shapur (see above). _ 

iff. I)r. Modi's " Religious ceremonies and customs of the Parsees," pp. 342-343. 

4 As no Yathas are here laid down for recitation in place of the Nyaishes and smaller pieces 
of the Avesta which are daily recited by all, it can be inferred that the writer wanted to assert 
that simple daily forms of obligatory prayers like the Nyaishes must be recited either from 
memory or from a book. This practice of reciting the Yathas in place of various prayers is not 
now generally in vogue as it was, meant for those olden times when there was nothing, lite the 
Lead even of primary education among the Parsees, but now that every Parsee household 
JLeciates the benefits of education, any memW thereof can recite these prayers orally or from 
fhfbook Old men or women who were deprived of the advantages of educationm then- times, or 
! few members of the unlettered portion of -the community only who recite Yathas and Ashems 
1 *ow a-days for these prayers recite them, not as stated in the Rivayats, but according to their 
own whims and fancy. 



16 
Efficacy of the Ashem-vohn Prayer. 

MU. I., pp. 16-17 : H.F. ff, 131-32. 

From the Bivayats of Kama Bohra : Chapter 88 :— 

There is a time when they recite one Ashem Vohu and it is of as much merit. 
as of ten Ashem Vohus recited on other occasions.i There is a time when they 
recite one Ashem Vohu and it is of as much merit as of 100 Ashem Vohus recited 
on other occasions. There is a time when they recite one Ashem Vohu and it is 
of as much merit as of 1,000* Ashem Vohus on other occasions. There is a time- 
when they recite one Ashem Vohu and it is of as much merit as of 10,000 Ashom 
Vohus on other occasions. There is a time when they recite one Ashem Vohu. 
and it is of as much merit as of 100,000 Ashem Vohus. on other occasions. Them 
is a time when they recite one Ashem Vohu and it is of as much merit, preciousness- 
and greatness as the value of this world and whatever is there in this world.* Now, 
as for that one* Ashem Vohu whose rank and merit is compared to ten Ashem 
Vohus, it is what they recite when they wish to eat the bread. And as to that 
one Ashem Vohu which thou recitest after eating bread, it is of as much merit when 
thou recitest it 100 times on other occasions.5 And as to that one Ashem Vohu 
which they recite* and (then) go to bed?, it is of as much merit as if thou hast 
recited 1,000 Ashem Vohus on other occasions. 

As to that one Ashem Vohu which thou recitest and turnest from side to side 8 
(in bed), it is of as much merit as if thou hast recited 10,000 Ashem Vohus on other 
occasions. As to that one, Ashem Vohu which is recited at the time when thou 
wishest to get up from bed 9, it is of as much merit as if thou recitest 100,000 Ashem 
Vohus on other occasions. That one Ashem Vohu whose preciousness io and 
greatness and worth " is as much as this world and whatever is in it, is that which 
they recite at the time of the dissolution of life ; if he himself is not able to recite 
itia ( a t that time), it is necessary that friends and companions who may be present^ 
give for once an Ashem Vohu into the mouth of that" person whose soul departs. 



1 After this sentence which ends with &&& MU adds ten words from ^f***. upto , 
*HjH which are redundant. 2 MU. J l^ r 8 ,> H F. rightly omits « -i. 
3 HF. (yV* ViJ* f or MU- W^ Ji * HF. u£j y f f or MU. ij 
« This whole sentence is omitted in MU. HF. gives it thus : 

« MU. omits the sentence: upto here. HF.. gives it thus .:— *& Ij&J J y T j *U t i^j W T j 
'HF. ^ijforMU. Aiwpj j 

8 HF. (SJ^i Ji j-lfc> andMU. (j )^. j^, Ji 

9 MU. is* 1 *. A^i (i|UjJ,f ^lyi. ^Jji&J must be changed to <i£»» [ ^ ^,1^ jt 
■Ub t&J]jiu yUjjf yt^L'jl as given in HF. 

10 MU. ts****^ 1 andHF. is$**j] ^ « HF. omits j> after (s^U i betterj forjf 
12 MU. cj*JIj^ & HF. *%& is MU. »«. (j j*>U* ; HF. w-*(j j*>la. 

1* HF. omits (jf 



17 

For, if the Ashem Vohu is recited at that time, then if he be fit for hell, he 
becomes fit for Harnistan i ; if he is fit for Hamistan, he becomes fit for heaven, 
and if he be fit for heaven, he becomes fit for Garothman, and if he is fit for Garoth- 
man, he becomes fit for the Best Existence 3 ; and whatever (the grade) may be,' 
it becomes one step higher and therefore one should be on the look-out for (the 
performance of) this duty and good work, so that greatness and preciousness may 
reach the soul, and one should endeavour with all one's might to do this duty sa 
that one's place and rank may be better 3 . 



i HF. ^Jlw^j forMU. jyCw, 

2 ^.JlyL *£j Avesta, s^cya. -Gftexw!? and Pah. ,nKV 4VWH 

3 (a) Cf . Hadokht Nask fragment, or Yasht XXI §§ 1-17 : 

(1 ) What is the only word which contains the glorification of all the good things (of the world) 
and of all things having the germ of holiness 1 (2) Ahura Mazda replied : " The priase of Ashem 

(i e holiness) ". (3) He who praises Ashem, praises me, Ahura Mazda (6) What is 

that one (recital of the) praise of Ashem which is worth ten others in greatness, excellence and 

goodness ' (7) O holy Zarathushtra ! when a man eats and drinks and praises- 

Ashem,. . '. '. .' that one indeed (is worth ten). (8) What is the one praise of Ashem that is worth 
100 ? (9) . . When a man praises Ashem after drinking the pounded Haoma,* .... that one 
indeed (is worth a hundred). (10) What is that one praise of Ashem that is worth a thousand 
(11) If a man praises Ashem when rising up and turning on one side (in bed) goes to sleept that 
one is indeed (worth a thousand). (12) What is that praise of Ashem that is worth ten 
thousand ? . . (13) When a man waking up and rising from sleep praises Ashem, that one 18 
indeed worth ten thousand. 

(14) What is that praise of Ashem which is worth this region of Khanirath in greatness,, 
excellence and goodness ? (15) When a man praises Asha at the extreme end of his life ...... 

(16) What is that praise of Ashem which is worth all that is between the earth and the sky,— 
this earth, those lights and all the good things of holy germ, created by Mazda ? (17) It is that 
one which a man recites on renouncing evil thoughts, evil words and evil deeds.! 

(6) In one of the Ha's of the Baghan Yasht i.e., the 20th Ha of Yasna, the commentary o£ 
the Ashem Vohu formula is given, where it is said that this whole formula is the Word of God 
as is the Ahuna Vairya. 

(c) Cf. the following from the Shayest-la-Shayast : — 

.pure „»i n 4 f iS jj» km ftap>&»> i«rt -W-* l i TO ' 1ww V] •*'* ,,a ' ,,8 "i* 

(§ 14). When they lie down to sleep with the sacred shirt and bmti, then before going to 
bed they shall recite one Ashem Vohu and at every coming and going of the breath (i.e., inhaling 
and exhaling) it is a good work of three Sroshocharnams ; and if one dies on that day, he has (as. 
it were) performed a Patet (i.e., has renounced all sins). 

JBUrt^jgO-U iWfaf" -HJ-O-UIrO* 1 -fJlvA) \\0 )<©!$-» ^ ft 7ltf— = (Ch. 10. § 24.) 

.aneW m ,roirtfHi nh -"i 7 Wiwi nw-" ?f W W\$\» wh <?? :. \wjt 

* " after eating the bread " according to the Rivayats. 

•]• " Starting up from sleep and going to sleep again "; : — West. 

J i.e., the. Ashem recited in a Patet. The idea contained in §§ 16-17 is not found in the 

Rivayats, 

a 



18 

MU. I., p. 18, 11. 4-7. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — If one recites an Ashem 'Vohu with one's own tongue 
at the time of death, one obtains the merit of the whole world, and it reaches 
that person who recites it at the time of death. If that person is fit for hell, he 
becomes fit for Haniistan, i.e., on the recital of one Ashem Vohu, he attains to one 
step forward (from his alloted place). The merit 1 of (the recital of) Ashem Vohu 
lasts for a day, i.e., it lasts from the time one recites it to the same point of time 
on the next day ; and if a person dies during the day when he had recited the 
Ashem Vohu, then let it be known that he attains to one step more towards heaven. 

MU. I., p. 19, 1. 19 to p. 21, 11. 1-12. 

A Commentary on the Ashem-VoSiu formula. 

Ashem is what men themselves do and teach (other) men to practice. What 
is Ashem ? Ashem is righteousness. 

Who utters Ashem ? That man utters it who has acquired the way of Sapina 
Mino and has left off the path of Gana-Mino. . 

Now, what are the ways of Sapina-Mmo and the ways of Gana-Mino ? The 
way of Sapina -Mino is the wish 2 of Ormazd and it is the bright and fearless heaven 
and in like manner (it leads to) more fearless paths. The way of Gana-Mino is the 
wish of Ahriman and the demons and it is (full of) stench and gloom and in like 
manner (it leads to) more stinking (and fearful) 3 ways. It is evident from the 
pure religion of the Mazdayasnians that a merit (would be acquired) by good deeds, 
arid it is evident from the good Mazdayasnian religion that a sin (would arise) from 
eriminahty. In the religion, it is enjoined that every one ought to do what is 
manifest from the religion. I have said this so that you may understand it, accept 
jt, learn it and make it current in the world. 

What is Vohu ? Vohu is goodness. 

Who utters Vohu 1 That person utters Vohu who is called the pious* Zara- 
thushtrotum, and the pious 5 Zarathushtrotum is he who has the Avesta and the 
Zend by heart, 6 and sits down in company of the good and eats with the good 
and keeps himself afar and preserves separation from the vile so that whatever 
he utters is (of the merit of) a Yasna and whatever he eats is (of the merit of) 
a Myazd ceremony, 



(| 24) ;— One is this that when one lies down to sleep (khuftashn) with virtue and innocence, 
one Ashem Vohu is to be uttered. When he is awake,* he is to do so likewise ; and (then) for 
every single drawing of the breath there is a good work of three Sroshocharnams which is equiva- 
lent to ten jujans (i.e., clirhams), (and one jujan) is of the full weight of 4 maz. f 

Cf. Dr. Modi's Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees, pp. 348-49. 

1 lit., the dignity, 
-g ^ as in MU, p, 21, 1. 17 ; or j\g work. 3 F,S,M. adds Ji ^Jj 

* pr& Pah. &U-U B ^*ij for \3*T*> 
" narm : lit., soft, easy. 



* (gjiii— fgjilj) (Virat) — Per. jIaaJ 

f Mad = Maz is the Huzvaresh for 5ro (dang) which is equal to J of a dirliam (See 
Pah. Paz. -Glossary, p. 21). 



19 

What is Yahishtem ? It is what is nobler and higher.- 

Who utters Vahishtem ? He utters Vahistem who possesses these three 
thmgs—humata, hukta, hvarshta, and leaves off these three things— dushnata, 
dushlmhhta, duevarshta ? 

What are these hwmata, hulchta, hvarshta and what are these dushnata, 
dushhukhta and duzvarshta ? 

Bumal is good intention, that whereby they are steadfast on the religion; 
HuJcht is good speech and it is intercession 1 for the pious. HvarsH is a good deed, 
{e.g.) they must keep well and in proper order water and fire and observe precau- 
tions for them (so that they may not be polluted) and (should show) perfect humi- 
lity towards the creatures 2 of Ormazd, i.e., he is perfectly humble, who does not 
do to any one what he does not like to be done to himself. 

(What is) dushmat ? It is this : Those who are most ignorant of the religion 
— who do not rely on it. Dush-huJcht is this : To cause affliction to those who 
are pious, to ridicide them, to rob them of their things and strike them. Dushvarsht 
is unfaithfulness i.e., they do not take proper precautions 3 for water and fire and 
do not keep them well 4 so that the whole creation 5 of Ormazd is scorned 6 by him 
i.e., it is afflicted. What is arrogance (or, not submitting to authority) ? Not 
submitting to authority is this that one does unto others what one oneself does not 
like. 

What is Asti ? It is lending one's ears 7 to any one. 

Who utters Asti ? 8 That person utters asti, who listens 9 to what the good 10 
say and counsels for what is better 1 ! an d -who has his thoughts, words and deeds 
set right with the good. Whatever he knows of, he says : ' I do not know it.' 
Whatever he does, he does well and he tells everyone to practice beneficence, 
charity and generosity because munificence and charity are the best of all deeds. 

What is ushta. Ushta is fearlessness. 12 

[Who utters Ushta 1 That person utters ushtd] 13 who has nothing to fear 
from his behaviour in this world and from bad and wicked men and the vile, and 
in the other world from Ahriman and the demons and whatever resembles them. 



1 ^jii^ia. Pah. -Hjj^KX) 

2 ^j|i for -»l,i (See the Pahlavi version given below). 

3 o'ijhjp far AJjA r ^3 * yljf for V* 6 * B f- lli for f'- 5 

b .jlo-f This is a curious mistake. Pali, version has wy^y which can be transcribed 
&&c 3 the first part whereof is read jf so that ^i/ojf means greedy, covetous. That tha 
word before the transcriber was tarminet and not dzmand is clear from this that the very next 
question is about ^» ->' as opposed to ^^ **H 

7 The text has (sJ^J^ duty or industry— which is corrupted from Pah. -Hi -JW^yi 
(See below and also the Pah. version). 

8 *tj A tfi-tl om. in MTT., but F.S.M. has it. 9 *&£ iot ^ 5 - 10 W- for u\>. 
U Omit air after &»/( . ^ MU. ^J— better F.S.M. y*^ uH n om - in MU '» but 

see the Pah. version. 



20 

What is ahmai ? Ahmai is union 1 with men in this world. 

Who utters ahmai ? That person utters aJimdi who is devoid of trouble.- 
Being devoid of trouble is this that he who is an inferior contracts friendship 3 
with the superiors and the chiefs, 3 and be contended with what God has given him 
as daily bread. Whatever he eats and possesses must be done with moderation ; 
and when he disengages himself from the (required) quantity, 4 that is, if there is 
any excess, he should give it to the good and the worthy, so that whatever he 
utters may be like the Yasna and whatever he eats may be like the Myazd ceremony ; 
and (it would be like) the wealth (acquired) for one's body 5 and for one's soul, 
because if one keeps away (this wealth) for the body from the body and for the 
soul, away from the soul, he cannot pass the Chinvat Bridge. 

What is hyad ? Hyad is sovereignty. 

Who utters hyad 1 That person utters hyad who sustains the sovereignty 
of the king for the spread of the religion and acquires wealth for the assistance of 
the king of the world, who is beneficent in this world and who takes things from 
men (in the shape of taxes) as much as he wants ; moreover, he does not molest his 
own body, and keeps away punishment from his soul, and keeps men fearless. This 
much is permissible for him in 6 the good religion. 

What is ashdi ? Ashdi is charity. 

Who utters ashdi ? That person utters ashdi who converses with the generous 
and radiant Ormazd. Generous is he whose house the good often frequent ; he 
serves them and keeps them well as best he can and is charitable. Radiant is he 
who goes to the good and carries them to his house, folds his arms 7 before them 
and says : " Drink the nectar with goodness, and five with joy and delight," and 
they return (home) again with comfort and joy. 

What is vahishtdi ? Vahishtdi is paradise. 

Who utters vahishtdi 1 He utters vahishtdi who keeps his thoughts, words 
and deeds set right with the good and with ail the people of the world and observes 
the religious laws with the permission of the Dasturs. He should not be at variance 8 
with any and it is necessary that he should be 9 pure and clean. 1 " 

1 l+j| a corrupt transcription of Pah. *bf (hamih). 

2 aixS jlj F.S.M. gives c*i.x£ jh ^ con f rmity w ith the Pah. text, meaning 'labour 
for'— Cf. (Jl.S'jtJ a day-labourer. 3 yl^ Mi., old. * Or, moderation. 

5 Om. j^i after ^Ulj^-' °MU. _jj— F.S.M. ^ 

7 MU. i*i* jjmSiT o*oi — better F.S.M. bj& <Jr&* o.«i 

8 ^X&iMjji ut., evil minded. 9 i y. j$ ^M for iyi /S AiS 
10 See MU. p. 21, 11. 13-19 to p. 22, 11. 1-2 and Cf. the following original :— 

A Pallia vi Commentary 

ON 

The. Ashem Vohu. 
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r^nyo Wo i«X))pj J o ->ir£ Mir •*i J " -Sia* IWJJ** 1^°^ ^G ^_u|>ei*> J -c-J ff 



21 



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22 



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23 

MU. I, pp. 21-22 : HF. f. 378. 
On the Ashem-vohu. 

[Prom the Rivayet of Maneck Changa] : — 

Ashem vohu vahislitem i.e., Righteousness, virtue and good things. The hoard, 
i.e., of duties and good works, is most excellent and superior. Asti ushtd asti ushtd 
aJimdi hyad ashdi, i.e., it is virtue and virtue is this, that is, it is abstinence (from 
vice). It is most excellent and superior. Ashem is that which makes one righte- 
ous, i What is that which makes one righteous ? That which makes one righteous 
is what one practises oneself and teaches men righteousness. 

What is Ashem ? Ashem 2 is righteousness. 3 

Who utters Ashem ? That person utters Ashem who has acquired the way 
of Sapena-minu and has left off the path of Gana-minu. Now, what are the ways 
of Sapena-minu and what are the ways of Gana-minu ? The path of Sapena-minu 
is the wish of Ormazd and it is the bright and fearless heaven and in like manner, 
(it leads to) more fearless paths. The path of Gana-minu is the wish of Ahriman 
and the demons and it is stench and gloom, and in like manner (it leads to) ways 
more stinking. It is evident from the pure religion of the Mazdayasnians that a 
merit (is acquired) by meritorious deeds ; and it is evident from the good Maz- 
dayasnian religion that a sin (would accrue) from criminality. In the religion 
it is enjoined that every one ought to do what 4 is manifest from the religion. I 5 
have said this so that you may understand it, accept it, learn it and make it current 
in the world. 

A part of the commentary of Ashem Vohu is written (here) ; let it be known 
that the rest of it is abbreviated. 6 

MU. I, p. 22, 11. 18-19 to p. 23, 11. 1-2 = HF. f. 253. 

The Kusti or Sacred Thread Girdle. 

Kamdin Shapur : — When Behdins come of age, they should tie on the kusti 
on the waist, for kusti is the girdling of the waist 7 for religion ; for if they do not 
tie it on the waist, they will not be regarded as the slaves of Ormazd. Moreover 
if they proceeded three steps without kusti, there is a farman sin for every step and 
if they proceed four steps without kusti, it is a tanfivirS which is equivalent 



j\f> .MieiiH! i£jVJjW -npf W _J?^f -wku w itoii^ i Mo itoj? iMfl irov-G 

* This Pahlavi commentary on the Ashem-Vohu from which the Persian version seems 
to have been done is here given from two MSS., one belonging to the Mulla Feeroze Library 
and the other, to the Navsari Meherji Bana Library. 

1 J |A *J urt"" 1 — " Pah - ^-"iOtOOi-^'ty 2 (*»"l om. inMU. 3 tf ^| and ^jjAf 

mean righteousness. 
4 MU &jS aAi fi— better H. F. i,J 0.1 L J\ 6 Better H.F. ^ for MU. ^j 
6 For the full commentary of Ashem, See MU. I, pp. 19-21. 
1 ^t^hj*^— readiness for service, s MU Mfij j-jI'^J I— better H. F. ^.j.liJ 



24 

to 1200 dirams. But if they keep the kusti on the waist and engage themselves in 
thinking good thoughts, speaking good words and doing good deeds, then for every 
step there will be a merit of a far man. 

Q. — When a child attains to 15 years, he should tie on a new kusti and wash 
his head with the Bareshnum (ceremony). 1 

1 The reason for tying on the kusti is thus given in Dadistan, Ch. 19 : — 

It is said that Jamshed was the first person who told men to put on the leusti, as a sign 
of God's service ; because he himself was deluded by the Devs and repented for his transgres- 
sions by wearing the kusti and ordering men to put it on (§ 18) : — 

i.e., a belt worn on the waist is ordered for men by him. 
Zarathushtra, when he reformed the religion, retained this custom : — ■ 

*ns-i» IKK) -> iS^HS A>wa^ iiRio-t) i«JO-t> ikjo-uir^-^ ipywo- 53 m^A £ e^o-sei 

a>£H _) 5J Jaev m IJ^'a ■'Oojioi 3Jihj jiho ajixs $* ikj ^o-hj no -J -Hsj^jirej-u -w 

i.e., as before the advent of Zartosht, the kusti was worn, so after (the advent of) God's 
messenger, the holy and good Zartosht who gave injunctions about the commands of the 
spirits and the exposition of the religion and about the praising of the word of God, viz., the 
Avesta, and about steadfastness in the good religion, the same religious girdle is tied round 
the body with (the recitation of) religious formulas over the garment of Vohuman (i.e., the 
Sadrah) — § 19. Tying the leusti is submission to the will of God. Cf. Dd. §§ 20, 23 : — 

^Wi-ufi J-usw -hj^Jj -5JJVJI !xj Jiyai wAj f -"oo^o-"^ nwraW ipV#* (20) 

.*. 3llK3 ^kb^ ipooo 
jO^a -i ^_DrV -^.wtij -O-JJJ] -) fv-Hj ) -HJ^-Mij iftJO IrXXJil £ ^Kttl^ (23) 

M? rtf^ -"O-^ l '•» )>o ^-uRuev Jifp^ -> jJ At Sm .jjxj j jj no .\k>jj -vrt-v 

. r . hsmvo 

(20) Countless people, observing the proper rules, wear this proper and ceremonious belt of 
religion — which is the indicator of service to the Creator — on the middle of the body ; thereby 
the power of demons is more shattered, the way to sin becomes more obstructed and the 
will of the demons greatly lessened. (23) leusti is the sign of God and a token of the end of 
ein and a presage of the removal of destruction. One should tie it on near the heart on the 
middle of the body with (the recitation of) religious formulas of the glorious Avesta. 

Cf. Sis. IV. §§ 9-10. 

■•erXWr 1 ITO-JJ^ -J '-O-BII •WCV-JJjr' <?X>OI ■•DR5-U 3_ujd_j,__ju _j -J) ,gOJ) ) -JJjji (9) 

nei -> rdo -j £0_r -ft ■H3TO^£jC #kkji -> -o-u)) (10) iwjiw ^m_y_^ « 4 



25 

MU. I, p. 23, 11. 3-4 and II. 8-9. 

Maneck Ohanga : and Jasa. It is not the way 1 of religion that women tie the 
kusti (and keep it) on the waist for the least (period). When a woman or a man 
attains to 14 years, it is necessary for, and incumbent on, them that they should 
keep the kusti tied on the waist. 

MU. I, p. 23, 1. 6. 

Nariman Hoshang : — Q. — A woman keeps the kusti (tied on the waist) at the 
time of her marriage and after the marriage (ceremony is over), she unties it; 
(What ia the decision about it ?) 

A. — Keeping it tied on is best, untying it is not proper. 2 

MU. I, p. 29, 11. 5-8. 

Kaus Kamdin : — Q. — Who can weave the kusti ? 

A. — The weaving of the kusti is the occupation of the Dasturs and Hirbads* 



i.e., A man or a woman, until 15 years of age, does not commit the sin of running about 
uncovered (i.e., without Sudreh and Kusti) and the sin of drdydn-juyeshnih* (i.e., of unseason- 
able chatter) arises after 15 years. The sin of running about uncovered as far as 3 steps is ft 
farman each step ; at the 4th, it is a tanafur sin. 

* i.e., the punishment incurred for the sin of drdydn-juyeshnih (i,e., talking while eating;, 
praying, &c.) is the same for the sin of walking without Sudreh-Kusti^ 

Cf. Sis. X § 13 :— , 



* i£ -Di} vs. \w\$» ?£i J *f <°po t£ *» I-"** WS^dLJr VS ft W (13)" 

J J 1 J IP ff K ^W tf WOlr*-"-** &W *»«»$ -» -J°*° J *r -»JJ -J" ™ ...Jgl 

One is this that it is evident from the Dubasrujid Nask wherein the- year and the day (for 
Navzudi.e., investiture with Sudreh-Kusti) are mentioned that for every one who being one day- 
more than 14 years and 3 months puts on kusti, it is so much better than whom he-ties OB* 
kusti at the 15th year. 

Cf. Dr. Modi's " Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees," pp. 179-180; 

1MU w j a i I j— better F.S.M. 0~*i W Ji IS I; (See-1. 8). 

2 This question throws some light on the Parsee women of some towns- of Gujarat'. When; 
as revealed in the question, some women did away with the kusti and did not know the merit 
of wearing it— a custom handed down from times immemorial-then about other matters- 
pertaining to religion, their knowledge must have been at the lowest ebb*, which can be better- 
imagined than described. 

.xi i£ as explained in one Rivayat is the time of the tying of the marriage-knot as well- 
as the" time of the performance of ceremonials, like the Yasna, the Gahambar, the Rapithwin &c. 
If the latter sense is accepted then it is meant here that women- put on the kusU- at the tune, 
of the performance of ceremonies. 

3 i e., of their womenfolk. Upto a few years ago, it was a- custom in Naysari and' other- 
towns of Gujarat that kusti should be. woven only by the females.of the priestly class ; and when, 
the females of the laity began to weave the kusti a- few years ago in Navsari, a great uproar 
was crTatd by the priestly class and for a time, the former were dissuaded from weaving the* 
I^ as they were told tli it was enjoined by religion that it was the occupation^ the-pnests- 
only ; but this custom has now fallen in abeyance. <! 



26 

a.— How should the husti we tie on be woven ? Should it be woven of 72 
filaments ? 

A.— From the religion and its prescriptions and from what has reached us of 
the laws of the ancients and the Poriodakeshans, we have no doubt or suspicion 

that there should be 72 filaments thereof i 

: 

MU. L, p. 29, 11. 9-10. 
Dastur Barzoji :— Kusti made of black wool will not do 2 

MU. I., pp. 29-30. 
Investiture with Sudreh and KustL 

The law about the investiture with new Sudreh and Kusti i.e., an account of 
the investiture with Sudreh and Kusti, as the practice thereof is in India (By Darab 
Hormazdyar). 

This account of the investiture is in conformity with the practice observed 
up till now, but the following points should be noted :— 

i.e., the child should be 7 years and 3 months old. One older than this will do 
but not younger. 



1 Cf. Dinkard Bk. VIII :— 

Dank. Book VIII, Vol. XVI, pp. 19-20. 

wjjjj f {£ w 50--00 ,w £ is Ait€«^ t ^a^o 44 (Ch,'2|,'§ 15). 

About the Sudreh and Kusti : from what it ie proper to make them and whatever is on the 
same subject. 

-ol-l>n^ W 5 $ -SJ-U s$\ \\VW) JJ«UV) -> jm 44 (Ch. 37, §§ 2.5-26). 

About the mode of making the kusti and the harm to the soul from an unusual formation. 

From such passages in the Dinkard, we learn that complete instructions about the weaving 
of kusti were given in Husparum Nash, but they are now no longer extant. 

For Sudreh and Kusti, See Dr. Modi's " Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees " 
pp. 178-196. ' 

2 Cf. Nirangistan (ff. 163b-164a) :— 

ju <?at -uwow ->£ I #oet -u^ #jb (Syt^j £oe> ne^oo jb tyf jf 4\> $ ss^y 

i.e., Kusti may be made from the following, things :— wool and hair of the woolly goat or 
the woolly camel. Soshyos said that that made from cotton is also allowed. As regards raw 
silk ( 'ji ) and prepared silk, they have been divided in opinions. 

Cf. Sis. Ch. IV. § 1 :— 

$ ) iKj-hx! #ca -u^ ngca v#oo e^^j hOixj ■& lWi^tya v\% -i\$a w_u iWty 

i.e., Kusti made of silk is not proper ; the hair of a hairy goat and hairy camel and the hair 
from the ram is proper. 

3 MU. tfjbj —better P.S.M. g^j Ijj 



27 

<" tiirO-5 1 V^**:) i$**i! W>sy ujlis'T v->'^ <^iy (j.jj (2) 
i.e. The face of the child should be turned towards the Sun i.e., to the west in the 
Uziran-gah (i.e., the Navjot ceremony was performed in the Uziran-gah also in 
the time of Darab). 

(3) After vidhvdo,-mraotu (i.e., after finishing the Khshnuman of Dadar 
Hormazd), the Nirang-Kusti should be at once recited, (and not the introductory 
portion of the Hormazd Yasht, beginning with Peresat. Zaratlmshtro, as some 
priests do here). 

0)&j$ jjj Uj (j^Ufj ,j&ji ^j (4) 

i.e., the child should perform Hama-zor with the whole (congregation) — a practice 
not now observed. 

MU. I., p. 32, 11. 4-7. 

....■..•. 

The Kusti — contd. 
Kaus Kamdin : — Q. — At the time when a person ties on* the Kusti anew, and 
bows to the sun* 5 and if other persons (cross him in any direction) in the midst of 
tying it on and of bowing (to the sun or light) 3 — (what is then the decision about it ?) 

A. — At the time of tying on the Kusti (anew) and bowing (to the sun or any 
light) 2 , if one comes or goes (crossing him) from before or behind, or, in the right 
or left (direction) or above or below him,* and if one crosses in front of him at a 
distance of 100 steps, or, on the right hand side of him at a distance of 30 steps, or, 
on the left hand side at a distance of 30 steps, or from behind his back at a dis- 
tance of 10 steps, then (the performance of the rite of tying on the Kusti) is 
not interrupted. • •': 

If a person ties on the Kusti anew and (another person) crosses him on the 
floor above him, or on the ground-floor 5 and if this person is not seen by him, then 
It is allowable (to tie on the Kusti without interruption), but if he is. seen (by the 
person tying on the Kusti), then they should act according to the estimate indicated 
above. 

MU. I., p. 32, 11. 9-10 : H.F. f . 208. 

From the Bivayet of Kamdin Shapur : — If one is re-tying the Kusti, and if 
another person crosses within three steps of one, then one should re-tie the Kusti 

1 MU. &o+y. — better F.S.M. yLj or, E. 60 y^y ; See the Pdsdkh, which rightly gives 

2 The Kusti, when taken off, is tied anew facing the sun by day (or a lamp or the moon 
by night). 

3 For ^ ,£ (jlj UJ yf jti & which seems to be incomplete, as given in MU. it should be 
better thus, as given in F.S.M. : — 

U^y cA>lj;J j cyiy jy**""^ jyli* ji (jUs j£j£, 

* i.e., if the person is tying on the Kusti on the ground-floor and some one crosses him 
on the floor above, or if the person ties on the Kusti on the floor above and some one crosses 
him on the ground-floor. 

8 ji\ , J|ta lit., above & below (See note above). 



28 

afresh. 1 If a Hirbad is to consecrate Darun (and if he is patting on Kusti) then 
another person must keep six steps away from him, i.e., three more steps. 2 

MU. I, p. 32, 1. 10 : H.F. f. 214. 

If (while tying on) the Kusti 3 at night, there is no lamp, then it is proper to 
turn one's face towards the south, while tying it on. (Turning) towards that side, 
the Kusti is allowed 4 (to be tied on). 

MU. I, p. 32, 11. 11-13 : H.F. f. 255. 

On tying 6 on the Kusti : Kamdin (Shapur) so represented (to us) that it was 
not known where to turn one's face (at night) while tying on the Kusti. It is so 
manifest in the good 8 religion that if, at night, fire 7 is before one, then one should 
turn towards the fire ; if fire is not there, then one should turn towards the moon ; 
if even 8 the moon is not seen, then one should turn towards the Rapithwin i.e. , 
the south. When 9 it is dawn one should turn towards the direction of the rising 
of the sun. 10 

MU. I, p. 32, 1. 15 : H.F. f. 209. 

Kamdin Shapur : — The Kusti which is tied on the waist must be tied on it 
above a white garment (i.e., Sudreh). 

The Kusti should be tied on the surface of a white garment. A coloured 
garment will not do. The under-garment (i.e., the Sudreh) which is coloured is 
not proper according to the religion. 

MU. I, p. 32, 11. 17-19 to p. 33, 11. 1,8 and p. 34, 11. 3-7= H.F. f. 112, 

f. 149. 

Kama Bohra [and not NarimanHoshang] ; and Kaus Kama and Kama Bohr a : — 

Q. — A man who recites Vdj or consecrates damn has his kusti not in proper order 
and the sacred-shirt under the kusti is also not fit." What is the decision ! 



1 i.e., he must recite the ceremony of putting on the Kusti from the beginning. 

2 i.e., in addition to the three steps mentioned above in the case of an ordinary person. 
S H. F. prefixes .J^f to !_«..£ 

4 Both H. F., MU., c*~ T for , a^djj (So F.S.M.). 

For ^l^i T. 31 and T. 33 both have j3{»j.is>.u> j / =p a h. -Oi)K» <£;): hence, the 

trans, is: 'where there is Satvis ' (i.e., the star of the southern direction) which tallies with 
i nimtuz ' i.e., the south of the text. (Gf. Sis. Ch. XIV § 3). 

5 yjAytyl or yilj^l —Pah. use/So"- 

6H. F. om. /.J ■' - 

I e.g., a lamp. 

»H. F. *, for MU. _>J.i . , 

9 H. F. rightly adds ^a. after jjy.*u „ 

1° i.e., the east. ■■ , ■{■■ , 

II For o^a read ^ c*«ji (so F.S.M. See p. 33, 1. 10). 



29 

A. — The kusti of one who performs the Yasna-service should be such that 
no filament thereof should be left untwisted 1 , and the shirt beneath the kusti 
i.e., the nimak 2 (or Sadra) should also be in proper order, so that there may be no 
doubt about it. If one consecrates the darun and if 1£ filaments 1 of his kusti 
have been left untwisted, it may even then be used. The nimak (i.e., the sacred 
shirt) should also be in proper order 3 ; and if, out of helplessness, a little bit o^ 
one side of the gink-ban* (i.e., the collar) of the sacred shirt (zir-kusti) is torn, it 
will be of use, if it is mended again. If one who is to consecrate a bdj has his kusti 
(sacred thread-girdle) or nimak (sacred shirt) not in the proper order, it is not 
proper that he alone 6 (can take the baj) 8 . 

He can take the baj from a person? who has the greater khub; s but it is proper 
that he (i.e., the priest who has his kusti or sudra not in proper order) takes the 
vaj 9 in conjunction with another person who has his kusti and nimak in proper 
order. 10 

1 See note below ( jdji a twisted thread). 

2 h&+£J or (JUJ Cf. Pah. ^j Per. ^+£3 a short under -garment (Steingass). 

3 For o..u»(j ji read v£**»,^ 

4 For w U<o orH. F. ,JU* read ylMjS (Kaiis Kama, p. 33, 1.6). 

5 MU. IjJkJ. The words ajliu* jtj are understood. 

6 For reciting the Baj in conjunction with a fully-qualified priest with the greater Khub 
(who must have his sudreh and kusti in proper order), see Dr. Modi's " Beligious Ceremonies 
and Customs of the Parsees," pp. 371-372. 

7 15"*'*' j' (Kama Bohra, and not NaT. Hosh.) — better ^i" j| (Kaus Kama, p. 33, 1. 7. 

8 MU. <_a,&j for ( »,£i : j_ / ju ) |jjj oAj (See, for explanation, MU. II., p. 26, 1. 4 and 
p. 144, 11. 13-14). 

9 For the explanation of this bdj, see Modi, and the note above. 

10 In this Rivayat, and similar ones, the sudreh is called nimak (cf . Per. />*iJ) or S~.f j • 
<Le., the garment underneath the kusti or Wr \j.xi the sacred shirt. It is also called JLi" ±j.x * 

i.e., (garment) underneath the kusti. cf. Pah. sJRtt^ 1 4ie*o . . i n Dd. ch. 39 S 1 the 

sacred shirt is called yK f^O pirdhan and S^KBi aff) and in Vendidad and Nirangistan, 

it is also called ^ifHJP 

About the sudreh which should be in proper order and about a flawless kusti, the following 
passages may be compared : — 

Dadistan : ch. 39 § 1 : — 

Ik? i)WJi cs^n wsy ^xr -> j-vvKr -j ^is -j now itemy no iwjj ^«x>t 

•vstfa iw wet voei .\ •£)(&>>» -j *5 tte j ou*e>rt -> Aw -j s5 f ^ £ ,?i<y j #, 

:. \a\v_y -j v)-uv_)> j ncoiy _» 

i.e. It is necessary that (the shirt) should be proper, white, pure, of one fold, made of one 
(substance) only, just as Vohuman is also the one (i.e., the first) creature of Ormazd (i.e., who 
was first created) ; afterwards the innermost garment is called after him and the good men of 
the religion put it on properly, singly and with one fold. 



30 

MU. I, p. 33, 11. 10-16 : H.F. f. 93. 

Kama Bohra : If the shib-kusti i.e., the shirt which is (worn) under the kusti 
is not in the proper or suitable order, and if one (with such a shirt i.e., sudreh on) 

Cf. Sis. IV. §§ 4-8 :— 

^"0- ivf* if J"^ ^o -J) »*&3 i? m»v) ueutf (f $>»a }ex5>» -«ei-Hj -J iruw» -uj^-u (5) 
,wl| ,«>-u w \iv?_j <?$ Ji>wei , Ji>r^ -Jia^p (6) .\e»» ,K3-H30 nw^j ^ -hs^ 
,W3,^,^-i vetpi lKwtfj) jjv) }Jei re^ei ^ivic jjjjb-v <?T (7) .\ ,«mi ^ \ W ms> 
»«Srt ) iw^»* (erfroj. *a^ <?$ (8) .-. ,kj*oo ,<e,^ rwj ^ ^Woll * ji 

•'•'}}J lt,-0-"tl ->J -HJTO^JlJ'f' ^KH5| -H3KJ-U Wl^-o W ii ^ 

i.e., (4) Cloth of thick brocade, and girdle of silk are not fit for wearing ; cloth of hide when 
the hah is stripped of it, of wool, of hair, of cotton, of washed silk and of vegetable fibres (lit. 
of wood) is proper for the shirt. 

(5) Four finger-breadths of the shirt is the measure of its width, from side to side as well 
as from the neck to the skirt, the length from before and behind should be as much as is proper 
to put on. (6) The length as well as the breadth should be uniform. If (the shirt) is made 
of two folds, or if it is torn, it is not proper. (7) When a shirt of one fold is put on and the 
skirts fit (lit., are worn) on both sides, and if the hustih is tied over it, it is proper. (8) When 
two shirts are put on and if they tie hustih over it, the sin of vashat-dubarashnih (i.e., running 
about uncovered) originates with them. 

About a husti properly made, of : — 

Sis. Ch. IV. §§ 2 and 11:— 

_j» ps? -u#03? -nestf f V? iKi-Dey li^iRuiv KXJfT JJKlt" u>wa ^^ (2) 

.".ItO'HJO -^ J£lV.#UU o^> pi'v+f i iwmj W H^ -HSlif i>«B'i'i (II) 

i.e. (2) The least width necessary (for a husti) is exactly 3 finger-breadths. (This refers to 
the slackness round the waist) ; and when it is three finger-breadths exactly (loose or slack) on 
all sides (lit., from one extremity to another), then if the rest is cut off, it is proper. 

(11) A girdle in which there are no knots is proper. If a woman ties a knot (while weaving 
the husti), it is not proper. 

Cf. Sis. Ch. X. | 1 :— 

:. - ito^oo •« j 

i.e. (1) A kusti should be 2 or 3 finger-breadths (loose) as said in all teachings ; when it is 
less .it is not proper. 

Cf. Nirangistan, f.1'63 b :— 

'. iW-HXJ-^-U 1«5)IK)0 

i.e. One should have (the sudreh or kibsti) about 4 finger-breadths loose round the body 
according to the text pdiri-z%. If (sudreh or kusti) hang down all on one side, that, indeed is not 
proper. 



31 

consecrates Darun, or takes Vaj, or 1 performs the Khurshid Nyaish, is it proper 2 
or not ? Can it be (the sin of) drayan (i.e., chattering) 3 or not ? 

A. For (the performance of) the Yasna, both the kusti and the shirt (i. e., 

sudreh) worn under it should undoubtedly be in a proper and decent order. A 
fit* kusti should be such as to be in the proper order, and at the time of weaving* 5 it, 
there should be no filament left untwisted 6 and the shirt (i.e., sudreh) worn under 
the kusti should have been well-sewn and no part thereof should have been torn 
off, and for consecrating? the Darun it should be in the proper order. If in weav- 
ing8 (the kusti), one and a half filaments 9 have been left untwisted, it will be 
of use. The zir -kusti (i.e., the garment under the kusti i.e., the sudreh or the 
sacred shirt) should be properly sewn and should be fit. If there is one who takes 
the Baj (i.e., a priest) or a layman 10 and if the right side of the giriv&n (i.e., the coUar 
or the breast) of his zir -kusti (i.e., sudreh) is torn off 11 but has been mended, then 
this will do out of helplessness. If 7| filaments 13 of the kusti of a layman* z are 
left untwisted, then this will do 13 ; but if there are more than this then it will be of 
no use. 1 * When the kusti is not in the proper order, then let it be known that 
whatever one does and regards as a merit is a sin. 

MU. I., p. 34, 11. 9-10 : H.F. f. 440. 

Kaus Mahiar : How is it if on re-tying the kusti and reciting the Ayesta 
or the Nyaish, a woman in menses throws her glance 15 (at the person tying it on) ? 

A. — It is proper that the woman in menses should be 30 steps away from him. 18 



1 H. F. prefixes (j to (j£-j(aj 2 H. F. rightly omits j jS after cAm 

S The performance of the ceremony without proper sudreh or kusti on is a mere chatter- 
ins (drdydn) as it is not done with due observance. Cf. drdydn-khurishnih. 

4 H. F., BK. ( J»j ! U'' l y^'j MU. only ^~S 5 H.F. ylllj MU. yijlj 

a H. F., BK. ^AS|AS3jJ>ji jft for MU. *Km\&£i"jji a, ; here j ,j must be taken 
as equivalent to j ^ ,i (dudar) i.e., a twisted thread (See p. 33, 1, 6). 

? H.F. u i£j MU. ywi s.H. F., BK. ^U j6; MU. ^'iiU 

9 H.F. *w_j ji j,); MU. fJJjija 

10 H.F. & BK. ;| j»4jlj 'j for MU. ^ajb ;— better ^-ej&b lj (fj& Lj — pjO Uncom- 
mon people i.e., laymen). F. S.M. gives instead ^jtj &lj lj J! H.F. AmL $&!,& andMU. 8&Jjd 

12 ^.aj j jt o.A r 13 ja li ^"S — so both H. F. and MU better *j& L for j& lj and 

ji i^Stj—ji ji i^i, or for 13 ji 'j if*? read, as in F. S. M., 13 j& ^s . 

13 The kusti should be flawless ; it must be woven with due care and proper attention to 
the prescribed mode, i.e., it must have the 72 threads all ceremoniously woven ; but 7£ filaments 
unwittingly left untwisted are allowed in the case of an ordinary person who is not going to 
perform any ceremony, as against 1 J for a priest. 

14. i.e., if there are more flaws in the kusti than are allowed, it is useless. 

15 The words aiS" 8& (jU-"il &'j of the Answer to the Question should be put in the 
body of the Question after O.iiS' ^j L3 . 

1° i.e., if she looks at Mm within 30 steps, the kusti should be tied on anew According 
to another Rivayat (See MU. I, p, 34, 1. 13) she should be 40 steps away. 



32 

MTJ. I., p. 33, 11. 18-19 to p. 34, 1. 1. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — Q. — About tying on the kusti and (putting on) the sacred 
shirt i.e., the zir-kusti .1 Whenever the sacred garment beneath the kusti (i.e., the 
Sadra) is not in proper order and not in good (condition), is it proper or not that 
they should consecrate the darun-baj or recite the Khurshed Nyaish (with such a 
sacred shirt or kusti on) ? 

A. — It is necessary that the kusti and the zir-kusti (i.e., Sadra) should be fit 
and beyond suspicion so that they may be in proper and good order ; because if 
the kusti is tied on to the naked body, it is a sin ; it is not a merit. 

MU. I., p. 34, 1. 12. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — Q. — They perform the kusti and recite A vesta or the 
Nyaish and if a menstruous woman casts her glance at them, how is it ? 

-4. — I* is proper that a menstruous woman shoidd be 30 steps away from them. 

MU. I., p. 36, 11. 14-15. 

Punishment to be prescribed by the High-priest in proportion 
to the sin committed. 

Bahman Punjya : — If a Behdin commits a crime which happens either through 
his hands or through his tongue, 2 he should be made to repent of it. In proportion 
to the crime, there should be the ordering of retribution and it should be so ordered. 
If they order retribution in excess of the sin, the Dastur becomes a sinner : this 
should be well looked after so that the soul may not be in torment. 3 

MU. I., p. 36, 11. 17-19. 
Patet or Penitentiary Prayer-formula. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — If a person cannot recite the patet daily, then he should 
order another person to perform the patet for him ; and the performance of patet 
by that other person is such as if the patet were recited by him himself with his 
own tongue. There is no difference between these (two recitals). But it is neces- 
sary for that person that he should daily recite these several words : — " I am 
sorrowing for, and repentant and in renunciation of every sin, which I have 
spoken, which I have done, which has arisen through me, and which I have 
imagined." 

Again, if a person recites patet, its dignity lasts for three days, 4 i.e., if he dies 
within those three days, it is the same as if he had recited the patet at the time of 
his death. 5 

1 lit., the sacred garment underneath the kusti. 

2 i.e., if he does improper deeds, or speaks improper words. 

3 Dastur Nosherwan Marzban says that one should repent of one's sins before a Dastur 
chiefly on the day Bam of the month Meher (MU. I, p. 38, 1. 5). 

& i. e., the advantage of that recital will accrue to the reciter for 3 days. 
6 MU. om. this last para : — 

&&<■) ibj£ ij>Xj (jjiyfl oj_jj ri iii«(j yU^v*. 



33 

MIJ. I., p. 37, 11. 2-4. 

Suratya Adhyarus : — Q. — One of the Behdins has committed a great crime and 
he wants to repent of that sin, but it is enjoined that repentance (of one's sins) 
should be performed in the presence of aDastur 1 (i.e., High Priest) and the man who 
is the sinner knows it for certain that the high-priest is a worthless fellow. Can 
he go before that Dastur about this question (i.e., for the repentance of his sin), 
or not ? 

A. — Several Dasturs should gather together and whatever is ordered by all 
the Dasturs met in conference (by a majority) should be acted up to and they should 
punish (the sinner) in proportion to his circumstances and his wealth. 

MU. I, p. 37, 11. 6-8 : H.F. f. 86. 

Kama Bohra : — A person says to another : " After my death, go to the Dastur 
for my sake and repent of my sins." Is it such as if (the dead) had himself per- 
formed the patet or not. 

The earlier the patet is recited, 2 the better it is ; and it is better (to perform 
it) in one's lifetime. If it is not possible (to repent of one's sins) in one's life time, 
then (it should be done) during the three nights 3 (after one's death), and if 
it is impossible (to do it) during the three nights, 3 then they should strive 4 so that 
the earlier it is done, it may be allowed. 

MU. I, p. 37, 11. 10-13, or 11. 15-18 : H.F. f. 113 and f. 152. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — Q. — A person says to another : " Go to the 
Dastur after my death and repent of the sins which have arisen from me." When 
that person dies and this (other) person goes before the Dastur and repents of the 
former's sins for his sake, then is it such as if (the dead) himself had recited the 
patet % What is the decision if this cannot be done on the same day (of his death) ? 

A. — If (the dying person) performs (the patet) himself, it is better ; but if he 
cannot perform it himself (and dies), then on the day when (his body) is disposed 
of 5 (in the Dakhma), it would be better (to perform the patet) ; and even if it is 
not recited on that day, then it is more incumbent to recite it during the three 
nights 6 (after death) than on other occasions. One should exert oneself so that 
the sooner one performs the patet, the better (for one). 7 



1 Cf . Patet-Adarbad : — pish-i-rad dastur-i dini awayast garzidan — " One should repent 
(of one's sins) before the rad, i.e., the Dastur of religion." 

2 i.e., one repents of one's sins. 3 or, on the 3rd night after death. 
1 better H. F. J^mJ for MU. (Ji.sj.3 

S aij^j »aj lit., abstain from ; technically, the word has come to mean " to dispose of the 
body ceremonially." 6 H. F. i^ ■ MU. yS, 
1 Cf . Dadistan : Pursesh 7 and 8 : 

Pursesh 7 §§ 2-5-6 :— 

juu -J$| <& J]I0') ^Ov) -"OHO^n Jjj § ^"C ad j<j6<?) _ujj -J (5) ^0J_o ?p (2) 

\<W i)a <s^ -W r?)7 J]j tWftap •» ■w iv^ei -A joij a5 -"o^i « ^«i^ 

5 



34 

MU. I., p. 38, 11. 1-2. 
Can a Behdin (a layman) punish a Herbad (a priest) for his sins ? 

Nariman Hoshang : — Q. — If a herbad (i.e., a priest) commits a crime, can fs 
Behdin (i.e., a layman) punish him or not ? 

A. — If the priest commits a crime (which God forbid) i, then a Behdin who 
is the leader (of the congregation) may consult the priests who are the wisest, most 
intelligent and the most select ; and if the latter authorise him, it is proper that 
punishment may be inflicted. 

Nariman Hoshang. (MSS. A. and P.S.M.) : — Again, it has been written (to 
ask) why we had written that if a person commits a sin and is not forbidden by the 
head of the community, sinfulness is incurred 2 by that (leader). 

i.e. When others do a meritorious deed for him who passes away, after his death, and if that 
dead person had not ordered that good work in his lifetime, had not made a testament 
thereof, had not commenced it himself and had not been even deserving* of it, then it does not 
go and reach him at the balance. f 

* " It was not his by design (ddt)." West, or pa jdd U jLa. ,>>) i.e., it was not for his sake. 

t When his good and bad deeds are weighed in the balance by Rashnu on the dawn of 
the fourth day. 

nj any wybir -H5W w$& ^ceii j -hjjjiv-^ je ^«i?>, ^ ^ov) -< 3-5 le 1 (5) 
H>] jmj ■"jikj-d lW-t^-ujy -NjwAn .mj $ t-ty ?>$■ \<?u ^.u$}k] ipjV j pom i *-"?($ 
.\-t^o^ ^■Hiif i J-u^^ei -o_uep= j \u pe ,\ i«nw#e n^ ■■oj-* j eJ_uw^J 

i.e. If he who has passed away ordered that good work in his life-time, or made a testa- 
ment thereof or was the originator of it and if it was the means of doing (some good) to the soul, 
then although it is proceeded with after his passing away, it reaches unto him for the joy of his 
soul ; because he is the orderer of the original grateful action and the righteousness belongs to 
him. 

\rjv lf^ei -v\f s iS $ ]?]t) posy _s ,w^ no \jB)] 13\£ -> sS j^j (6) 

i.e. But the soul of him by whom the good work is done by his own hands is of a better 
essence and stronger than of him by whom it is ordered. 

Dd. Puraesh 8 : — 

if^r i .\ iw^i <s$ £00] no £ueijj j Jr^s©^ iS \jO)j -> i*)yw w (3) 

£0Q\ 6 t"V £Cojj -j a5 tjy , .-. wyj^ s^^o £oajj no Syigoenj $ -> si 

i.e. Among the various good works, that one is more important which one does oneself 
with one's own toil ; then (comes) that which one makes progressive by one's own order ; then 
(comes) that which one makes a testament of after one's death and which is made progressive ; 
the lowest is that which others do for him. 

aui tf] -vjjj e^ |0u ]]t) J juey iPseum^ 1 ■"" ^o^ -j ii \]U ]<?p (5) 

.\ itenwje -^ ^-ti^ 4) _imj ^ikj_u who 

i.e. When one has not given one's consent for the good work and if one is not worthy of it, 
then it does not come unto one's possession, even though others may do it for one. 
1 tsr'^fjb *ijfi 2 l&i sits on the neck of. 



35 

(We wrote thus), because it had been known to us that those dear ones 1 had 
the power and authority in their hands. 2 

MU. I. p. 38, 11. 12-17 : H.F. f. 86. 
Manure prepared by a darvand for cultivation. 

Kama Bohra :—Q.—A man holds a piece of land and has wife and children: 
He cultivates 3 (the land). When he manures this (land) with cow-dung, he obtains 
a certain benefit thereby, and he can procure livelihood for his wife and children ; 
but if he does not manure it with dung, there is only half the profit and he cannot 
maintain himself. What is the decision (about it) I 

A.— The dung of the cattle-species should be used (as manure). Dung (obtain- 
ed from) those of the good religion should be carried to a desert so that the sun 
may shine on it for four months, 4 and thereafter rain should fall over it four times. 
When the whole becomes moist, 5 it is fit for (the manuring of) the land. 

The dung-manure of the Jud-dins is not allowed, because it may be full of 
impurities, and every time water is carried to the worst form of hikhra* it is just 
like carrying dead matter to water ; and the dung manure of the Jud-dins cannot 
be without the impurity of the hihlira, 1 because it must have been mixed up with 
blood or menstrual discharge. Whatever sin is more than a good deed, it is not 
fit to commit ; but if the good deeds and sins can be equal, then they are even 
allowed for the greatest good (of men). 

MU. I. pp. 38 (last fine)— p. 40, 1. 9 : H.F. f. 104 ; f. 115 ; f. 154. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — Q. — A man has sons and daughters and own 
a piece of land. If he manures this land with cow-dung he obtains such an ad- 
vantage 8 as to maintain himself and his children ; but if he does not manure the 
land with cow-dung, he gets only half the profit and cannot maintain himself. 
Cow-dung may be procured from all quarters (i.e., from Behdins or Jud-dins and 
pure or impure), because this dung-manure cannot be (always) procured from the 
(proper) place. 9 What is the decision (about it) ? 

1 The congregation of Navsari to which the letter from Turkabad was addressed by the 
Irani Parsees. 

2 MU. om. this Rivayat : — Antia's MS. and F. S. M. gives it thus : 

M iSjV j <££ *l** &»£ pi&j! A&y U /•$ *JijJ /SJtfi j£t& — iSISi^a id-*ijj c^Jijj _)l 
,}l^.*£.wl j to *> l+m fi ij.J i&M /*}!*<* />&! V^"*'! **A"*J iyi &&jf ji *'*^ &^3 pS'* ,«j> 

3 H. F. adds lijtfj. 

1 H. F. g U MU. jb . 

5 or, dies up (Per. (*j&&-><> **- ' to be moist ' as well as ' to dry up '). 

6 , c !> a *°j' :51 '''! MU. *=»*; H.F. ^aj. This ,_ Usojo ^suk is an incorrect reading of 
Pah. jJobi^Hi-ll —, cK% »:aA =: worst hilchra. In fact the word ^gljajSi without the dots 
may be read ^jS gerai. (See p. 39, 1. 9) : — c^ \j$ ysA j-=U* t£jJj*J I &$j** 

1 ._ \jsaJk ^j for ^ \jS yfA ^j (see note 6.) 

8 Kaus Kama : AjT ,-•< j ii d-i-a ula^ but Kama Bohra omits J^i. 
i.e., not having any impurities mixed with it ; manure prepared with proper care by 
the Behdins is only allowable. 



36 

4.— Whatever dung there may be of the four-footed ones, which have not 
eaten dead matter for a year is fit for manuring land. 1 That dung belonging to 
a man of the good religion should be carried to a desert and left there for four 
months 3 so that the sun and moon may shine on it and that the rain-water may 
fall on it 3 four times so that the whole^ may equally get wet. If during those 
four months, it does not rain four times, 6 he may wait a little so that the rain may 
fall thereon four times 6 and then 7 (only) it should be thrown over the ground (as 
manure). It is not permissible (to bring the dung-manure) from the houses of 
unbelievers. 

The questioner said, " If I do not manure the land, I cannot maintain myself, 
and if I sell the piece of land, the same will be the case and my children will be 
reduced to poverty and I will have to eat various sorts of things from the hands 
of unbelievers. The land will be tilled® by unbelievers and will be owned by an 
unbeliever. If I hold the land in my custody I cannot take care of my children 
and although sin issues therefrom, yet a merit also will proceed from it. What is 
the decision about it ? 

A.— The cow-dung of the unbelievers is like the refuse of the worst sort. 9 for 
the reason that they do not take precautions about anything and every sort of 
impurity will have been mixed with their cow-dung ; and if one pours water on 
such (dung) or carries (this sort of dung) to water, it is just like carrying water to 
dead matter ; for if the worst kind of bodily refuse is carried unto fire°or water, 
it is just like (carrying) nasd (dead matter) thereto ; and if one carries dead matter 
to water or fire or carries water and fire to dead matter, every time (this is done) 
it is a Margazan sin. Now you have described your plight, and I have described 
the harm (caused) to water and fire. Do that which is less sinful thereabout and 
try to obtain" the dung-manure always from the Behdins ; and if there is a boy 



1 See Pah. Vd. (Dastur Darab's Ed. p. 134, 11. 3-4.) 
__* .-CW JJV) -^ TO ■*&!»• )*>)£)* «}>» jius, ,(p ijop jj J )aJU|) f^j, 

.'. -tu)j -J J-H3 jj 

a H. F. Kaus Kama : »U jl^ ,^ and MU. $U .(.^ tj 

S H. F. Kama Bohra : omits ^ K.j 

1 H. F. Kaus : omits ^ik 

5 H. F. Kaus Kama : aj [jjj ^ \j U j l^s. ; MU. i5j^ yl/j jb jL&. 

BH. F. Kaus Kama: OJ^i OjoUj ijL & l^j li) \ J li jj^. u >\ (j, MU„ jL^ (3 
d.jtij ..l+j ^Ij'j j!j 

1 H. F. Kaus Kama : om. ^j but has instead. 

8MU. <u&Sy.\ and H. F. J^j ^j and ^J y t for ^ (of Kama Bohra's 
Rivayet), or &« b y\j& I Jji JTjj i.e., the provisions will be supplied by Juddins. 

9 'j^ .T* 1 * cf - Pah - -ud-J" -1 ^-u 
10 Kaus Kama: aijfo jj and Kama Bohrfl j^ ^ H p _ ^^ ^ 



37 

or a grown-up man who is affected with colic 1 i.e. if blood issues from his belly, 2 
you are to take precautions about it, so that a Margarzan sin may not occur. 

MU. I., p. 43, 11. 13-17. 

On The Breach of Promise. 

Shapur Bliaruchi : — Six (kinds of the) breach of promise 3 are mentioned in 
the religion. 

First, if one turns away from an agreement or bargain entered into with an- 
other, 4 one's soul will remain in hell for 300 years. 

2ndly, if one has entered into any transaction (with another) and if they strike 
their hands 5 (one with the other), but if one turns away (from it) 6 then one's soul 
will abide in hell for 400 years. 

3rdly, if one breaks the contract about cattle and (other) four-footed ones* 
(one's soul will abide in hell) for 800 years. 

4thly, if one breaks a contract about a piece of land, (one's soul, will abide 
in hell) for 900 years. 

5thly, if one breaks the contract about a sheep, (one's soul will abide in hell) 
for 500 years. 

6thly, if one breaks the contract (about the marriage) of a daughter, one will 
remain in hell for 900 years. 

If a pupil offends his teacher, remonstrates with him and speaks harshly to 
him, or if one turns away from the contract about a Navzud. 7 then (in each case), 
the soul (of the defaulter) will remain in hell for 900 years. 

Again, the commandment of God is more excellent than the oaths of men, 
i.e., if one has taken an oath in a certain situation, and if any harm is done (thereby) 
to the religion, then one can break that oath and can do the work according to the 
religion and there is no crime (therein) : moreover, one should look to the greatest 
good (of the greatest number). 8 ' 



1 Kaus Kama &i J.J ( or Ck)_jj ) — purging, phlegm ; better Ixiy as given in Kama 
Bohra's Rivayet, which is equal to Per. (jiaj^j =colic. What the writer here wants to 
say is that if an invalid affected with colic eases nature in a place where cow-dung is exposed 
to the heat of the sun, then the blood from his belly will be mixed up with the "dung and 
make it impure. 

2 Kama Bohra j&U +SJ,— better H. F., F.S.M. *£* only. 

3 Meher-druj : Av. mithro-druj. & i.e., if one breaks the word-contract. 

5 Siij c«i|)jj o.wjj added only in F. S. M. 

8 i.e., if one breaks the hand-contract. 

1 The Navzud or Navar ceremony to be undergone by the son of a herbad for another in 
consideration of some money-payment. 

8 Cf. Vd. 4 §§ 2-10 where 6 kinds of contract are spoken of in the following order : — ■ 

(1) Word-contract; (2) hand-contract; (3) contract about a small cattle; (4) contract 
about a large cattle ; (5) contract about men ; (6) field-contract, and again, according to the 
Avesta, the Nabanazishtas, i.e., the next-of-kin of the culprit are involved in the sin and 

answerable for it. This the Phalavi commentators thus explains : — irei)0 J (J £ I WJ • J 13i 

i.e., How many years has one to fear (for the breach of the contract) ? i.e., a specific 



38 

MU. I., p. 44, 11. 9-11 :H.F. f. 90. | ' ; 

On Swearing and Perjury. 

Kama Bohra : — Q. — If a person takes a false oath and wis lies that the sin 
thereof may be uprooted, 1 by what meritorious deed done by him will that sin 
vanish ? 

A. — If one takes a false oath, the sin thereof will not be uprooted 1 by the 
doing of any meritorious deed ; but if at the time of taking a false oath he has 
vowed 3 that a meritorious act (in compensation for that sin) will be done by him, 
then that meritorious deed 3 must be necessarily done by him. If he does not do 
it, he will be liable for (incurring) another sin 4 ; Moreover, he should repent of 
it and ask for an asho-ddd (i.e., a righteous gift) of it 5 from him who is his accuser ; 
then (he should wait and see) what commandment Ormazd, the good and propitious, 
issues (for this sin, in the other world). 

MU. I. p. 44, 11. 12 to end and p. 45, 11. 1-2 : H.P. f. 119 and f. 158. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — Q. — If a person takes a false oath with the 
intention that he may do duties and good works in compensation for that crime 
or will send money therefor to the Kre-places 8 or lay aside money in the bag of 
righteousness, 7 and if he repents of that crime, is the sin uprooted by him or not ? 

number of years is given for every smaller or greater meher-druj, the least number being 300 : 
and this is explained by some commentators as abiding in so many years in hell (as is also said in 
this Kivayet). 

Again, different commentators reduce the circle of liability to narrower limits, thus : — 

lWnTO W* " a ^ "V'f (1) 

\W\r>-& <?\<) -o-un f Vy iienro ^ia $1 no (2) 
\rn\W -^ £j iTOf^iei \finy nenW{! \y v? <W a^-*>yp (4) 

i.e. (1) The sin of the meher-druj affects the progeny. 

(2) The son born after the commission of the crime is liable for it. 

(3) Kushtan-Bujet said : " The righteous should have no fear." 

(4) Gogoshasp said : " When the (wicked) father dies, the righteous children have nothing 
to fear from it." 

According to this Rivayat, the real culprit is only responsible for the breach, and his rela- 
tives are not affected at all. 

Cf. also Pahlavi Rivayat No. VT. (p. 7) and No. XII (p. 36). 

1 ,j Jki ,£, Lrtj' So all : it should be &*m,i .-j ^j. j\ where ^i — origin. 

2 / .Ij,jj,j lit. accepted, i.e., vowed. 3 MU ^T — H. F. ^ jS yT 
* lit., another sin will sit on him. 

5 i.e., he should beseech his accuser to forgive him : As this is a Hamimal sin, it can be 
only uprooted by the accuser pardoning his fault. 

6 Kama Bohra fyl&ii and Kaus Kama gl^jf 

7 /> S ,.«.■>/ (Kissa-i-Kerfa) lit., the bag of righteousness ; by this term, the Qirehbdn, 
i.e., collar with a small bag on the Sudrah or the sacred shirt is known. It is so called because 
all the meritorious deeds done in one's life time accumulate in this bag and will be of usei i one 
when one's final account is made up in the balance of Rashnu. 

Cf. Dr. Modi's " Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees," p. 183. 



39 

A If a person takes a false oath with such intention, or takes a false oath 

■without such intention,' 1 and thereafter he does many duties and good works, then 
even that sin will not be removed from his neck 2 and those duties and good works 
will not at all reach his soul. If he has first vowed to do good works on account of 
his taking a false oath, he should do them so that the sinfulness may not3 remain 
on his neck, 3 but if he does (these good works), they will not reach his soul. 
Moreover, when (such) a sin arises, he should perform Patet (i.e., repent of the 
sin), and if he does not do that sinful act a second time, the Spirit of Patet will 
dry up that sin so that it may not be on the increase again. 

MU. I., p. 45, 11. 4-5. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — Q. — If a person has taken a false oath, what meritorious 
deed should be done by him so that the sin may be removed by such good deed ? 

A. — It is better that he should repent of it ; but it is necessary that he shoidd 
go to his accuser 4 and show repentance and ask his forgiveness and it may be 
accepted by the will of God. 

MU. I, p. 45, 11. 6-19 to p. 46=H.P. ff. 368-370. 

Saogand-Nameh (Shorter version). 

Know that when one must have given a thing to another and the latter dis- 
owns it and perjures himself, then this Saogand-Nameh, if forced by necessity, 
should be recited. Perhaps he will be frightened and give answers correctly. 
Here is the Saogand-Nameh. There are various kinds of oaths ; one is this that 
one has to pass through fire. The second sort is this that red hot iron is to be 
applied to one's tongue. In short, 33 kinds of oaths have been enumerated. 6 
Now this is (here) epitomised. If one has given something to another and the 
latter is led astray by Satan, then out of compulsion, an oath should be admini- 
stered to him in this way. It is necessary that he who administers an oath and 
he who takes it should both be pleased with one another. 6 Perhaps by the reci 
tal of the Saogand-Nameh, they will be frightened. An arbitarator may be ap_ 
pointed so that the oath may not be administered all at once. As far as possible 
they should try to put off this (matter) and postpone it (at least) for a night so 
that both may desist. 7 The second day also, they should try to let in something 8 
so that an oath may not be taken. When they act thus, but if it is of no avail^ 
then (the mediator) should say thus : " I am innocent of this fault 9 and those 

1 Kaus Kama's Rivayet has <j2a-e yJj.J A <ijj"^ pJJ^i 6JJj-w only for sj.oj aXi ^ 
ij&vo yJrJ A &)y^- ****•>• h. u"-' iM (girl A ijt 4 *" (H. F.) : here the first t'i is redundant. 

2 So literally, i. e., he is responsible for the sin. 

3 Kama Bohra aj Uj : better Kaus Kaman a,St*5 

4 lit., adversary. All Hamimal sins, i.e., sins affecting the accusers (i.e., the injured per- 
sons) will be atoned if and when the accusers are satisfied and condone the fault. 

5 See Dinkard. Book VIII. 

8 i.e., both the complainant and the defendant must settle matters amicably and come to 
terms. 

7 i.e., one or the other who is guilty. 

8 i.e., further representation on the enormity of swearing should be made,. 
s J IS,* — perhaps for ujJIS,* — faults. . 



40 

who cause the administration of the oath* or take it« are responsible for the good 
deeds or sins. He who administers the oath (as a mediator) is innocent." If 
they do not come to terms, he who wishes to take the oath is toid to bathe,* to put 
on a new suit of garments and to tie the pad-am* on the nose. A priest should draw 
a circle round him, and in the act of drawing this circle, one Yatha-ahu-vairyo 
is to be recited. A censer of fire should be brought and some aloe-wood and 
some frankincense should be placed on the fire. A tray should be washed (clean) 
and a little water should be pored into it. A piece of bread* should be brought 
and placed beside the water 6 or be thrown into the water. The person who wishes 
to take the oath should be called upon to recite first the Khorshed Nyaish and to 
sit down in great awe and they should call upon him a second time to abstain from 
swearing, saying : " If you take an oath, you will not pass out of this world unless 
hideous signs appear on you* ; because many persons have sworn and have seen 
hideous signs. 8 This class (of swearers) has experienced hideous signs." When 
all this is of no avail, then that person should be told to swear thus : " I, such and 
such a one, swear trulyS before the Creator Ormazd, the bright and glorious, before 
the Amshaspand Bahman, before Ardibehesht Amshaspand who is burning before 
me," before shehrivar Amshaspand which has been placed before me," before 
Aspandarmad Amshaspand on which I stand ;i 2 before Khordad Amshaspand 
which has been placed before me,i* and before Amardad Amshaspand which is 
near me,i4 anc j which I shall have (presently) to eat : I swear by the soul and 
frohar of Zartoshat Asfantaman, by the soul of Adarbad Marespand, by the souls 
of all the frohars of the pious, which are and which have been, that I owe nothing 
to you, such and such a one-— either of gold or of silver, or of iron, or of the dress 
for the body, or of anything which has been created by the Creator Ormazd. I 
am not aware and I do not know who has it. I have not concealed it anywhere 
and I am not informed of it in any way." If there remains anything in this matter 
which has not been said by meis (here), what (further information) is wanted, he (the 
swearer) is called upon to give out. He who takes the oath (declares) that he is 
absolved from sin by his own body and soul, is absolved from sin by his father, mother 
wife, children and ancestors. He says : "I am absolved from sin by the soul of 
Zartosht Asfantaman and the latter is quit of me. I am absolved from sin by 
the throne and by the commandment of Ormazd and am absolved from sin by the 
whole Avesta and Zand ; I am absolved from sin by the glory of the good Maz- 
dayasnian religion and by the glory of Adar Khoreh, Adar Gush asp and Adar 
Burzin Meher and other fires and they are absolved from sin by me. If I perjure 
myself, then for every crime Zohak the sorcerer has committed from the time of 

1 i.e., the complainants. 2 i.e., the defendants. 

3 lit., plunge his head in water. & mouth-veil, or covering for the mouth. 

. 5 ts-J'J perhaps, the damn. 6 MU. ^1"— better BK., H. P. Jf 

1 i.e., on the forehead. Those who are wicked will have a sign on their forehead, at the 
• time of the resurrection, to distinguish them from the righteous (Cf . Bd. Ch. 30 § 10). 
8 i.e., have suffered the evil consequences thereof. 
9MXT. ^i tf .»— BK and H. F. ^JUl^i pjjk 

10 i.e., the fire. U i.e., metallic tray, &c. 12 i.e., the earth. 

13 i.e.. water. 14 j, ei) the bread, 

is i,e,, the writer of the Saogand-Nameh, 



41 

his 8th year upto the period of 1000 years when he was fettered (by Faredun on 
Mount Demavand), I will draw upon myself the penalty of it on the Chinvat 
Bridge. Every time I perjure myself, then for every crime which the sorcerer 
Afrasiab committed from the time when he was 15 years old to the time when he 
was killed* (by Kaikhusro) I shall have to draw upon myself the penalty of those 
crimes. If I perjure myself, then every good deed I have done, I confer on you, 
such and such a one, and for every crime done by you, such and such a one, I draw 
upon myself the penalty of it on the Chinvat Bridge. Meher, Sarosh and the just 
Rashna know that I speak the truth ; the Spirit of Truth knows that I speak the 
truth ; the Amshaspands know that I speak the. truth ; my soul knows that I speak 
the truth. My heart and tongue are uniform (i.e., of one accord). I have concealed 
nothing in my mind. I do not say anything (untrue) by my tongue ; and in (taking) 
this oath, I have not practised any deception. By God, I say that it is so." One 
Ashem Vohu should be (then) recited. The water and bread placed before him 
should be given him to eat. 2 

MU. I, p. 47 to p. 54, 11. 1-13. 

Saogand-Nameh 3 (Larger version.) 

It is said in the religion that when a person enters into a bargain (with another), 4 
it is so necessary that both parties should be satisfied with it and should not 
murmur about it. It is not permitted that when a bargain has been struck, one 
of the parties should be sorry about it and say that he does not want to sell (or, 
buy) that thing. (Again) , he should not be allowed to break the contract although 
the bargain has been struck on that very day ; but both (the parties) should strike 
the baro-ain (at once) ; if not, the contract is void and is a breach of faith (meher- 
druj). 

It is incumbent on priests and laymen that they should not allow meher-druj 
(i.e., breach of promise) to be committed. Whoso commits meher-druj has the 
-way of heaven shut against him, and let it be known that he is without (the juris- 
diction of) the commandment of, and obedience to, God the most High and is in 
the jurisdiction of Ahriman and the demons. It is incumbent on the judge to 
call from them for some witnesses in order to record evidence 5 before himself. 
Witnesses should be three. The judge ought to take into consideration the nature 
of the evidence. He should look to the witnesses whether they speak the truth 
.or not and they must have attained to puberty.® He must take into consider- 
-ation the locality, because there are places where only one witness may be obtained 



1 MU. — H. F. yi^£j — better BE. ail&£j 

2 Cf . Dr. Modi's Paper -on " Oaths among the Ancient Iranians and the Persian Saogand- 
JSfameh" in the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay (1921,)— No. 2 of 1922, pp. 
204-224. Also See stel^fl WPl"* <U5J ™ the Adibehesht No. of ' Asha '..pp. 66-70. 

3 BK. gives the heading: c^ Jfi*> e)'*J Jj^ ^ ^ *&y. The Book of Oath by 
■which a judge should discriminate (between right and wrong), • 

1 lit., buys or sells. 

<5 Only P. S. M. gives dJ»U jj'lj JLj+z j AH other MSS. om. 

6 



42 

and (therefore) that (only witness), should be accepted. When, in an uninhabited; 
place, there may not be more, than one witness, it should be. said to this, witness 
that if any one has (a cause of) complaint (on account of his conduct as a witness), 
he (i.e., the witness) will be responsible for it, and he will have to answer for it in 
the next world. If (the administration of) an oath is talked of i then one should 
pause (a little). If one is in doubt, the oath should not be administered (at once) ; 
but if one is without doubt (as to his fair conduct) then the oath should be adminis- 
tered to him. 

If any one is a thief (who has appropriated another's pr operty) or if one 3 has 
been deprived of his property, or if a thief has carried it off, and if that property 
is seen in the hands or in the house of another and if two witnesses give evidence 
that the property belongs to such a person and that they know 3 for certain that 
that property has not been sold to such and such a person, then that property 
should be taken away from that (thief) and should be handed over to the owner. 
If even any evidence is brought forward (to the effect) that (the property) has been 
purchased (by some one), even then it should, be taken away (from the purchaser). 
If a stranger has purchased it, then even it should be taken away from him and 
should be entrusted to the owner of that property. 4 

If (a property) has been bought by some one of a person, about whom there. 
fa a suspicion of theft, then the latter should be traced out, and the. price given to 
him should be taken back from him. If the property has been bought by a man 
of a person on whom there is a suspicion of theft' and if it. has been rebought of that 
man (by another), then the latter should demand his money back from that man 
who has got the money as the money is. his, and that person should be given hire, 
for going after the thief from whom he may receive back the price. 

It is necessary that when the thief is caught, he should be punished in pro- 
portion to the theft and compensation should be taken from him. 

If they do not know where the thief has gone, then the loss should be divided 
into two and both parties should share half of it between themselves. 

If a person gives money to another who wants to do business with it, sharing 
each half of the profit, and if it so happens that a robber waylays him and carries 
off the money, then because half the profit has been said (to be shared by each), 
the loss also should be (divided) half to half. *° 

If the man is killed on the .way and his money carried off, then if both (parties) 
had acquiesced (to use) that road in carrying on business, 6 the compensation for 
that money should not be taken from the relatives of that man (who is killed), 
but if the man who has taken away the money has borrowed it at his own desire,? 

I lit., is brought in the midst. 2 MU '^iS; better BK. „? j\ 

9 ^lAirf (used in the first person— i.e., in the direct speech of the witness). 
1 Only F.S.M. adds, ^.jlj *Aj JU w_,bi I; j All other MSS. om. 
6 MU. &jU ij-w: : better BK., S.D.B. & ^ 

6 e) ( JJ IS* ma y be £or W LjJ J tf—° r a caravan. 

7 i.e., on his own initiative. 



43 

feheii (hi§ relatives) must compensate for it. But if it so happens that the man iS 
killed and the money restored, then for one (dircm), compensation should not bo 
more than one, even though the profit also has been got from the money ; for the 
price is to be taken according to the usages which the good religion has sanctioned. 

If (transaction) has been made in an animal, and if damage is done to a culti- 
vated field or to a tree (by that animal) then as much (compensation) should be 
taken as the loss entailed by the entry of that animal and it should be given to the 
owner of the land. If one buys an animal which dies suddenly and if one gives evi- 
dence truly and justly that this animal before its being bought by the person had 
some disease and ailment, then the price given for it should be taken back (from 
the original seller) and should be restored to that man {i.e., the purchaser). 

Again, the accuser and the accused should go to the judge. The accused 
is he who owes something to another and the accuser is he to whom a person owes 
something. Then the judge should say to the accuser : " What is owed by this 
man to you 1 " and when the latter answers, the accused should ask for evi- 
dence. If the accuser calls witnesses, (such as) those, who are interpreters of 
the law, or those well- versed in the rites of Barsom,i r those who are thankful 
(unto God), and if (one of) such witnesses give evidence before the judge, it will 
be sufficient for this reason that* it is one who is versed in the interpretation of 
the law (e.g., a judge), or well-versed in religion and he will not give false evidence. 
Barsam-varl 1 (i.e., the function performed by one at the Barsom ordeal) is the 
work of God. Being grateful unto God means this that "I am thankful (unto 
God) that He protects me from Ahriman and it is humat (good thoughts), hukM 
(good words) and Jivarsht (good deeds) i.e., I think of virtuous thoughts, I utter 
good words and I do good deeds, so that Ahriman and demons will keep at a dis- 
tance from me." If the witness is one who is versed in the interpretation of the 
law or one versed in the Barsam-varih, it will be sufficient. 

It is good if there are three witnesses from amongst the common people. 3 
If a witness is irreligious and a heretic, sanction for another (witness) must be 
given. If there are not more than one witness from amongst the common people, 
then for the other two witnesses (who are not produced in the court) oath should 
be administered (to the party concerned), because if there are no such witnesses, 
(the court) should be content with the admmistration of the oath. Then he who 
produces witnesses should ask the accused if he will accept the witnesses and abide 
(by their statements). If he says yes, then the witnesses should be examined. When 
the witnesses give what evidence they possess, and if one of the two (parties) says 
that he will not accept the witnesses and abide by their statements, then a petition 
should be made at the court of the King that such and such a one does not abide 
by the judicial decree. 

When an accuser goes to a judge (to seek redress) and if one is sent after the 
accused and the latter does not turn up, then the accuser should wait up to the time 



1 barsam-var : Barsam-varih and Garmok-vdrih are two Kinds of ordeal (see Dinkard). 
2MU. uj^. J l_/T : better BK. f i \jA 
3 Ajijlj lit., a subject. 



44 

of mid-day ;i if the accused (even then) does not turn up, before the "judge, then 
the accuser should go every day for three (consecutive) days in the same manner 
(to the court), and should send for the accused and wait upto the time of midday.* 
If after those three days, the accused does not go to the judge, then the latter 
should record the evidence every day and for every day that (the accused) does 
not ton up, evidence should be recorded.^ 

A judge (is he who) must have taken pains to acquire all (legal) knowledge 
and should have a share of all kinds of (general) knowledge. He should pay proper 
attention to all processes" and in the administration of justice, he should sift the 
truth in the presence of God and his creatures. 

But if they come to such a pass that an administration of oaths is assuredly 
required, then let it be known that the oath should not be given if the capital is 
not worth 48 dirams of silver, and then it should be administered on the advocacy 
(of the parties concerned) and with (proper) advice, and this affair of theirs should 
be performed. ■ 

If the capital is worth 48 dirams and if it happens that an oath is to be admi- 
nistered,'* then the judge ought to address them thus : 

" Know and be informed that in this suit either of you cannot be speaking 
the truth and when either of you cannot be right, the other must be telling false- 
hood ; and any person who is a liarS is worse than the aocused Ahriman and all his 
demons. The accursed Ahriman and all demons are more friendly to liars. Every 
crime which they commit in the world cannot be (better) done by them except 
when they bring falsehood 6 in the midst ■ and the source of all these crimes is the 
utterance of this falsehood. Secondly, when Zartosht asked of Ormazd, the good 
and propitious as to what crime men commit is worse and more mischief -making 
near Him, Ormazd replied ; ' No crime is worse than this that when two persons 
make a contract between them and when there is no witness except Me who am 
Ormazd, and when one of these two persons stands off his contract and says that 
he has no knowledge of it, such a person is ill-fated in both the worlds. He cannot 
pass out of this world until he learns a lesson from the people. When he dies, 
he goes to hell near Ahriman, as in the world he has practised Ahrimanian deeds'. 
Ahriman will not withhold from (such) friends of his what he possesses. And 
Ahriman has no wish better than this that any one may tell a he or take false 
oaths." 1 ' 

It is also said in the religion that if he who takes some dirams from a person, 
or robs him of them, or takes them on loan, and if he does not return them to their 
owner, then for one diram he has taken, if he orders' 10,000 dirams to be given 
for (the performance of) duties, good deeds or Yasna-service or celebrates Myazd, 

1 lit., midday prayers. 

a 11, 16-17 : from jjj j, t upto //ajlj is repeated. : 

3 Or, preliminary procedure. 

* lit., is to be brought in the midst : i.e., if the matter can only be settled by the adminis. 
tration of oaths. 

SBK.om. ^^jji^^j 6 MU ^ d _ BK.kjjt 

'MU. &,j\jh — better BK. wUjj C 



45 

Gaharabar and Farvardian and practises Khetiodath and nourishes the poor and 
the needy and continually supplies the Atash Behram with fuel and frankincense, 
or kills noxious creatures (for the atonement of his crime), even then he is responsible 
for the crime.i This sin is called the sin of hamemdl, i.e., (a crime against) an 
adversary. 

This is also manifest in the religion that if one intends to swear falsely or take 
a false oath on account of another or obstinately (adheres to it) and then does 
many more duties and good works, 2 still that sin will not be removed from his neck. 
If he does that crime intentionally and he does duties and good works he has vowed 
to do, then neither will the crime be removed from his neck nor the duty or good 
work done by him (in expiation of that wicked deed) will reach his soul. And if 
he does not do 3 any duty or good work vowed by him to be done, he is responsible 4 
for the expiation (of the crime), on which account he draws upon himseK severe 
punishment. More than this, a liar is reduced to indigence and no duty or good 
work can even proceed from a liar. 

For three days, these words as said above should be repeated to those who 
have practised meher-druj (or, breach of faith), or to those who have heard of it. B 

If they do not take it in good part, then it must be said to them : " Many 
and of various kinds are the good works enjoined by religion, which should certain- 
ly be performed, and you also know that it is so. Now, iii the presence of God the 
most High, the property which you lay claim to, you should divide in two halves. 
If you think you have suffered a loss, then you should so imagine that it has been 
offered in the Yasna-service of God and (thus) you will lay us (also) under complete 
obligation. If you accept 6 this advice, you will be well off in both the worlds." 
If they do not accept this advice, then this should be said to them (by the judge) : 
" I am without suspicion and doubt that of you two, one tells a lie, but I do not 
know which one has one foot of his on the truth, except that you yourselves know 
how you are to bring it into evidence, and how you are to say it out and how I am 
to find it out." 

It should be said to them : ? " Sodabeh told a lie with respect to Siavakhsh, 
but Kaus stood by it firmly and truly. The latter said to them : ' Either of 
you two must pass over fire so that guilt may be distinguished from innocence.' 
As Siavakhsh was righteous and innocent, he said : " If there is a mountain of 
fire, I shall pass on it." Now as you might have heard of it, 8 two mountain-loads 
of fire-wood were immediately laid out and they were set on fire. Then Siavakhsh 
passed through the fire and came out from the other side of the fire. As he was 

1 lit., the crime will not be removed from his neck. 

2 After /iji ji BK. rightly adds &Xf J-&X 3 MU. iiSj — better BK. *iSo 

4M0 &&J.& _ji— better BK. y&jS j$ 

s Sc. but do not speak out the truth before the judge. 

« MTJ. ijjAJ— better BK. Ajji^. 7 MU. cM \ — better BK. ^Sc^kt 

b i.e., learnt from history ; Cf . Shah-Naraeh. 



46 

innocent not a single hair of his body was injured.* Again when Sikaridaf Bumi 
came and killed Dara and burnt many books of Avesta, Zend and Pazend, he ruled 
for a time and the affairs of the religion became very delicate and every day they 
became more delicate until Ardeshir Babegan sat on the throne and underwent 
all these troubles for the work of (restoring) the religion when he sent Ardai Viraf 
to the spiritual world for those niranga (i.e., religious formulae) of the religion 2 
Which Zartosht Asfantaman had brought from before God the most High. He 
(Ardai Viraf) made the state (of the religion) known in the spiritual world, when 
he was for seven days and nights unconscious, as may be known to the readers. 

Afterwards in the time of Shapur Ardeshir, as a great number of people was 
full of doubt, 3 the high-priest Adarbad-Marespand who was descended from Zartosht 
Asfantaman on his father's side and from Gushtasp on his mother's side, said : 
"If you are in doubt, I know, it truly and for certain that the Mazdayasnian 
religion is good and pure* and I (am prepared to) sWear by it:" As the people 
were a little in doubt they said : " How will you swear by it "? Adarbad said : 
" Melt nine maunds of brass, I will wash my head and body before you and you 
may pour the molten brass on my breast. If it happens that I am burnt, you 
speak the truth ; if I am not burnt, you ought to wash your hands of apostaey and 
you ought to be without doubt and suspicion about, the good Mazdayasnian 
religion and about the words of Viraf and you oughts to accept it." 

Afterwards all heretics accepted his words and Adarbad washed his head arid! 
body before 70,000* men and 9 maunds of brass being melted, it Was poured on 
his breast, but he did not receive the slightest injury. Then people were without 
doubt and. suspicion and all accepted the good religion arid the words of Viraf 
NoW this is the Way to establish the innocence of those who M& hot guilty. If 
you too are innocent and true speakers and do riot want to abide by our words 
which are the words of the religion, then prove your truth by fire'. Where Siavakhsh 
passed on the fire, there were, without doubt, two mountains of fire', but for you, 
we* will collect only two ass-loads of fuel arid kindle it arid you shall 1 Have to pass 
through it, if you want to establish the truth. And when the molten- brass poured 
on the breast of Adarbad was 9 maunds, we will boil one maund of milk for you 
and will pour it on your breast so that it may be known to us who is guilty and 
who is innocent. 

If what we have said cannot be practised by you and if you do riot accept it 
and wish to take an oath, we are absolved: from the sin (eoriiroitted). by you. "8 

When they listen to all this, and do not turn with aversion from taking an 
oath, then first of aU they must sign a bond and afterwards they should take the 
oath. (The bond should run thus :) "When a sign appears on (the face of) either 

• tut., was lost. 2Mtf. w ji ^bet'fe'BK. J^& 

3MTJ. iXijjj— better BK. .X&IJ ... 

* MTJ. &J(— better BK. t y_ f s MU-) BK ,. ^ ^ , F-S M ^ ^ ^ ^ 

6MU. ilis-BK. jfjfy 7 TO : jU * w |^_ b6tto BE, (J y|j| U 

i.e., we have tried onr beet to dissuade yott from^taMng- an- oath. Now you must take 
the consequences. " " 



47 

of the two, then four! times, the property as is laid claim to should be taken from 
the person on whom the sign appears and should be entrusted to the other adver- 
sary." 

They should then administer the oath to him and say : " May God find out 
soon the' truth (from the guilty) and may the criminal be distinguished from the 
innocent." When this sign appears on one of them, the damages assigned 
should be taken from him. If the property had been disposed ; of, he should be 
thrown into prison commensurately (with his crime) so that others might, not 
have the hardihood to commit such crimes. Then before taking the. oath, both 
of them should sit on their knees 2 before the judge, and the judge should extract 
this confession from the plaintiff' and defendant. Say thus: " I. speak the 
truth, God knows that I speak the truth. The Amshaspands.know that I speak 
the truth. The Yazads in front and behind 8 know that I speak! the truth. Ah 
good things know that I speak the truth. All good things having a spiritual 
share know that I speak the truth that such and such a one wants such and such 
a thing from me but I cannot give it to him (because I am innocent). If it is this 
that such and such a person has committed a crime with reference to such and such 
property of such and such a person, I am absolved from sin by the spiritual and ; 
worldly angels." After this, they should go to the fire-place. They should bring 
a cup from the Ya3na,-(gah) and pour a little Water into it. Some narmina' 1 
should be put into the cup. Some incense, a little piece of sulphur and a piece of 
the jujube cut off and a piece of barsina* should be put into the cup 6 and rubbed 8 
with some solution of gold to the extent of 'a grain and must be put into the cup. 
Then the knife for cutting the Barsom should be held (in the hands) and a furrow 
should be drawn with it round the censer of fire with (the recitation of) a Yatha 
and the Barsamdan, 7 the nciveh^ and the Mahrui 9 ' should be put in (the space 
enclosed by) the furrow and the tray 10 holding the spiritual fire should be placed 
over the Barsam-dan, and the cup used in the Yasna-service should, be placed 
over this tray and the (metallic) mortar used, in the Yasna-service should be inverted 
inside the furrow. Then fire should be kindled and the aiwyanghan 11 should be 
intertwined 12 (round the Barsom). The top 13 of the mortar used in the Yasna- 
service should point towards the breast 14 of the man who is taking the oath, who 
should stand 16 up and turn his face towards the fire and from outside the furrow, 



i MU. ^ l^— better.BK. jlfa. 

2 Both MU., BK; &y'd) for _jJlj 

S The spiritual and terrestrial Yazads ; the Hamkaras (see p. 62 11. 3-4). 

4 It is not known, what this narmiha ( '£**>£ ) is. 

s After tjb BK. adds y&jS tpj 1 ' j & jS£«" jJ { — ybjt j.l^jfj,j Ui« y J barsina is 
the name of a plant. 6 MU. (J ,ij.* ¥ = BE. ^ bj^i^nj&j^i 'Case for holding the Barsom 

a MU. Sj jj.15 — BK. j ^jlj for gjU (naveh or naneh— a goblet of water). "The 
crescent-shaped implement for holding the.Barsom,. 1° f^jS . for /^y yi. 

l! fibres of the date-leaf used for, binding the Barsom.j,; i 

12 MU. <yvUj— BK. ^joUj for y ul; 

13 Perhaps used for the /l*s& (dastah) i.e., the pestle. 

Mi w a«j so MU.- and SDB; BK.— y t~J *5 MU. ^Aj— better BK. ^b 



48 

place his feet withni the furrow. Again with (one) end of the aiwiaiighan l his 
feet should be bound* in such a way that at the recitation of ShyaothenanamS of 
the (first) Yatha to be recited in Nirang Kusti, one knot should be tied and the 
second knot also be tied to another foot in the same way. 4 While consecrating 
the Damn, the khshnuman of the just Eashna should be recited. Whoever is 
the Judge should stand straight and say thus : " You should speak out thus : 
* It is proper that with the Truth which is propitiated* before me, I should say 
(all this) with truth and uprightness. God knows that I speak the truth. (My) 
Religion knows that I speak the truth. (My) soul knows that I speak the truth 
(My) frofiar knows that I speak the truth. The Amshaspands know that I speak 
the truth. In the name of the Existence, of Ormazd and the three Daes« and the 
Hamkars* who are before and behind for the smitingS of Gana-minu the wicked 
and full of deaths (I say that)— they know that I speak the truth. Bahman, 
Mah, Gosh and Ram who are aU hamkars for the omitting of Wrath with infuriate 
spear of those of a foreign faith, know that I speak the truth. Ardibehesht, Adar, 
Sarosh, Behram who are all hamkars for smitingS the demon Az, know that I speak 
the truth. Shehrivar, Khur, Meher, Asman, Aniran who are n& hamkars for the 
destruction of Winter created by Daevas, know that I speak the truth. Asfan- 
darmad, Aban, Din, Ard, Marespand who are aU hamkars for the destruction of 
the demon Taromat and Bushasp, know that I speak the truth. Khordad, Tir, 
Ardafravash, Bad, who are all hamkars for the destruction of (the demon) Sej 10 
the deceitful know that I speak the truth. Amardad, Rashna, Astad, Jamyad 
who are all hamkars for the destruction of 9999 demons,- know that I speak the 
truth." Pesh-Margi? knows that I speak the truth. Adar Khordad who is the 
protector of wisdom knows that I speak the truth. Adar Burzin Meher who is 
the protector of husbandmen knows that I speak the truth. Adar Gushasp who 
is the protector of the Iranian army, knows that I speak the truth. This Spirit 
who is before Ormazd, the good and propitious^ knows that I speak the truth. 
Rashna the just who is before Ormazd knows that I speak the truth. The Spirit 
of Ab-zari4 and of the trees and the sulphur which hare been thrown (in this cup) 
and placed before me, knows that I speak the truth. All happiness and Truth 
and all holiness having a spiritual share know that I speak the truth. All these 
which I have named and counted know that I speak the truth that I should not 

1MU. ut S- ilih | -better BK. ^ ^| 2 Mu . y^ better BE. ^ 

3MU. fliAjLAy. better BK. ^ ^ M * i.e., at the recitation of the second 

Yatha. 

6 Referring to the propitiation of Rashnu, the truthful, just mentioned. 

6 viz., Dae-pa-Adar, Dae-pa-Meher and Dae-pa-Din. . 6 lit. associates. 

8MU. ^ ^-better .^j y> 9 MU . ^ ^ tf_ hetteT BK . y *•' A j^ U f 

1° lit., Destruction. '•' JJ 3 " 

11 See Afrin Hamkare. Here the order in which the Devs are mentioned in connection 
with the hamlcars as not the same as in the Afrin. Moreover for the demons Tairieh and 
demons Wh ° "^ antagonista of the hamkars of Amerdad, we have here, in general, 9999 

12 It is not known who this is. 

13 AjJJI 1°* J'jjU. H MU. ;l v f : better BK.^; J" or ^ . • . the solution 
of gold mentioned above. 



49 

give such and such property to such and such a one who asks it of me. If it so 
happens that the property spoken of by such and such a one is to be given by me, 
then I should be absolved from sin by all the Minos (Spirits) who have been (just) 
mentioned, and at the head of the Chinvat Bridge, I shaU answer truly to the soul 
of such and such a person before Sarosh and Rashna who are appointed by God to 
make up the account of men.' Then he should be told to sit down* and recite 
the Baj and he should take what there is in the cup used in the Yasna-service and 
drink it.a He should be told to cleanse his mouth and recite (the remaining 
portion of) the Baj. When he has finished thus, he should be told to get up and 
stand on his legs before the fire. Then he should be given advice a second time* 
and there where the furrow is drawn within which the oath is to be administered, 
a small quantity of pure ashes* should be sprinkled and a furrow drawn round it. 
Then when all this is said and aU these preparations are made and this Saogand- 
(Nama) is mentioned, then God will soon distinguish the guilty from the innocent. 

Although the sinner has abstained from (passing over) the fire, it will so happen 
that the administration of the oath, which if he takes falsely, will exclude him 
from the mercy and compassion (of God), and from the very next day he will be 
unable to pass his life in this world according to his desire ; but if he is highly 
favoured by fortune in this affair and although he may not be affected by (the 
consequences of) meher-druj, it wiU undoubtedly affect his children and his family 
will be ruined and his progeny 5 will be extinct. In the next world, his punishment 
will be worse and heavier. The similitude is this that just as a person falls into 
fire, his body is burnt and part of his soul also is burnt«, so when he who takes a 
false oath, or makes it of no avail, burns himself, his family and his soul, all of 
them. 

This also should be known that when an oath is to be administered to a person, 
the Saogand-Nameh should be recited before him 3 times, before the administra- 
tion of the oath, so that perhaps he may have mercy on his body and soul. This 
also should be known that when one is absolved from sinf by the spiritual Yazads 
and Amshaspands and by the Earth and the Sky and by aU the froJiars of the pious 
and by the Fires, then it will be reasonable if he does not from the (very) next 
day, pass his life happily during the day and will sleep soundly during the night. 
If his life is prolonged, a thousand kinds of calamity will befall him in this world, 
and when he dies he will be under torture of hell upto the resurrection and every 
horn his torture will be severer and his distress will be greater. If after this, a 
sign appears on him8, then it does not behove any one of the good religion to speak 

1 MXJ. w*** —better BK., SDB. uf*&*i 

2 MU'. tjj?". — BK. _>>=J 

3 So that he may be dissuaded from perjuring himself. 

4 yi-o ^j; as he B of the sacred fire. }W lit., spiritual i.e., sacred and isji is Pah. 

jyJ) hence it should be (jOj • 

5 jjIa+sij iit -t nursery -ground. 

6 BK. om. &jyi t^i LT-'^jJ J — i.e., his life is partly in danger. 
1 Of course, by perjuring himself. 

8 It was believed by the common people that a black spot ( cf. Guj— 2rl'41 (Ml ) 
appeared on the forehead of a man who perjured himself. 



W' 

to him or sit with hiin in the place where he is, and when he comes to (where) 
Myazd (is consecrated), 1 he should be seated afar.' < 
■ ■ ■■'■-..■' 

If all this is of no avail, and- if the; adversaries want to take the oaths 
the judge should say to both of them : " I want 3 diratns and 2 d&ngs* of pure 
silver as the price of (administering) the oath and (also) one diram of four danak 
from one adversary and one diram of 4 danaks from the other adversary." The 
judge should not administer the oath until he receives the money. If anything 
other than silver is given, it should not be accepted. (Nothing is to be accepted), 
except pure silver. Then they are to be sent home again while (the judge) should 
say to them : " Both of you may think over it well to-night and may come 
to-morrow so that I may administer the oath to you." The judge should not 
make haste in administering the oath all at once. 

Here is the condition of the administration of oath : — 

As God has commanded and as the Dasturs have declared it, we have written 
this, 3 proclaimed it with caution, and have got quit of our obligation. It (now) 
rests on the shoulders of those who do not observe proper caution and on those 
who while administering the oath to men, make haste and do not do it with 
scrupulousness. (This is the oath) : I such and such a one swear before the 
Creator Ormazd, who is radiant, before Bahman Amshaspand and this (sacred 
thread ) girdle of religion which I wear on the waist ; before Ardibehesht Amshas- 
pand which is kept before me, 4 before Shehrivar Amshaspand which I hold 
in the hand, 6 before Asfandarmad Amshaspand on which I stand, 6 before Meher, 
Sarosh and Rashna and the (other) Amshaspands, that I am not aware that 
I owe you, such and such a one, anything of gold or of silver, of brass, of silk, or 
any the least bit, 7 or of anything which the Creator Ormazd has created. I have 
not got it and I do not know where it is hidden ; I have not been agreeable to it. 8 
If this property (under consideration) has not been carried away by my advice 
or permission, and if ever I perjure myself (which I am not doing ha this case), then 
I am absolved from sin by the Creator Ormazd and the Amshaspands and they 
are absolved from it by me. I am absolved from sin by the glory of the good 
Mazdayasnian religion and the glory of the religion is thereby absolved by me. 
I am absolved from sin by the just and true prophet Zartosht Asfantaman and 
Zartosht Asfantaman is thereby absolved by me. I am absolved from sin by the 
souls of my relatives and by my father, mother and ancestors and they are absolved 
by me. If ever I am perjuring myself, then for every crime 9 which the sorcerer 
Zohak committed from his 8th year upto 1000 years, I am responsible, and I will 
answer for them on the Chinvat Bridge and punishment therefor- will reach my 
soul. If ever I perjure myself, then for every crime which the Turanian Afrasiab 
has committed from the 8th year upto 930 years, I am responsible, and I will draw 



1 MU. J A is ^-H- —better BK. (j &&> ji 3 a ddng is the 4th part of a diram. 

3 MTJ. (►i^.J 'J —better BK. fi^J U . 4.^ the fire. 

5 the metallic implements. 6 i, e ., the Earth. 

1 MU. ^+«— better BK. C**»> a MU. y 3 — better BK. C*! 

9 MU. * (r^rr j— better BK. t^S» 



51 

upon myself the penalty therefor. I must take a true oath. I do not speak one 
thing with my tongue and (conceal) another thing in my heart. 1 My tongue is 
set right with the heart." In this (affair), several pieces of advice* are laid down 
(which are to be properly observed). 

One whole Ashem Vohu to be recited. 

MU. I, p. 54, 11. 15-17 : H.F. f. 92. 
On Loans. 

Kama Bohra :~Q.—A person lends moneys to another person and stipulates 
with him that he will add so much by way of interest every month. When the 
stipulated time passes away, the creditor* goes and demands it back and the debtors 
cannot return it at that time and says that by way of gratification, he will make 
so much increment in the interest. Can such increment in the interest be made 
or not ? 

A.— One cannot take the interest more than that (which is stipulated). 

MU. I, pp. 54 (last line)— 55 (11. 1-8); H.F. f. 122 and f. 161. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama :— A person lends something to another and the 
latter makes a contract that at a fixed period he will return that thing with so 
much interest fixed 7 and stipulated for. When the period comes to an end, the 
creditor 8 asks for his capital several times but (the debtor) does not return it and 
says that he wffl make an increment in the interest and will retain (for some 
further period) the principal and will return therewith moreS interest than was 
stipulated for. Now, can any one take 1 '* more 11 interest, than has been ordered 
by those versed in the religion and the kings, by way of gratification 1 

A —More interest than what is fixed 1 * cannot be taken and when one consents 
(to pay it) by way of gratification, it is all done by him through helplessness. 
MU I p. 55, U. 10-14: H.F. f. 94 and f. 140. i 
The Law of Evidence. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama .— Q.— A Behdin (has lent something to,) and 
asks it back of, another Behdin . (The latter r efuses to return it). The former 

1 i.e., I have not concealed anything in this transaction. 

2 MU. **• —better BK. >*« 

3 lit., a thing. 4 lit., one who has given the money . 

B ut . ; the person who has taken the money. H.F. /» ■&>*> ' and M.U. ,y*> 

6 Kaus Kama O i '■> J ] J ■ better H.F. *?&'&. 7 Kaus Kama J ^—better H.F. 

and Kama Bohra hS- 8 ht., this man. 

o Kama Bohra fc^ 1 Bj* ■ better H.F., and Kaus Kama Wj' * A ij <>>"> 
lOKatTsKama *i [ ^. • H.F. f &-J 5 and Kama Bohra fi*~i B.BV*^ (which 

Bast is the correct word). 

11 Kaus Kama e>fy 4j~ : better H.F. and Kama Bohra <M* <*^ij *?? 

12 Kaus Kama /"*AlijW *3 M '- better H.F. A&I& bjr'. f^'' J ^Jf"', and Kama Bohra 



52 

goes before a judge who is a Behdin and his witnesses are Jud-dins. Can the judge 
who is a Behdin accept the evidence of Jud-dins 1 ? 

A.— When (the judge) sees that the man (who is a Jud-din witness) is reliable, 2 
his evidence should be accepted. 3 

MU. p. 55, 11. 16-17 : H.F. f . 97 and f . 126. 

Kama Bohra : — Q. — There is one brother (out of many) and he must have his 
loan 4 back from another person. The witnesses (the former) has are his brothers. 5 
What is the decision ? 

A. — Their evidence should be accepted, if they have no share in the money 
owing (to their brother) and if they are steadfast (in the faith). 

MU. p. 55, 1. 19— p. 56 1. 1 : H.F. f. 141. 

Kaus Kama :-— A person wants his loan 4 back from another person. The 
witnesses the plaintiff has are his brothers and these brothers have no share 8 in 
his property. Will their evidence be of use or not ? 

A. — Their evidence may be taken, if unsteadfastness (in the faith) has not 
become manifested by them. 

MU. I, p. 56, 11. 3-7 : H.F. f . 138. 

Kaus Kama : — Two persons have a law-suit between them, and they go to a judge. 
The complainant makes his statement and the defendant? makes his statement. First 
the judge should ask for witnesses from the complainant, and if the latter is so 
constrained (that he is unable to produce the required number of witnesses, viz.,- 
three), then it will be enough if (the witness) be a vajr-gar 8 i.e., an interpreter of the 
law. But if that witness be not a vajr-gar, then in default thereof, it will be enough 
if two witnesses are produced ; but (for ordinary purposes) if one has three witnesses, 
they are quite sufficient. 9 If he has not more than two (ordinary) witnesses, then 
he must be a surety 1 ** for another witness required ; and if he has not more than 
one (ordinary) witness then an oath should be administered to him for two other 



1 For this sentence, Kaus Kama has Ak *Alj jljXwl u)ljl_jJ (HF. t?*^) i.e., Can the 
evidence (of the Jud-dins) be relied on ? 

2 lit., has his foot (firm) on the place. 

3 For this answer, Kaus Kama substitutes Al'* \) d)iri' eJ^il l^+r Here d) ^ m & I **, 
is used in the sense of (^ir**" as elsewhere (See MU, p. 38, 1. 17) i.e., " (The evidence of 
Jud-dins) is allowed for the greatest good of Iran," or if tul^l is the plural of ji ' (as opposed 
to jfrA ) then the translation will be : " (The evidence of Jud-dins) who are of the same 
judicial turn of mind as Zoroastrians can be accepted." 

4 lit. a thing. 

5 for (sj'j^iH J read W^Irt (HF.), or &\ji)j-> A** (F.S.M.) 
« MU. ***• J?. A and HF. «**» A j^. 

1 MU. J'* 1 *":! HF. J l *i~i 

8 bothjfj*- iovjj* J (S.D.B.) 

9 HF. adds ^ k f U'i &j& tS^t />*) jt\ j 
10 ifimjiyi (padirashni). 



53 

(ordinary) witnesses. 1 When the witnesses are produced, the judge should ask the 
complainant 2 (and the defendant) whether they will abide by the evidence of the 
witnesses. If they say yes, then the witnesses should be examined, and the decision 
should be given in accordance with the evidence which the witnesses produce. 
If out of the two (parties) 3 , one does not abide by the judicial decree, then a petition 
should be made for the opinion of the king 4 (that such and such a person does 
not abide by the judicial decree). 5 

MU. I, p. 56, 11. 8-15 : H.F. f . 138. 

Kaus Kama : — When an accuser goes to a judge (to seek redress), and if a 
person is sent after 6 the accused and the latter does not turn up, (what is the 
decision about it ?) 7 . 

A.—li the accuser waits till the evening-prayers and if the accused does not 
turn up, then for three days (consecutively), the former should act in the same 
way. 8 The judge should record the evidence on those three days. If some one 
says that the mistress of the house (of the accused, or, of a deceased person whose 
property is in dispute) wishes to dispose of the property, then it should be 
ascertained. If it happens that the expenses (incurred by the deceased) are not 
forthcoming out of the proceeds of the sale (of the property), then it is better that 
the property should not be sold. 

The decision^ is this that out of the property, left after one's death, it is 
necessary that debts should be first paid off and the dowry of the wife should be 
handed over to the wife if they so wish it" ; and as for what is left over, they should 
act in accordance with the bequest (of the deceased). If no will is made (by the 
deceased), then the wife should have the money brought by her from her father's 
house. If, thereafter, something is left over, then a part thereof goes to the. son.* 2 
Two parts (thereof) go to the son and one part to the daughter. The share of the 
pddsh&h wife is the same (as that of the son). The ayukan wife does not get more 
than her dowry, and the money (left over) is that of her son. The chdkar wife 
gets the money which is hers and the dowry she had accepted (on her marriage.) 13 

MU. I, p. 57, 11. 1-7 (cf. H.F. f. 92= MV. p. 56, 1. 19, p. 57, l.)=H.F. f. 122, 

f. 161. , 

Cultivation of a piece of land in partnership. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama:— Q.— A person holds a piece of land or the 
cultivation thereof in partnership with another. If they cut (the twigs of) a 



1 Be., whom he is unable to produce. 

2 MU., H.F. J 1 ***^ — better F.S.M. J 1 **^ j' 

3 for J & read jij, (F.S.M.) 

4 MU., H.F. (sbS- — F.S.M. tjhjtj- ( = at the door of). 
e See the larger Saogand-Nameh : MU. I, p. 48, 11. 13-14. 
e MU., H.F. ;l — better F.S.M. J. 

1 See, the larger Saogand-Nameh : MU. I, p. 48, 11. 14-16. 

8 i.e., should send for the accused. 9 of the witnesses. 

10 MU.>J : better H.F. >?■_> 

11 cj>&> ty*-j$\ is rightly omitted in F.S.M. 

12 or, better, as in BK, *J> 1 > W /tf r*>. for **.*{ LSJ?-S"i' it should be divided 
into 3 parts. 13 sf. MU ; J, p. 188. 11. 13-17. 



M 

Barsani-tree without each other's permission, is it allowed or not ? Or, if they 
pluck fruits 1 (of a tree) (without each other's permission), is it proper or not ? 

A.— On the occasion of helplessness, it is proper if without (each other's) 
permission they do so, except in such a way that the tree 2 is not injured ; but if 
it is remediable they should do so with each other's permission, although they may 
be partners. 

MU. I, p. 57, 11. 9-11. 

Loans and extortions from Jud-dins. 

Nariman Hoshang :—Q. — If a Behdin incurs debt, or takes something on loan, of 
the Jud-dins (i.e., persons of a foreign faith) and does not pay it back, is it a sin ? 

A.— For every contract and agreement' a Behdin makes (with any one), if 
left unfulfilled, he sinner and a meher-druj (i.e., a breaker of contract). 

Q.^-What is the punishment for taking a thing by violence from Jud-dins and 
appropriating it ? , 

A.— For taking (a thing) by violence and force, 3 four for one should be re- 
turned 4 in the spiritual world, but if (the Jud-din) is inimical to the religion, 5 it is 
proper to take away the thing by force from him. 

„ . MU. I, p. 57, 11. 13-19 and p. 58, U. 1-4: H.F. f. 122, f. 162. 

Lawful and unlawful trafficking. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — Q. — What is that business, the trafficking in 
which is a Margarzan sin ? 






A.— If they buy and sell (things) and if God has not allowed or enjoined, (such 
trafficking), :• then, both the buyer and the seller are riman* and Margarzan, and 
they are even Margarzan to a great extent?. Hence, if it is so, 8 in every business 
one should pay heed to the commandment of God. 

•'■LH-- i i MU. I, p. 59, 11. 9-11 : H.F. f. 95. 

Behests of Parents to be faithfully executed by the Children. 

Kama Bqhra :^-Q.— What is that trust-property of. the forbears which the 
descendants appropriate to, themselves and on which account they become 
Margarzan ? 



1 Kaus Kama *jfr° <A>I J* _} ■ better H.F. »jtf* only. 

2 Kaus Kama and H.F., <**=*)& : Kama Bohra and H.F. J»J<i i.e., in it (viz s , the tree;, 

3 MU. J-W+ 5 (•">"* J J JJ'J"— better as in other MSS. jkfc &&J& («&> J Jjji 

4 *»1 ujili (MU.) — better F.S.M. a)'M&' ' 

5 For Ui& H F.S.M. gives &Z&+J,. , ( -,.■ 

6 Kama Bohra t>*- j : H.F. and Kaus Kama omit it. 

7 V (j 1 . lit. without value or price ; priceless : Or, they arei even Margarzan, (if they 
obtain) no profit (therefrom). .'i,.,'. ••.< r*i , ,. .. 

8 Kama. Bohra.. 'lit J ^ t^ 1 ; better H.F. iiijiȣ\ : 'Kaus Kama has 'yi*?-- 



55 

A. — If a testament* (is made) about the wealth which is laid aside for (the 
performance of) meritorious deeds, 2 and if it is appropriated by the descendants 
who U3e it for their own expenses, then they are Margarzan. If they do other 
meritorious deeds and do not do those which have been specified in 3 (the testament), 
then even they are Margarzan. .. ' , fj 

MU. I, p, 59, 11. 13-15 : H.F. f. 137, , , 

Kaus Kama [and not Kaus Kamdiri\:—Q.—Wh&t is that trust-property of 
the forbears, by the appropriation whereof, men become Margarzan ? 

A.—li the father has laid aside 4 some money 5 for (the performance of) a 
meritorious deed, and if they {i.e., his children or his trustees) do not do as they 
have been ordered, they are Margarzan ; and if it is his offsprings or jf j t fe some 
other person who does not do what he is ordered to do, he is Margarzan. They 
ought not to change what has been ordered ; because if they do a good deed other 
(than what is specified), it is not proper. 



MU. I, p. 59, ; 11. 1,7-19: H.F. f. 94. 
Decision about intended gifts. 



1 1 ■ ■ 






! 



Kama Bohra :—Q—A person resolves in his mind thus :— " I shall give 
something to a Behdin or to the Fire-(Behram)," and then, repents of it .:• what is 
the decision ? : ' -■ 

A_ If he says openly 7 thus: "I shall give such and such a thing to such 

and such a person, and if he (thus) vows for it, he must give it away ; but if a person 
has not vowed for it and is (thus) not under the obligation (to give it), it will do if 
he does not give it ; but those who take a vow must give it away. 

MU. I, p. 60, 11. 2-3 : H.F. f. 140. 

Kaus- Kama :—Q. — If a person resolves in his mind that he may give some 
money for the Fire-(Behrain) and then does not give it, what is the decision ? 

A.—li he (only) thinks^ (thus) in his mind, and does not say it out openly 
and does not give it, thsn no sin arises for him ; but if he says it out openly 9 and 
a person knows of it,i° then (that thing) must be taken from him.H 



1 H.F. J * 51 : betterM.tr. j J * 31 2 ^ \si ; ... 

3 H.F. J**' ! Kama Bolira etfA J*- 1 ': If this last reading is accepted then the translation, 
would stand thus : " . . . ■ and do not do those (named in the testament), then even it 
is said in the religion that they are Margarzan." 

4 w J>y &jf lj to appoint ; to specify. 5 lit., something. 8 H.F. adds : *&k ^jj'Jj : 
Kaus Kama omits. 

1 i.e., in the presence of another. 

8 MU. & *i** ! better H.F., ^i*- 8 i.e., makes a vow. 10 lit., sees it. 
11 MU. p. 60, 1. 4 et seq (Kamdin Shapur) = H.F. f. 250. This Kivayet ia almost the 
same as Sacldar Bd. Ch. 54. 



56 

MU. I, p. 65, 11. 16-19 : H.F. f . 127. 

Rays of the sun should not fall on fire- 

Kama Bdhra /—The 74th chapter is this that the light of the sun should not 
be allowed to fall on fire ; for whenever you cause the light of the sun to pass on 
fire, it is a sin of 3 istirs j 1 and if fire is covered underneath anything wherein 
there are holes, then for every hole wherefrom the light of the sun falls on fire, it 
is a sin of 3 istirs ; because the power of the fire 2 is lessened, if the sun shines on 
that fire ; and if you allow fire to remain in the light of the sun from morning to 
evening, it is a sin worth 300 istirs, i.e., 3 worth 1200 dirams : 4 therefore it is 
incumbent on men to know this. 5 

MU. I, p. 67, 11. 4-9 : H.F. f . 252. 

Collecting household fires and carrying them to fires of the higher 
grade, i.e., to Atash Adaran and Atash Behram. 

Kamdin Shapur : — A fire which is made use of in a house, if put to use 
three times, should be gathered up and put in the place (adjoining) so that the 
ash-bed may be cold ; if not, it is a sin. 8 The blaze 7 from over that fire should let 
pass on (to a combustible) and that (fire) should be carried near Atash " Adaran, 
and when four months and ten days pass away, (that fire of the Atash Adaran) 
should be gathered up and carried to the Atash Vahram ; and if it is not possible 
(to do so) in four months, it should be indispensably carried to the Atash 
Varahram in one year. The fire which is in the house should be well taken 
care of. If it is kindled at midnight, 1000 divs and drujds are annihilated and 
twice as many sorcerers and parikas. 

Fire should be necessarily preserved and it should not be allowed to be ex- 
tinguished. If it is gathered up and carried to the Atash-gah, 8 it is a merit of 60 
istirs, and if it is allowed to extinguish, it is a sin of 80 istirs and in addition to 
this, there is a loss to the property of that house to the extent of three dirams and 
two dangs, 9 and the male progeny decreases. 10 

I^jXwI is a weight of 6£ dirhams (Steingass). 2 H.F. V 1 * 5 ' for MU. O^J' 

3 after j&*») F.S.M. adds \/*K 

* i*J & is a weight (drachma) ; a silver coin, generally in value about twopence sterling. 

5 It is for this reason that the sacred fire is preserved in the gumbad or Sanctum 
Sanctorum, where no light either of the sun during the day, or of any ordinary lamp during the 
night is allowed to fall on it. 

6 MU. omits » 1 ^: H.F. leaves a blank for it : P.S.M. has » 1 ^ 7 i[fi Pah. wjj Per. j V 

8 i.e., an abode of fire, i.e., either Atash-Adaran, or Atash-Behram. 

9 A ddng is one-sixth part of a dirarn. 10 MU. Ajr* 1 f$ H.F. Aiit +i f* cf. Vd. 8 §§ 79-80 : 
" If, O Spitama Zarathushtra, one piously brings unto the fire the fuel of sandalwood, 

frankincense, aloes, or Hadhanaepata or any other fragrant fuel, then to whichever side 
the wind carries the perfume of fire, thereunto the fire of Ahura Mazda approaches and 
kills thousands of invisible daevas, the wicked brood of darkness, and twice as many Ydtus 
and Pairikds." 



57 
MU. I, p. 67, 11. 13-16 : H.F. f. 250. 
Precautions about Fire. 

Kamdin Shapur : — Fire should be kept away from the vicinity of water 
because there is a daruj mixed up with fire and there is one in water. When 
both meet together, they do harm and injury. And it is not proper that sun-light 
should fall on fire, or that (the fire) may be left in the sun-light, because it is a sin. 
Every time that the hand is taken on to the fire, it is a fatmafi sin ; and every time 
they blow the breath with the mouth on fire,* it is an ydt, sin which is 180 istirs. 
If a woman in menses sits near the fire, it is a Margarzan sin 3 ; and every time 
they burn nasu (i.e., dead matter) or impurities in fire, it is a Margarzan, 

MU. I, p. 68, 11. 1-2. 
Shapur BharucM ."^-If one extinguishes the fire before which Damn and 
Yasna ceremonies have been performed, it is said in the religion that the power 
of the Avesta recitation reaches the Daevas. 

An attendant should tend the fire and the fire of the house where food is cooked 
for three days should be gathered up and carried to Atash-Adaran. 

If one does not take proper care of fire so that it is extinguished, and if he send 
100 dinars to Adar-Gushasp, it is not allowable. 3 

Smoke arising from fire is a thing pertaining to Satan. 3 

MU. I, p. 68, 11. 4-7 : H.F. f . 90. 

Fire coming in contact with nasu (dead matter). 

Kama Bohra ;— Q.— If nasu or dead matter is burnt in a fire and if a person 
cooks food over that fire and prepares his bread or meal and eats it, what is the 
decision ? 

A. — If the nasu is burnt up and is reduced to ashes, then the fire or the ashes 
does not pollute (any one) ; and if a person prepares food over that fire and eats 
it, it is not a sin ; but that fire (over which the dead body has been burnt) should ba 
carried away from that place and (then, food) should be cooked (over it). And 
it is not proper that that fire be carried to an Atash-gah. 4 It should be known 
that fire has such refulgence that if anything comes in contact with it, it is made 
pure like itself. 

MU. I, p. 68, H. 7-15: H.F., f. 119 and f. 158. 

Kama Bohra and KausKama : — Q. — There is a fire over which dead matter has 
been cooked, or burnt or roasted and a person prepares his meal over it or roasts 
something or prepares food in a pot^ (over it) and eats it, or comes in contact 
with the ashes of the burnt-up dead matter : what is the decision ? 



1 H.F. LT-rf j>. and MU. d"? 2 H.F. *^ and MU. Omits. 

5 The last two parts of this Biyayat are omitted in MU. Other MSS. give them thus : 

1 H.F. only adds H^ ** *ji <H li . 8^ ifi-" /•■> U^f yf j 

6 Kaus Kama and H.F. <sH & \£*&J J&- : Kama Bohra j^-iit tS^JS^- 

8 



58 

A.— If the nasu has been entirely burnt up and if any hah' or fleshy part does 
not at alU remain but has been reduced to ashes and if any one comes in contact 
with the ashes, there is no pollution 2 ; and if any one places a pot over that fire 
and prepares food and eats it, then even I do not know that there is (the fear of 
pollution). 

MU. I, p. 71, U. 11-13 : H.F. f . 441. 
Fire kindled near the Dakhma i.e. in the Sagdi. 

Kaus Mahyar: — About the fire (or, lamp) which is lighted near the Dakhma 3 
for three days and nights and on the fourth day (after one's death). 

They should carry (there, near the Dakhma) an iron censer, 4 but it should be 
carried there separately 5 (so as not to come in contact with anything there), and 
they should kindle fire on it so that it may be extinguished in the chamber of the 
Dakhma« (after burning for 3 days). Thereafter, (the censer) should be lifted 
up and carried to the house where death has occurred and both (the fire on the 
censer) 7 and the fire 8 in the zdd-marg 9 should be extinguished and another fire 
which is (burning) besides these (two) fires (in the zdd-marg) should be taken up 
and earned to the Atash Adaran. 10 

MU. p. 71 11. 15-18 (see p. 145.) 

Kaus Kamdin. — Q. — What" (is the rule) about kindling fire (in a Sagdi) 12 300 
paces apart from the Dakhma ? 

A. — Here {i.e., in Iran) we kindle fire in 3 places (when death occurs) : 

(1) In the place where one dies. (2) In the place where the body is placed 
within the 1casM s and (3) in the place which is 300 paces apart from the Dakhma (i.e., 



1 Kaus Kama and H.F., *f*r : Kama Bohra <"+r 

2 H.F. and Kama Bohra »«& : better Kaus Kama * UJ 

8 ^+i.i jii must be taken for />♦*■ <b (•«&•« yf"* as in the following Rivayat of Kaus 
Kamdin. 

4 J*'* (Paz., A"Oj>.13 ( = J*i*3 ) a p t : correctly explained as ^"j iM in 

F.S.M. of. Ar. OJom 

6 g *&.■*« ; n H.F.; MU. S_J **: 1j^- c means, the upper part i.e., anything placed above 

another i.e., the censer proper ( *S"*j & ' ) in which the fire burns and not the stand on which 
it is placed ; — if this word as given in MU. is retained, then the meaning is : " the censer 
proper (and not the fire-stand) should always be carried." 

6 This chamber is what is now called the Sagdi, which is a structure erected for 
burning a lamp continuously, near the Dakhma. 

1 which is already extinguished. 8 MU. H.F. .c£3i h — better F.S.M., lA 3 ?" '•? 

8 A place kept apart for the corpses, until they are carried away to the Dakhma: 
explained by some as jdl marg = place of death. 

1° No such practice as described above is observed in India. In case we take the 
word Dakhma for the Sagdi (a shed erected near the Tower of Silence at about 300 paces 
from it), then even it must be said that this rule is not observed in India. 

11 BK.adds d>_^ after ,jS,jf 

is For Sagdi (see note above). 13 J^S Furrows drawn round the dead body in a zdd- 
marg, where it is put. 



59 



in a Sagdi). It is so manifest in the religion that the demon Vizaresh terrorizes 
and frightens the soul which remains in this world for those three nights (after 
death). The soul takes itself under the protection of the fire, and the demon 
(Vizaresh) which sees the light of the fire flees away and cannot inspire dread or 
fear in that soul upto the (first) period 1 of the fourth (day after death) when it 
reaches Meher Davar. 2 This is the meaning of kindling the fire. 

MU. I, p. 72, 11. 1-4: H.F. 203. 
The six fires. 

Shapur BMruchi .-—Names of every one of the fires are written :— 

The first fire 3 is Barzishavang which is before Ormazd. The second fire 3 is 
Vohu-Fryan which is in the bodies of men and animals. The third fire 3 is 
Orvajist which is in plants. 4 The fourth fire 3 is Vajist which appears from 
lightning and it fights with Spenzarashk demon.5 The fifth fire is Spenist which 
is manifest in the world and is in the stones. 6 The sixth fire' is Neryosang- 
-which resides in the navel of the kings. 8 



l i.e., Bamdad, or the dawn. 
. 2 U., the judge who with RaBhnu and Srosh weighs the good and evil deeds of men on 
the fourth day after death. 

3 H.F. J^'t MU. U*^f 4 MU. j'jj' J 'jr&Mj <£»&)& — trees; shrubs and plants ; 

H.F. has only JjJ • 

6 MU. yi& H.F. £j<> 6 i.e., in the mountains. 7 H.F. U"-" : MU. J&> 

8 For the Avesta names of these fires, see Yasna, Ha 17. 

The Pahlavi Yasna,- H& 17, gives their names in the following order :— 



(1) 

(2)' 
(3) 
(4) 

(5) 
(6) 



IW-^ WXVe! -H3-"®? 

i«xjsi-ui -Hj-ure) 1 



(= 
(= 
(= 
■<= 






(= iwi^v-m •vsiK ita -"£rT -Hssei ir^vs » iSJ 



ikxs Swh \&) -> wp 



It seems from this list that the name of fire is not given to No. 6, and it is not mentioned 
in Bundehesh and Shayast-la-Shayast and that the first and the fifth are interchanged in 
the Bundehesh and Shayast-la-Shayast. 

Only three names out of these five are found in Yasna 36, viz., Spenishta, Urvazishta,, 
and Vazishta. of. Bundehesh, Ch, 17 : — §1. 

In Shayast-la-Shayast, Ch. XI, the same order as in the Bundehesh is thus given : — 

(1) M)iSo> ( — )f4?\)} w\- (2) Wta 'tfi (3) «K)si-^V (4) Kitpi-"** 
(5) <?k> 3\>Jj (p»^A *&■*!&).' 



60 

MU. I, p. 72, It 4-7. 

The fires Adar Gushasp, Adar Khordad and Adar Burzin. 

Shapur Bharuchi .-—Again, Adar Gushasp is (the representative of) the com- 
mander of the armies of Iran. It is on the Asnavad Mountain. This fire came to 
the assistance of Kaikhusro once when he conquered Bahman Dez. 1 Adar Khordad 
is (the representative of) wisdom, and of the priests and ia on Mount Kankara, 2 in 
the country of Hindustan, and it is called jalamukhi (i.e., a volcano) by you. It is 
also called Atash Berezi-savang. These two are the names of the same fire. 2 Adar 
Burzin Meher is (the representative of) husbandmen.. It is on the Raiwand 
Mountain in the Dasht-i Vishtaspan, It is also called Mino-Karko. 3 These 3 
fires burn without fuel and they have no fear of water. 4 

MU. I, p. 72, 11. 9-11, and p. 76, U. 1-4: H.F. f. 441. 
Atash Adarans to be established at every place where there are Behdins, 

Kaus Mahyar :— It appears that except the Atash Behram, which has been- 
located in Navsari, there is no other Atash-(gah)5 amongst those (of that town). 
This is worst. It is assuredly necessary that a dome of the abode of Fire should 
be erected by every congregation of Behdins and therein they should establish the 
_Atash-Adaran. An attendant should be engaged on a salary so that he may tend 
the fire. From every house where they cook food for three days (consecutively), 
they should take up the fire and carry it near the Atash- Adaran. 8 



l See Shah-Najneh. 2- MU. om. the rest of the sentence after Kahkara : other MSS- 
give it thus : — 

3 MU. om. this sentence : others give it thus : **i)$W fj- }>4 _>£■» \j if j 

* i.e., if water is poui-ed on them, they will not be extinguished (See Darmes. Vol I 
Zend Avesta.) 

The greater Bundahish puts Adar Khordad in Karikan mata. Darmesteter observes that 
the volcano near Kangra is still to-day an object of pilgrimage by the Hindus and that the 
fugitive Parsees must have carried an Atash with them to India. 

6 as,, e.g., an Atash-Adaran. 

6 So., and should leave it there so that it may be extinguished. 

This decision about the collection of house-fires after they have been put into use at 
least three times and conveying them to the Atash-Adaran so that they may be extinguish- 
ed is not at all followed in practice by the people of India. It is to be noted that the- 
ceremony of the consecration of the Atash-Adaran in Iran, as appears from Kaus Kamdin's 
Rivayet (and not Kamdin Shapur : See MU. I, p. 73, 11. 3-12) is not in accord with that 
followed here. In fact, it appears that what are called Atash-Adarans were simply estab- 
lished there for the purpose of bringing in the house-fires- to them. These Atash-Adarans 
this Rivayet further states, were erected in quarters where there were ten houses' 
of Behdins, Following the practice, as laid down in Kaus Kamdin's and other 
Rivayets, the Qadimis here carried for some time every year the fire of their Atash Adaran 
to the Atash Behram during one of the. five Gatha days and left there to be extinguished 
A great controversy raged about this point in former times in which Zoroastrians of all shades 
of opinion took part and consequently this custom was dropped ' (See »H1« S)l*£ "Adar 
Khoreh " by R, Mullafeeroz). 



61 

MU. I, p. 72, 11. 13-16. 

Kaus Kamdin: — It so appears that in no quarter of the congregation of Behdins 
there are Atash-Adarans, but every one preserves fire in his own house. It is so 
enjoined by religion that if bread is once baked on a fire, 1 no other food should be 
cooked on the same fire. If food i.e., meals, is prepared 3 times on a fire, and if it 
is put to use another time, it is a sin of 3 farmdns. Every attempt should be made 
to establish Adaran-fire in every quarter of the Behdins and every year during the 
Earvardegan days, 2 the attendant of the (Adaran ) fire should pick it up and carry 
it to the Behram fire and should carry gifts 3 also for the Atash Behram. 4 

MU. I, p. 72, U. 18-19. 

jam : — In every village, one Atash-Adaran should be established. Men of the 
good religion should collect the fires of their houses every three days or 5 every seven 
days and carry it near the fire (of Adaran) and this (last) fire should be picked up 
every year, or every three years and should be carried (and placed near) the 
Behram fire (so that it may be extinguished). 

MU. I, p. 73, 1. 1 : H.E. f . 219. 

^Kamdin SJcapur .-—Three herbads should offer three Nyaishes each to the 
Atash-Adaran, but if there is (only) one (priest), he should recite nine Atash 
Nyaishes and complete them sooner. Every 7 year during the panji-i veh, s the 
Adaran fire should be collected and taken near 9 the Behram fire and placed there 
so that (the former) may be extinguished.^ 

MU. I, p. 73, U. 4-13. 
Consecration of an Atash Adaran. 

Kaus Kamdin:— [and not Kamdin Shapur, as given in MU.] Q.— Establish, 
ment of the Atash-Adaran— how is it established ? 

A_ Everywhere there are abodes of Behdins, it is incumbent on them to 

establish an Atash-Adaran for it is a precious meritorious deed. In every quarter 
where there are 10 houses of Behdins, it is necessary that there be an Atash-Adaran 
in their midst. It is known that great towns have them so that the fires of the 



1 i.e., if one meal is prepared over fire. 

2 i.e., During the Panji-i-Veh or the 5 Gatha days. 

3 F S M. fcJ"*x ^ • MU. uv" to (Pah. (Wi-Mi ) e.g., Sandal-wood. * See note above. 

5 U for k 

e T31 has the following question:— 

.pJ-Uj ;<U»>J '.jp ;fjfc)-y -]-"^G « 3 9 ■/£ i.e., 'In what 

way should dignity (maratib) of Adaran (fire) be enforced' ? 

1 This last sentence is omitted in MU. ; H.F. gives it thus : 

A jA ij-& (^ fljtjj U^f t5J 1 ^ &*/• *>*** ^ *J tir*H •** tjL '- r ' «?$[ &* 

8 i.e., during the five Gatha days. 9 lit., to the edge, or, the side of. 

io See note 6 to Kaus Mahyar's Rivayet (MU. p. 72, 11. 9-11. ) 



62 

houses of the Behdins may not be dispersed. 1 The 'fires of the houses should first 
be, collected and removed to a place so that the ash-bed may be cooled ; then they 
should be carried to the Atash-Adaran and should be placed near that place whereon 
there is fire. 2 21 Yatha-ahu-vairy8s should be recited, so that it may be cooled 
down there. A place in the midst of the houses of a street of the Behdins should 
be made pure and ready (for the abode of fire) and a worthy man of the good religion 
who has undergone the Bareshnum should be appointed attendant of the fire and 
make ready 3 a fire-stand wholly 3 made of stone. Then the fires which may be 
in their houses may be kindled. Three priests should be present and prepare three 
spots of ground and fix every spot nine inches i.e., one span 4 afar from one another. 
Then the fire having been kindled, a piece of fuel should be held over and they 
should catch the flame 5 over it and (then) place it (apart) in a place, and another 
burning piece of fuel should be placed in a second spot and thus it should be done 
3 times. At the fourth time, (the burning pieces) should be all placed on the 
fire-stand. The priests should recite Atash (Nyaish) over it. It is necessary that 
the worshipper of fire should every day recite one Atash Nyaish over it. 8 

MU. I, p. 73, U. 14-17 : H.F. f . 252. 
Establishment of Atash Behrams. 

Kamdin Shapur : — Wherever the Behdins make their abode, it is necessary 
that an Atash-Behram should be established in that place. For, it is manifest in 
the religion that had it not been for the assistance and power of the Atash Behram 
not a single Behdin could have lived in the world. Two priests who have 
consecrated the Nabar 7 should tend it and kindle it (also) at mid-night ; for if they 
kindle it at midnight ten millions of devs and drujas perish and twice as many 
sorcerers and pairikas. If it is not possible (to establish it) at every (such) place 
they must establish (there) Atash- Adarans and should defray the total expenses 
thereof. 8 ";• , 

MU. I, p. 74, 11. 1-6. 

Fire of lighting should not be msetl in the consecration of an 

Atash Behram. 

Nariman HosJiang : — Q. — Whence should the fires be brought when a new 
Atash Behram is to be established ? (Here in India) all the workshops have 
passed into the hands of the Juddins (i.e. men of foreign faith.) 

1 !S ii^«l cf. Av. vi-spara. 2 i.e., the Adosht or the fire-stand. 

3 i.e., erect; or cf. Vol. II, p. 18 :— *V 15* "-£U»J /•$ (_pJl y'X&lf ^'^ .where w^Jj 
=censer (of. V- OS embers). 

* MU. LiT*"" 1 ' or F.S.M. u*«*i Av. Vitasti B i|;i Pah. *q$j - 

6 This is the ceremony of preparing an Atash-Adaran, as observed in Iran. 1 It should 
be noted that Atash Adarans are not consecrated in India in this way. Elaborate cere- 
monies are to be performed for such Atash-Adarans in India (See Dr. Modi's " Religious 
Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees " pp. 239-242) whereas the Atash-Adarans of Iran 
as described here simply served the purpose of receiving the household fires of the Behdins. 

1 H.F. A&ij'.ti jj^«i ji A AjU : M rj. hig jjti ( for *ik ) which is wrong. NObarl s 
technically used for the larger khub ceremony. 

8 For the last clause F.S.M, gives wSLy *Uh (ji..«j.f 



63 

A. — For the important affair of establishing! an Atash Behrarn, the priests 
and the wise should study and read the books and whatever they can gather from 
Parsi writings, and carry out this important affair ; but if there are no books at all 
(on the subject), two wise men should be got ready and sent here ; they will perhaps 
obtain the (required) information 2 here and then safely return home. It may 
be known that it is not written (herein) for that reason. 

Q.—C&n the fire of hghtning which has fallen in a place be used for the 
Behram fire ? 

A. — The fire of hghtning 3 holds a high rank, but it is not ascertained from 
any authority 4 that the Behram fire has been prepared therefrom. It is -allowable 
that the Nyaish of Atash Adaran 6 may be offered for it, s but it is not suitable for 
the Behram fire. 7 

MU. I, p. 74, 11. 8-19— p. 75, 11. 1-8 : H.P. f . 205. 

Consecration of an Atasn-Behsram. 

Kamdin Shapur .-—For the establishment of the Behram fire, 1001 fires should 
be collected. (Ordinary) fire (when it has been taken into use) should be collected 
and taken to Adar (i.e. Atash Adaran) and then that should be taken to Varharam 
(Atash Behram). Whoso extinguishes^ the Varhararfn fire is a Margarzan. 9 

First, the fire whereon nasd {i.e. dead matter) has been burnt; l0 i.e. the fire 
murde-suz {i.e. a corpse-burning fire)— 91. 

Second, the fire whereon impurities 1 ! have been burnt i.e. of the dyer! 2 — 80. 
Thirdly, the fire on which impure cow-dung has been burnt i.e. the fire of the 
hot bathi 3 — 70. 



l MU. ci> i ~* i T33andS.D.B. (j iyA~A3 2MU. t {/ /0 for F.S.M.<S | J J £e_ 1 ilj lit., recollection. 

3 ij&1 lSy\ for 6y . A u*-= P lace - 

B MU.J-iT <>3f— BK.iijIjif J-"^ and F.S.M. >'* ejlji'l tr 3 '' 

8 i.e., the fire of lightning cannot be used in the preparation of the Behram fire, but it 

can be utilized for the preparation of Atash Adaran. But in India all the Atash Behrams 

have been consecrated with the fire of lightning among other fires. 

7 MI..)*.!** IT- 3 ? — BK./*>fJ c> 3 f c^r* J 6 

8 iJJjjy: Pah. KSf^ey from )\<?-5(y to strike. 9 cf. Pah. Rivayet : p. 115 :— 

i.e., When they take it into use, whenever it is used, it should be collected. They should 
take the blaze therefrom (on a combustible) which should be put aside and the fire should be 
taken to the Adaran and the Vararan fire. ,,,..,- , [ „ (i 

10 MJ.eiiijJ — BK. igH£-$i u J A r (Av. -■■1^©'— Pah J^ J))— a degree of impurity less 

than that of the nasd. 

12 J'j ^J; one who prepares dyes (S* '.J fr. ty^;) to cook; make); or, MU., BKi 

(J 31 <Sij = a dyeing tincture: Cf. Pah. Riv. (p. 117) = jffJ-K)' -JV 

13 Pah. Rivayet has : that of i^J (cf. Per. W *0 ) 



64 

Fourthly, that on which potsi have been burnt, i.e. of a potter—60. 

Fifthly, that of the goldsmith— 60. 

Sixthly, that of the silversmith — 55. 

Seventhly, that of a zaJiargar 2 i.e. a carpenter — 50. 

Eighthly, that of ankuhzr 3 i.e. of burnt bricks — 75. 

9th, that of an oven, i.e. whereon a pot has been boiling or bread is baked 61, 

10th, that of the cauldron 4 (i.e. of the coppersmith) — 61. 

11th, that of a muletteer 6 of the villages 8 — 61. 

12th, that of the Mazdayasnians — 40. 

13th, that of the cavaliers on march — 35. 

14th, that of the behvdr-Jiazdr 1 i.e. of the watch-keepers — 30. 

15th, that from the lightning of the sky — 90. 8 

16th, that of the herbad — 40. 

and that of a Behdin (who produces fire from the friction) of pieces of wood and 
from flints— 143. 9 

In all io so many fires should be collected and the Behram (fire) should be 
manifestly" enthroned. During every Gahambar, with proper precautions,^ the 
mr of the f at« of a gospand should be offered ; fuel and frankincense should be 
continually offered 14 and they should (thus) maintain it. 



1 b**jA — BK. W i«ji-^ Pers. ^ji = to plaBtarf to incru8( ._ rf _ Pah _ m ^ ^ m 

2 The MS. of Fulad Rustom has : that of fkj&iJJ i.e., a copper-smith, or brazier. Pah. 
Rivayet has :— l^V^Sy (See Pah. Vendidad, 8). Paz. has ty^i^j which means "an ar- 
mour," i.e.. fire of armourers. 

3 jtyZA — Per.jy' and Pah. Rivayet 1(»>W=burnt bricks. 

i MU. om. this sentence ; H.F. and BK. give it thus : — kJ^J _j c~a.£ h£> i Jl * r i anc j 
the Pazend Rivayet explains it as that of &ljS ^m (coppersmiths). 

B t oMj±. p a h. Rivayet has \f>3)\j*j> e jjtj. (i) l ^,i but BK. n>&j 

1 MU.j'j-tf— BK. jl}*i />J 8 The words e> '■*«';! /* 5U after <5y are a repetition of 
ttJ4-"»^ u A *i (just above). 

9 The total collection, several times, of the 16 fires for consecration purposes, as given in 
this Rivayet is 1103, but in the modern consecration-ceremony, 1128 are in all collected. The 
order of the list of fires as given in Kamdin's Rivayet differs also from the modern order. (See 
Dr. Modi's "Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Psrsees," p. 222). For different lists 
of these fires, see Note below. 

10 liSo u tfJ^J — Pah. fHjeytn 12 MU., BK. isjjtf— better H.F. and F.S.M. isJbji 
13 Both MU., H.F. crJ —better^ (F.S.M.) » MU., BK. cJ^;H.F. tjjaj (Paz. Riv.= 



&5 

For (the preparation of) the enthronement, 1 as many men 2 as there are may 
be engaged, 3 who may feed the flames (with ceremony). (First) the body of the 
polluted fire should be made pure and (then) that fire may be collected. 4 It is 
necessary that the men 2 should dig nine trenches ; 5 from one ditch to another, 
there should be (left a space of) not more or less than one span ; (the measure of) 
the span must be that of a man thirty years old ; nothing more nor less is proper : 
For the purification* of every fire, there should be a separate censer 7 in a separate 
trench. For the enthronement of the Atash Varharan, first one Yasna-service 
every day should be offered for thirty days, from day Ormazd to Aniran in the 
abode* of fire. When the abode 9 (of fire) has been consecrated, the Sacred cups* 
and implements should be well prepared!! and thus (prepared) should be first given 
(for use). Every one should carry fuel and frankincense for the offering! 2 of that 
fire. Then for thirty days Yasna-service for each fire should be offered and every 
day should be separately collected and placed separately and one by one so that 
at last they should carry it to the ninth ditch ; 1 3 and again for every one (of those 
fires) a separate Yasna-service should be offered. Until 15 Yasnas are performed, 
the fires should be placed separately ; 14 then every fire should be placed in a fire- 
stand, and Yasna-service be again offered. After taking the Baj',1 5 they should 
be placed aside. 

Now 15 (fires) should be collected from the houses of those of the good religion 
of Iran ; One complete^ Yasna-service should be offered for each and (then) they 
should be placed over the fires (already purified). Then these (consecrated) fires 
should be placed in 3 fire-stands. 1B 



1 MU., BK. <j*~*5 J • H . F . ^51 a Ak» *y feforwUiya ix . t a sufficient number 
of priests. 3 lit. have their seat. MU., BK ^i^jjlji: better H.F. *%& j 1 * MU 

BK. iy^^ : H.F. ***■ W J J 6 MU., BK. Jlij/j H. F. Jli ^ ( Jli £— ^^— \Jf> — 
<-£'■*•*> all mean ' holes 'or 'trenches.') 
* 
6 MU.yli jyr, H.F. j~>\* jjl_ji J F.S.M. ^ digging : or MU., BK. uj 1 ^ ( as m 

the text) = censer (See MU. II, p. 18, where ty^ is used in this sense : cf. dS embers). 
8 MU., BK. e/*; H.F. ^** 9 MU., BK. w'^ ; H.F., W U i.e., the gumbad of- fire, or 
the Sanctum Sanctorum should be first consecrated; &k* Pah. m-S (Av. J . )J » ! £wj J , 6 ) here 
refers to the gttmbad. 

10 MU., BK. a» U better H.F. p^ 

!1 i.e., ceremoniously purified and made ready. 

!2 Wjyj ( Paz . g^^j and Pah. ?&>, )=share, portion 13 MU, BK. ^if Jli_, ^ 
and H.F. ^f Jh j / - ho i 6 . trenoh< u MUj BK ^^ &jSj . ^^ ^ ^^ ^ 

(Paz. ^W^J for *JU 4 on one side j separately or *j> = yUjli _ a con301 . ): as ^ ^ 
ehould be placed in a censer, ibj'j forj'j 

» f 7 

*8 MU Ca^jo«(JI /.»*& RTT CI*.w* \ Lj .... -Dxr . 

J ■ Dja * m J ■ * ■• a &- leaves a blank between thetwowords; F.S.M. 

cAjib t>Aj_ HF aud Antia ^jtj ^ 





66 

During the Panji-i Vehi in the Farvardegan clays, one Yasna during the day 
for the Ashoan 3 (frohar) and a Vendidad of Saroah 3 (should be performed) during 
the night. 4 

During (those) Gahambars, one gospend should be (kUled and) consecrated 
(so that its fat may be offered to the fire) and one Visparad ceremony should be 
performed. One Yasna for Ahuramazda Khodai and one Yasna on day Sarosh 
should be performed. At the completion of the Yasna, those who gather up the 

fires should collect them in this way : 

. 

A curtains should be made before the fire so that the Zoti may not see the 
fire when (the formula) « kharetem Myazdem ' 6 . is recited as in the Yasna. 7 



• 



1 MU. £>■> yu— H.F. and Antia. ^tjij—BK. Jifzj 

2 MU. tfb$ ^-BK. a b*i 3 MU. &j~, /o_l H .F., BE. i?j$* a- 
« MU.j^J— H.F.^J— better .»& (BK. :—■ jl^i** a>&J &}jSi$)i 

6 MU..H.F, *>!&. for />*<*: e before Ashaya dadhSmi (Ys. 7). 

7 BK. omits this last sentence with the exception of the last 3 words. AiiljA O&J ^j 
Cf. Dr. Modi's " Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees :" pp. 211 -39. 
Fulad Rustom Gushtsap's MS. of the Mulla Furoze Library gives the 16 fires thus :— 
(i.e., Corpse- burning fire) jj*» Uj*> (JWf s=(tf&&j LJ ^jf (1) 

jl A ?<s ^ \j ^.jb ^ A jA ^j Lfljj j i^ Jti ^j/j^ ^k&zJ^] (2) 

.(fire of the dyers). ^{ iy ^f ^ 

(The fire of the baths). " ; ,,j V ',& KJ 

(Of the potters) ^ ^jyjO? <Jj_,.fe tf U. _/ gjyT — oJJj ,^iu w4 A JlS (4) 

(Of the goldsmith) Jjf' J (g) 

(Of the silversmith) ^J ^ (g 

u- J ^ tofj* j wU, jf r U ,*t* ,r [for ^J-^j ^ ^. Jf (7 ) 

(Of the braziers) ^j ^J f ^f J( ^ ^ ^ .^ 

(Of the brick-kiln) ^ ^ *f&.|«lKl(fr ^ -^il (8) 



_ (From the oven of the darvands) w U j *3jj w WjJ a J^ a „f " J3 i| f 9 \ 

disj b rit^ir potaofto — 



(From the headman of a viUage or town) j»)Jl& 'Jft £jf . j . ^ '' ^ 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ■* y , o 

(From the bullet-makers-or from the armourer) ■ J |(J 

., ;i . , r JJ , '^-" C ^ jT tf*** w'jr— «K5 JlSj (^ Jl (13) 

(From the fire kindled by the darvands on fl^^^^ ^ ^ ^-V^ M^ 
■| ,,,, , B | „ ,„ ' ye ™'™ onf6stl ™ occasions and occasions of sorrow) 

(From the watchmen of the cities) J*^ J,/^ 

(From the iron-smiths). , i.'f , . , /' 

rdctiEuSI^S^ by ^ J ' J ^^' *'^ »i ^ ^i^ i (16) 



67 



A list of fii'eB described in the 8fch fargard and given in Bahman Punjya's Kivayat (from 
verses composed by Noshirvan Marzban — MU. I, p. 68) : — 

»y j j c<.»ij uWf (12) &h$j) 8 3y (6) jy» ay (1) 

j5(f u^> J 1 (13) jbijj* j d"T (7) Jt3l y. a*fj\ IjU (2) 

ulf wjji, jl (14) j&,'l (8) *tf v 1 ^ 

j IS" Aj t>3T (15) JtVji (9) >?r * u (3) 

tjtiji J^'ij'3 ^f (16) „/<*»./*■ (10) [►•S-jl (4) 

^jl(ll) j^j gj i3 ajy (5) 

Tfte 16 fires according to Vendiddd (both Avesta and Pahlavi ) : — 

Vd. 8§ 81. jtj.weP-* 3 -'')' fy*>0 -""-^l Corpse-burning fire. 

i 
„ § 82. M*xiy*Jjrf> ^-u£)3y (Vend.) 

A /Dinkard\ Y? h <*°™ «»» « 
4-ufi; Jj U-u -i -Hj-utO 1 « -tri-T-r, I impurities are burn* ; 
v vm J* / or, the dyer's fire. 
, . i 1 

jjja-uJjtt aja-Jj) wherein dung ( (a£j*i ) 

has been burnt. 

c 

p->a !*$ aMj jj4f> kiln of a potter. 

. i-c-, ir^V-"& Fire of a bath (Framji) 
v 

(Pers. jj'^ lime) 
U»->ej 3Apo anjJj-0» Glazier's kiln. 

i.e., ir^X^r" 

(Per. u> ^i*?,? <s) — to cement, 
to glaze. 



„ § 83. 



ja jjjjgy^ljjjJW 



84.— -e?5 ,J,i ^**^ *l\iJ 6) 



& 



„ § 85.— \«6"ho ••»q?-»o' -a ij«>0' 



„ § 80.— V-»ej •j'fiJ'o' -^"jtj 



."•"&^U 



£"■"8, 



(jn) _j jmj ■Hj'jMP 5 Of a tinner? 

(Per. felJ^HijM) 

§ 87. — ».jiJj>J •jipuijy .(ojiVjujjj 

giaugjwjjiju \ujj ))»3jj^jj goldsmith 

(cf . Per. ^^J =hammer ; anvil). 

i 






j mas) J jjw Jjj^gei Puncheon of a 



§ 88.— *?JyPl •jo(viJ> ..B.u , )j3je) 



•l»S»S|C-»- 






I 






Mjj_u a)i) J-u^ja Puncheon of a 
((uJjj^ei silversmith. 

i.e., W^iVS-" 

fKji-u mu Jj^sjo Puncheon of a 



|j»J_i>^<pa blacksmith. 



' 



68 



Vd. § 90.- ^jAmty .*v*q. -(u.Uia roJ|0». JMj la>«a Puncheon of a 

*^»«|B J »* •Vj]0^ „»ljj^e> worker in' steel. 

(J.e„ironsmith'sandarmourer's ?) 

'• § 91 - ^^ -l\-Vr V if Of an oven, 

or baker's fire. 

" § 9? ' *«*-0» *^BU£«| &J # Fire from under a 

cauldron, or kitchen-fire. 

„ § 93.— ^ J.P..O. -fi^L. j ^j ^„p { Kiln of a washerman 

•g^jjjji ir-»^KJOae) (Harlez); Puncheon 

^jja^AJJ-^Jej) of a tinner (Kanga) ? 
(Per. Jkufl) 

" § 94 - -"^V ■Vf<?$-»0 imi W J Jm -O^ (t Herdsman's fire. 

*<?*& .^.uii^sa jyj^ (i^arei is) Fire of a field ; or, 

or hunter's fire ; or, fire of 

IPW -J |)"Jj)jR)a) _j .uij J^i a n enc'ampment. 



95. 



§ 98. 



?-»& -Vfwtf'i lneuei-HJ JJJj ^-*l £ Fire of one's own hearth. 

(Per. sUjlj Jsa* 



or 



For an explanation in Persian of these 16 fires, as given in the Pahlavi Vendidad, see 
Prof. Bartholomae's ' Catalogus Codicum Manu Scriptorum ' (Munchen, 1915.) 

The Dinkard refers to these fires thus :— Dinkard, Bk. VIII (Volume XVI), Oh. 43 § 46 :— 

,\ n^exjJ-Hyei •o-'okw ?»i 1^ <?if Jiw-v lu^ « ray ^ yr^Wjma aoi iej-*>-Ais 

" About the merit of purifying a corpse-burning fire, a fire burning human impurities, or 
dung -fire and about the duty of preserving, in the dad-gah, those fires of the workshops that 
are used by different artizans," 

The reason for the unification of these fires is thus succinctly given by Darmesteter (See 
S.B.E,, Vol. IV, p. 115, note) :— 

The Behram fire is oomposed of a thousand and one fires belonging to sixteen different 
classes (ninety-one corpse-burning fires, eighty, dyer's fires, &c.) As the earthly representative 
of the heavenly fire, it is the sacred centre to which every earthly fire longs to return, in order 
to be united again, as much as possible, with its native abode. The more it has been defiled by 
worldly uses, the greater is the merit acquired by freeing it from defilement. 

For an exhaustive account of the Collection and Consecration of the Sacred fires, see "The 
Beligious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees " by Dr. Jivanji Jamshedji Modi- 
pp, 210-243. - V ■■ 



69 

MU. I, p. 75, 11. 8-19 to p. 76, 1. l.=(Vol. II, p. 457). 

Dastur Nosherwan Kermani on the establishment of Atash Behram and 
on the zur-offering thereto. 

(Letter of Dastur Ardeshir of Kerman to Kamdin Padarn of Broach) : • 
Maktub-i Rustom Marzban .-—Again, efforts should be certainly made that 
wherever there are Behdins and those who tie the kusti (on their waist),* it is 
incumbent on them to have an Atash Behram there ; since it is necessary that 
all Behdins should collect the fires (of their houses) at least four times a month 
and should carry them to the abode of fire ; for if a fire is put to use in a house 
and if they cook food over it (more than necessary), it is a great sin. The fire 
(of the house) should be carried to the abode of fire 2 every month, either on day 
Ardibehesht or Adar or Sarosh or Behram. 

Again, it is so (stated) about the enthronement of Atash Behram that they 
should order a person to exert himself for five or six days and bring 1001 fires and 
put them in a place. In case 1000 cannot be produced, 700 or 800 or whatever 
thereof should be collected. Thereafter they should determine the site of the 
Atash Behram. Two priests versed in religion should go and make pieces of dry 
fuel ready. The two priests should tie anaw the kusti and take the (Sarosh) Vaj. 
They should take up those 1001 fires and having fixed a place therefor, place them 
on the ground and kindle them. 

Again, (the priests) should hold a piece of fuel high over the (burning) fire up- 
to the time when it takes fire. Afterwards another piece of fuel should be kindled 
from that piece (already)- kindled and in this way (it should be done) seven times. 
For the last time the piece of fuel which has been kindled for the 7th time should 
be placed within the abode of fire and dry fuel should be placed over it, and fat of 
the gospend and frankincense should be offered to it and Atash Nyaish recited (over 
it) . Every day it should be tended in this maimer so that it may not be extinguished 
and those 1001 fires- should be left over in their own spots before the (last) fire so 
that they may be extinguished (of themselves) and the ashes thereof should be 
carried away and scattered out so that they may not mingle with the fire.3 



1 A distinctive appellation by which the Zoroastrians are known. 

2 i.e., first to the Atash Adaran and then to the Atash Behram. 

3 This whole para, about the enthronement of Atash-Behram is not given in MU. H.P. 
gives it thus : — 

Uii ;j^«4 jJ j *&S w** 3 [j firrJJ <J*"fi cs l * ^ J 1 **• *"■> (**■ f-* J aJe ^ 



70 

Indeed, efforts should. '"be made to establish Atash Behrams. There is an 
Atash-Behram at Navsari which has been (established) in its proper place but then 
the (religious) affairs of other places (where there are no Atash-Behrams) are let 
slipi and in this (long) space of time if this has happened," many errors have been 
committed because people of the good faith cannot live without the fire (Behram). 

When one dies, then on the dawn of the 4th day, the fat of a gospend must 
assuredly be offered to the Atash Behram so that the glory of the fireS may be 
present (before the soul of the dead) at the head of the Chinvat Bridge and the 
affairs of that soul may pass off easily. At any place which is far away from the 
Atash Behram* e.g., at Broach or Khambait or Surat, and if a person dies and at 
the dawn of the fourth day, the fats of tne gospend fe not offered (to the &e)) aI] 
the works (i.e., ceremonies) (performed for the soul) are useless. Four times every 
month, the fires (of the house) should be collected** and if during the 5 days (of 
theFarvardegan) which are called Khumm-Qadimai when one dies in a town where 
there are BehdinS, and if the fat8 for the fire is not procurable then they should 
verily make endeavours;in'this matter. Again they should make efforts for coming 
(here) 9 so that they may obtain great rank in the other world ; because it so appears 
that (by not establishing Atash-Behrams) many shortcomings will be manifest. 
As theyto are a whole congregation and bear the celebrated name of Behdins, so 
whenever they do not make complete attempts (at establishing it) and whenever 
sms arise, it is a great shame before the judge Meher, Sarosh and Kashna, and (all 
the other) trouble undergone becomes of no avail" ; but still what has been left 
(to be done) is within their jurisdiction. i« An Atash-Behram which has been 
(established) should under no circumstances be put to (ordinary) uses, e.g. cooking 
or preparing food should not be done. By no means should any one carry away 
this fire to a housed and put it to. such use. It is a rmrgarzan sin.i* 

b ^ ^ i$l ; Ai u ^ % ^ ^ jxr ^ jL> , ^ J ^j/;^ 

1 byw^so Oiij-i — ( 



2 i.e., if the Atash Behram is not established anywhere. 

3 Adar Khoreh.' 

4 i.e., where there are no Atash Behrams. 

5 /f = ^ 6 ut., increase. 7 Kt) the ancient (Q adim) five days _ s ^ j fol , ^ 
i.e., m Iran, for getting the necessary instruction about various intricate ceremonies. 

i" i.e., the people of Broach to whom the letter is addressed. 

" i.e., the various ceremonies for the dead' will be of no use' without the establishment 
ot an Atash Behram. 

J 2 i.e., it is no use crying over spilt milk, but now when they knowthe religious injunctions 
the people of Broach, Surat, &c, should try their best to establish an Atash Behram. 

13 MU. A^g for Bk. A \&i IJ About the fat offering to the fire, cf. the following — 
Dk. Bk. VIIL, Vol. XV. Ch. VI (Darab's) pp. 11-12. (West's Ch. VII., S.B.E., p. 15) : _ 

* BS? \w**w -> ivy ^ u W f&w (2) - • - • . . u-tfft J ^^ }P 0^; 



71 

. MD. L, p. 76, L 6. 

kind of gospend is to be sacrificed for the zur (s-e. the offering 
of fat) of the fire. 

Shapur Bharuchi :— A male gospend {i.e., a sheep or goat) or a female gospend 
not big with young is proper for the offering of zor to the Behram fire.i An 
unsound one will not do, and that which is less than a year old is also not proper. 

Again, it is proper that Atash Behram Nyaish should be offered every day .;. 
if not, four times every month when hamlcaras fall, it should be certainly offered. 
If one is not able to perform oneself, Qne should order another to perform it for 

oneself. 2 

. 

(1) " The Pajag contains details about the slaughtering of a sheep lawfully in the ceremonial 
of the Zaothra- offering in the Gahambars for the fires and waters in aid of the Mazda- 
yaanians 

(2) This, viz., that from which limb of a sheep species, a portion shall be taken for the fires 
and waters, how is it to be prepared, and to whom and with what A vesta it shall be offered." 

Dk. Vol. XVI (Oh. 28 § 11, p. 19): West's Ch. 29 § 11, p. 95 :— 

e^iio -hemp -j m\j ^ -j lTOoor ihj^i :. -nosy jro fi -j IdjS _j ^.a -w 

" About the quantity of Zaothra (i.e.,the offering of meat) which is (taken) from one sheep ; 
the inspection and consideration in providing the sheep lawfully ; (keeping it) in purity {i.e., 
free) from contamination and other defects, viz., without sickness and without affliction 

(1 \ 
for -*0 J -"©' ) and without the wounding of noxious creatures." 

Dadistan, Oh. 88, Puraesh, 87 § 6 : — 

" The celebration of Hamak-Din (of all religious rites) is with that Zaothra-offering (i.e., 
offering of meat) in which they shall use four pure (i.e., without defect) gospends, and just as 
the Dasturs have taught, they should present, to every single fire, one Zaothra (meat-offering) 
from one animal." 

Epistles of Mauushehehr : I, VIII § 3, p.. 38 of text :— ' . 

a5 eyo^ »RjJse»-u •>_.«_©> V ->--w_j eyio fcai j_o wi^ ^jjk>> 1| jjij ^a j ^ 

" The similitude may be even apparent from the zohar (meat-offering) of the ass and the 
pig. It is said that if (the meat-offering, i.e., zohar) is carried to the fire in excess of what has 
been ordered, and if the fire, is ■ (in danger of), being defiled through carrying., hikhar (i.e., im- 
purity) thereto, then it is said that the meat is to be inspected as to its purity for offering it 
in the Gahambars." . " . , 

1 Av. Zaothra : the fat of the gospend offered to the Behram fire, chiefly on the dawn of the 
4th day after death. Of., with this para, Nirangistan 56. 

2 This last piece is omitted in MU ': 



72 
The Miracle of the fire Adar Burzin Meher. 

Sliapur Bharuchi : — It is so evident that the fire with the censer which Zartoshfc 
Asfantaman had brought from the court of Orcuazd is called Adar Burzin Meher. 
At the time when the vile and filthy Arjasp killed Lohrasp and intended (to 
extinguish) the fire, that Adar Burzin Meher disappeared suddenly by its own power 
and settled at a place called Dasht-i Vishtaspan. That place is called Dasht-i 
Vishtaspan and also Dasht-i-Kai Pusht-i Vishtaspan. The body of Sam Kershasp 

also lies there 1 . 

■ 
MU. II., p. 384, U. 14-16. 

Atash Behram of Navsari. 

■ 
Nariman Hoshang : — It is very disquieting 2 that your writing had made it 
manifest that the Atash Behram of Navsari had been extinguished. Perhaps, this 
at least points to the end of the millennium of Ahriman. Again, it is not known 
whence they have brought this . Atash Behram, or how it has been enthroned. 
Please condescend to inform us. 3 

MU. I., p. 76, 1. 8 : H.P. f. 206, f . 214, f . 382. 

Out of one Atash Behram, two cannot be made. 

Kamdin Shapur and Bahman Punjya. — The Fire Behram cannot be divided 
into two parts, 4 because it is 5 a Margarzan sin. 8 

MU. I., p. 76 11. 10-11. 
Who can see the sacred Atash Behram fire ? 

Bahman Punjya. — It is said that every person sees Atash Behram with his 
own eyes. This is not proper. It is necessary that Dasturs or Hirbads who 

1 cf. Bundehesh : ch. 16. This Rivayat is omitted in MU : — ■ 
^f iVHJ j &.$&> \j i—wi \j^ t^it i_j.«tja.^l AJilj j jKjti fS jc^j Ot-h^t ' J^° yi j .J jjf 

/>? tiwAJ j«j.l*« _j.^J i j &4jUAjj« j.^-1 ^i+jj.,1 tjj\j t j*» vi*° j' J 1 St**»l 8<5J3Jk<»J0 

aJL; 1/0,5 j.j.l*/o ail g^jl^j ^ j ijj| Sijjf 'qsi - jl /»j^ 7 jj tjijT 

i (Jisjj jAJ or 'jjii.j B H.F, i n on e place adds uii> J* J ' i.e., according to Religion. 

8 It is not enjoined to make two Atash-Behrams from one and establish each separately 
in separate places. 



73 

have been initiated Navazudi should put on the Penora 2 and see it with their 
eyes. 3 No other person can see it, because it is not enjoined in the religion. 4 






MU. I, p. 11, 11. 13-19 to p. 78, U. 1-2.6 



From Gajastah Abalish (Pursesh 5th) : — . . 
The ' Gaiastak Abalish ' on the adoration of fire. 

yw-u ) wv-tt ^W) -hs-w ' ^ tSJ )W-^»ie) fy 4$fa 
vp jo;)^ o?>_^j -u4H*> -> Xjyo* $» ■=> )jyv ts »WbMij*H -*o£ 
))«)j» ,yos))}' ^c-y^o 3 1^ 3-MW- u A* »iT tj» -*0H?)^ o$ ) ■WfHsa-fJa* 

^ex)-y jkj-hxj ■$ w ^s)? )£ ^ & ... )ho»K)£ _u)j ironpo 
t*s Sx5-3-" W))ty) w^y* ^joj-u ?C ,*)rH2aj$v i -uyj ) ii^yj 

5-o»K J ^P- 3 J ( ll^p^ for ) )wj>4 -Hy'-vw *)y-€ jjh OjvY 

1 i.e. who have undergone the Navar and Maratib ceremonies and have thereby beem 
declared full-fledged priests. 2 The mouth-veil. 

3 i.e. the qualified priests only are allowed to look at the Sanctum Sanctorum. 

4 Nowhere in the Pahlavi writings do we meet with this injunction. In fact even no 
indirect evidence there anent is forthcoming. Sucha decision was given by some Persian priests 
on the consideration that the consecrated fire — the quintessence of purity and the son of 
Ahuramazda — was too sacred to be seen with the naked eyes of ,the sinning creatures of Ahura 
Mazda. Indeed, this decision from Iran was put into practice and was • observed with all 
solemnity by the Kadimi Atash Behrams here upto a few years ago ; but reason prevailing over- 
mere sentiment has now dispensed with this custom unauthorized by religion. 

5 In the text, the original Pahlavi of this as well as the two following pursishna on p. 75 is- 
given in Persian transcription which is so uncouth that taken by itself it will baffle our 
attempts at proper translation in many places. 



74 

The fifth (question) he asked thus : ' Why should you pray to the Behram 
fire and ask favours of it thus : " Give me, (who am) your friend, this, son of 
Ormazd, speedy glory, speedy nourishment and speedy livelihood," since it is 
evident that fire in itself is so weak and impotent and poor that if men do not 
supply it with food and fuel for a day, it is extinguished ? It is not proper to ask 
a favour of what in itself is powerless (to bestow).' 

The priest replied : This case can be compared to a town where are to be 
■found all kinds of professions, viz., of blacksmith, shoemaker, carpenter, tailor 
(&c.)- The shoemaker expresses a wish before the blacksmith thus : "0 black- 
smith, make me a hand-tool so- that I may make you fine shoes, "' and the shoe- 
maker sews the shoes for the tailor and the tailor makes garments for the shoe- 
maker.. In this way, the fire which is helpless in its bodily form expects from us 
zohar (fat of gospend), frankincense and fuel, just as we expect, from the spiritual 
form of the fire, the demolishing of the invisible daevas, such as sickness, fever, 
pestilence, and anger. Thus are masters in need of their servants and servants 
in need of their masters. Mamun, the Amir of the Faithful, liked it, regarded this 
as a proper (answer) and derived great pleasure therefrom. 






Gifts for the Atash Behram and for the righteous may be accepted 
from those of a foreign faith. 

Shapur Btiuruchi : — If a darvand {i.e., one of a foreign faith) gives anything (aa 
a gift) for the Atash Behram, it is allowable if they accept it ; and if he gives 
anything as a gift to the pious (ashS-ddd), that even may be accepted. 1 

MU. I, p. 78; 11. 4-7 : H.F. f. 128. 

Fire and water should be kept at a distance from nasu or dead matter. 

Kama Bohra : — The 78th chapter 2 is this : great 3 care should be taken that 
dead matter may not be carried to water and fire, for the soul ©f any person who: 
brings dead matter to water or fire will never be liberated from hell. It is said in 
the religion that it is on this account 4 that there is a great (pest of) gnats and locusts 
when they do not take precautions 6 about the dead matter (coming in contact) 
with water and fire and that it is on this account that there are severe winters and 
extremely severe cold weather. 

Couplets : — Take care of the dead matter (coming in contact) with water and 
fire ; do not make your soul grievous 6 on that ground. If you be heedful of it, you 

1 MU. om. this : — 

i>J <■& y li&tij p r yT 

2 Gf. Ch. 72 of Saddar Nasr. 

3 H.F. W> f±M— MU. only »& 

4 H.F. Amk titf '^•t■^> , — MU. om. *-»'** 
6 H.F- *>5>:i jV— MU' ^^Ji 
« H.F. (Jmj-^J — MU u^ 



Aijj 


'\J.\ 




) AX¥j 


ft wf 


<v 




• 


















• 












■ 


■ 



75 

will have a happy station* in the next world. Exert your powers in that (direction) 
bo that you may not be distressed. 2 Take care of the water and fire (coming in 
contact) with dead matter. Exert your powers in this 3 so that you may be free 
from care in the next world. 4 

Mil. I, p. 79, 1. 13: H.P. f, 99. 

Punishment for throwing nasu in water, 

Kama Bohra .•—If two nasds are thrown at pne (and the game) time in yater. 
it is a Margarzan (ski), and if one nasa is thrown a thousand times 5 in water 
then it is a sin of 1000 Margarzan. 

MU. I, p. 79, 11. 15-16: H.F. f. 107. 

Kaus Kama (not Nariman Hoshang) : — It is so manifest in the religion that if 
a person throws one nasa at one (and the same) time in water, he is Margarzan 
instantaneously ; and if he throws a piece (of nasa) twice in water, the same 
Margarzan (crime) is on the increase in such a way that if he throws every 
piece* a thousand times in water, he is 1000 (times) Margarzan.' 

MU. I, p. 80, 11. 1-8. 

From Gajastak Abolish. (First and Second questions.) 
. - 
The "Gajastak abalish' on Fire and Water. 



l MU. ci>t/>J 'j — better H.F. &)} CfWjJ 2 H.F., MU. tfo*"" 8 —better tj>i&» 3 MU. 

w lj jtl "# : H.F. u"'- ' 5 J 1 )* ^ l *- 4 ef - Vd - 7 §§ 25 " 27 : — 

(§25) : Can those men be purified, O holy Ahura Mazda, who carry unto water and fire 

corpses and filth so as to cause contagion (ayaozdya) [i.e., according to Pah., who carry it 
always with a sinful intent]. 

(S26) : ... They cannot be purified, O holy Zarathushtra. These Nasu-producing 

danands are the great helpers of gnats and locusts. These Nasu-producing darvands are the 
great helpers of drought and famine. 

(§27). These Nasu-producing darvands are the great helpers of the winter created by the 
daevas, which causes destruction of cattle, and which is snowing thick, freezing, destructive, 
injurious and smiting the creation .... 

5 MU. 8 J^ j H.F. 'Li'v • H tki 3 ' ast * s accepted, then the meaning would be : — 
".If 1000 pieces of Nasa, are thrown .... " 

6 MU., H.F. *jk — better *^i 7 ef. Shayast-la-Shayas't, Ch. II, § 76 :— 

4P 7 w w&sU l^n ne) tewd ^ *i - 1 ^ ^-"^n na \f •hw-" (§ 76) 

,*. iy>bs*4 jlJ t)Kt -1))^ lj@ljg>l WV 

" Any one who, through sinfulness, throws dead matter into water, is Margarzan on the 
spot ; when he throws one there is one Margarzan (sin) ; when he throws ten at one time, it is 
one Margarzan ; when he throws them separately, it is a Margarzan for each one." 



76 



^■*cmj j))pj ^ ^u > jsoo wa -uj^p ju4«^ ^ j ^ 

■ JK5-KX) -^ )fO»)WJ»^-3j3)ej 1) V)f ^ J #$#> ii" %^ p 1» $i 
J)?J3 ^^ -U.J3) )$&$ £ £ 'l&ffi ^3) $)) J))^JJ^ )H0O^ 



rW ) J»pJ3 )££ft J^ 1) j) K ^ _^j ))|jj ^je,j J-J$ £.}f 

....... .-.I)^ fcJ))^)* -Ulj 

The -accursed Abalish asked ; " priest ! Who created water and fire ? " 
The priest answered : " Ormazd." Abalish asked : " Then why do they at last 
kiU and destroy ? " The priest answered : Know and be informed that there is 
nothing created by the Lord Ormazd to which the accursed and wicked Ahriman 
has not brought antagonism. Thus water and fire (have also their antagonists). 
(There is) humidity in the water and heat in the fire. When they come in 
contact, the demon which is with the fire encounters the water. (This is) like a 
father and his son, who have each an enemy whom they imprison. When they 
meet together, the enemy who is With the father strikes the son. It cannot be 
said that the father has killed his son (See Vd. 5 §§ 8-9) 

The accursed Abahsh put the second question thus : Is it a great sin to strike, 
i.e., pollute the water and burning fire by carrying dead matter. Is the sin of 
striking the' water and the burning fire greater than when one carries nam to them 
and places them over them? (or, Is it a great sin to pollute {lit., strike) the water 
and the burning fire by carrying dead matter to them and putting it over them? 



77 

The priest replied : The water and the fire are like a bull and a horse, who, 
if they are conveyed out of their own flocks to a flock of sheep, find there grass and 
fodder and are well protected there ; but if they carry dead matter to water and 
fire, it is like leading them (i.e., bulls and horses) on to a pack of lions or of. wolves 
who strike, kill and devour them. ■ h 



no Pi 



MTJ. I, p. 81-82 (upto 1. 1): H.F., f: 166. 
Why are dead bodies' put in the Dakhma ? 

Kaus Kama .-—It is said that when water reaches nasa, it is very sinful ; then 
why do they carry nasa with the permission of those versed irreligious lore and 
put it in the Dakhma, although they know it for .certain that rain will, fall on 
that nasa. 

Again 1 , God has ordered that you should carry away nasa from the abodes 
and places of habitation of men and the roads on which men pass and from culti- 
vated lands and the channels of water. You should so contrive that it may 
not be buried under the ground because 2 the Spirit of the earth is thereby grievous- 
ly afflicted ; and you should so contrive that it should not be all covered up in 
clothi n g, for if it is wrapped up in clothes, pollution greatly increases. 3 You 
should so contrive that you may not carry it to water, because the Spirit of the 
water is greatly afflicted by the pollution of that nasa. You should so contrive 
that the bare part of the nasa may not reach the ground, because the Amshaspand 
Aspandarmad is grievously afflicted. Then you should so endeavour that the bare 
nasa may not reach the ground and this cannot be accomplished* without seeking 
a Dakhma 5 so that nasa may not reach the earth. When a bare nasa (is) on the 
ground for the first time, then great pollution descends on 'to the ground and the 
ground is afflicted. It is also enjoined that when the head (of; a dead body) 6 is 
concealed beneath the ground, then much more affliction arrives on to the earth, 
because underneath the ground also, there are moisture and water'; then if they act 
thus, the water is afflicted as well as the earth. If there is a height above the 
ground, they should prepare (thereon) such a place that the nasa may be in an, 
enclosed space 7 and the rain may fall on it, and the sun and moon may shine, on 
that place and this much has been allowed (by religion) ; but whatever may be done j 
the commandment of God about it is that when nasa is in an enclosed place' (like 
a Dakhma, or Tower of Silence), the pollution thereof is on the increase and the 
moisture which is within it will reach water wherever it may be ; but if (the 
Dakhma) be in a desert place, pollution thereof becomes less ;. and let it be known 
that although rain may fall on it, it may be that in a desert place, it is still less 
sinful. In this (world), 8 we cannot five without 'sinfulness ; but one ought to 

1 MTJ. jXji; H.F. ^OjIjXj,}; 2 MU. j_H.F. ^ . 

3 This injunction seems to be given here for the ultimate disposal of the dead hi the 
Dakhma. The Rwayets say that the shroud should be torn to pieces and thus the body should 
be exposed to vultures. 

1 iij-« ^+ij.".J 5 H.F. A*^i> \g?3fr <***•£_).' Jf^ '• better omit the last /*■=»■ i as in 
MU. i.e. a Tower of Silence must be erected to put the nasa in. 6 i.e. the body itself. 

1 'jSsui lit., concealed, secret, private, i.e., in an enclosed place like the Dakhma. 

s H.F. and some other copies have a blank here after uij'l: so the word oJ.'t^. 
is supplied. 



78 

endeavour less 1 in the commission of sins. If I were to speak about it so that the 
uninformed might come to know of it, the story would be long. 

Know and be informed that God has so enjoined in the Avesta that you should 
so contrive that nasa, may not reach water or fire through your hands and that it 
may not be interred in the earth and you should not leave it in populated places 
and on cultivated ground. If it comes in contact with 2 water or fire or if it is 
interred in the ground, it must be lifted up and carried 3 to the place (set apart for 
the disposal) of nasa and the astodans {i.e., repositories for the dead). Now we 
do what God has given injunctions about in the Avesta and what Zartosht revealed 
(unto men) and King Gushtasp had accepted and propagated in the world. We 
fix our hopes in Him for this mercy. 4 

MU. I, p. 82, 11. 1-2. 
Water should not come in contact with dead matter. 

Kaus Raman : — Again, when water comes in contact with nasa, it is the greatest 
of sins ; (but) if the gomez of the bull comes in contact with it, there is no sin : as 
we find? that it is water e (which is to be preserved from impurities most) of all. 

MU. I, p. 82, 11. 6-12: H.F. f. 87. 

The nasa of the living is the same as the nasa of the dead, 
when taken to fire or water. 

Kama Bdhra and Shapur Bharuchi : — Q.—Is the bodily impurity of the living 
(carried) to water or fire the same as that of the dead or not ? 

A— The evidence thereof is given in the 8th fargard of the Vendidad. It is 
so said that (carrying) the bodily refuse of the living to water or fire is the same as 
(carrying to it) that of the dead ; because whatever has been separated from the 
body [i.e., the nasa) and whatever has not been separated from the body (i.e., the 
Mhhra) are both alike, (if carried) to water or fire. If a person puts his hand or foot 
in fire, and does hot observe precautions about it, and if the hair which grows on 
his body burns in fire, he has committed a Margarzan. 

1 MU. t)l J- 3 45*tfr f r : H.F. u'j- 3 u* ^ [* f 

2 MU. a£«*jl j(J ; h.F. &*& 3 MU. <^ji : H.F. *}jl 
4 Cf. Vd. VI. §§ 44-46 :— 

(44) .... Where shall we carry and where shall we lay, the body of the dead ? 

(45) ..... On the highest places whence the corpse-eating dogs or the corpse-eating birds 
may sooner recognise them. 

(46) There the Mazdayasnians shall fasten the dead, by the feet or by the hair, with iron, 
stones or clay, lest the corpse-eating dogs or corpse-eating birds may carry and throw the bones 
in the water or on the trees . . . . 

Cf. Vend. VI §§ 49-51 :— 

(49) Where shall we carry, where shall we lay the bones of the dead ? 

i (50) For them, an uzdana {i.e., astodan, ossuary) should be at once made out of the reach 
of the dog, of the fox, or'of the wolf, and wherein rain-water may not fall from the upper part 
thereof. 

(51) If the Mazdayasnians can afford it, (they can make it) of stones, or of plaster or of a 
thick cloth. If the Mazdayasnians cannot afford it, they shall lay them on the ground, in 
the bedding or the sheet (used by the dead), covered with light {i.e., in the open air) and behold- 
ing the sun. 

5 H.F. fi^ and MU. p^V s MU. if^JT H.F. o^jT 



. 79 
MU. I, p. 82, 11. 14-17 and p. 83, 11. 3-5 : H.F. f- H7, *■ 153. 
Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama :-Q.-Is the bodily refuse of the living which is 
carried to water or fire, the same as (carrying) the nasa of the dead to them, or not ? 
A.— It is so enjoined in the 8th fargard of the Vendidad that (carrying) the 
bodily refusel of the living to water and fire is the same as (carrying) the nasa of 
the dead to them. If the bodily refusel f the living such as hair, or nails or flesh 
or skin or the teeth— whatever thereof is separated from (the bodies of) men and 
whatever is also on (the bodies of) men-are alike.* Whatever of them reaches 
water or fire is just like this that the rma of the dead is burnt and there is Marga. zan 
sin for it. 

MU. L, p. 83, 11. 7-11 : H.F., f . 95. 
The bodily refuse (hilchra) of the living coming in contact with a neap 

of corn in coffli-fields. 

Kama Bohra :-Q.-If, during the harvest, a piece of the skin or flesh of a 
person is separated from his body and falls suddenly^ into a heap of com and 
becomes invisible to sight, or if the nose suddenly bleeds in the midst of that 
heap, what is the decision ? 

A.— Carrying living nasa* to water and fire or eating it is (to be treated) in the 
same way as the nasa of the dead ; then if such is the case and if nasa or blood (of 
the living) faUs on a heap of corn, it should be properly searched. A great effort 
should be made to find it out ; if it is not found out,* a great endeavour should be 
made so that whatever part (of the heap of corn) there is doubt about, 6 should be 
separated and removed 7 ; and if blood has fallen into it, that portion which has 
been (actually) poUuted and that about which there is a doubt (of its being polluted) 
should also be removed. 

MU. I, p. 83 11. 11-14 [Of. H.F., f. 137-MU. p. 82 (1. 19)-p. 83 (11. 1-2)]= 

H.F., f . 124. 

Kama Bohra (and Kaus Kama.)— Q— -If a part of the nasa of the living is 
lost in the midst of a heap of corn and is not found out again, what is the 
decision ? 

^4. The nasaoi the living (thrown) into water or fire, or eaten is (to be treated) 

in the same way as the nasa of the dead and if it be concealed beneath the ground, 
it is (also to be treated) in the same way as that of the dead : hence, a great endeavour 
should be made to find it out ; but if it is not found out, then whatever (part of the 
heap of corn) there is a doubt about, should be separated and should not be given 
as food to the cattle. Whatever portion there is doubt about should be separated 

1 ig W here used for the bodily refuse or impurity of the living also. 

2 &ii+j lit., closely united. 

3 Both H.F., andMU. »& for s(^3 (F.S.M.) 

i i.e., skin, hair, nail, flesh, blood, &c, of the living, 
s MU. A '- [ » *** } [ i tj 5 better H.F. ±i k'> A i & j b . Jj *# *ld'j}k ^ 
8 i.e., if doubt exists in the mind that a particular part of corn has been contaminated by 
naS a. ' ^'J+tji 1 - ttt., should be abstained from. 



80 

from that about which there is not the least doubt, into two portions, and the latter 
should be given as food to the ass and the rest should be discarded.! 

MM: I, p. 83, 11. 14-19 ; MU. II, p. 11 (11. 14-19) and p. 31 (11. 1-5) : H.F., f. 89. 
How far should the Barsom and other sacred implements he kept away 

from the bodily refuse of the living ? 
Kama Bohra : — Q. — If the nasd ,of the living is carried within three steps of 
the Barsam and other sacred things (pddydvihd), will the former make the latter 
impure, 2 or not ? . 

A.— The nasa of the living— e.g., when a tooth is extracted, should not be 
carried within three steps of the Barsam and other sacred things, because all these 
will be made impure 2 and if a piece of the (living) skin or of the flesh has a gash in 
a part (of the body) or has a sore so that blood flows therefrom and if that piece of 
the skin or flesh is separated from the member of the body and carried within three 
steps of the Barsam and (other) sacred things, then all these sacred things are 
rendered impure, but if the flow of blood stops 3 and oiie goes within three steps 
of the Barsam, then there is no impurity ; and if the blood does not issue from the 
piece of skin (incised) and if one goes within three steps of the Barsam, even then 
this does not make (the sacred things) impure ; and if the blood issues from the 
piece of skin but if (that piece of) skin 4 is not separated from that member of the 
body and is dried up, 5 and if one goes within three steps of the Barsam, even then 
this does not make. (the sacred things) impure. 

MU. I, p. 84, 11. 2-4 and U. 8-11: 

(Cf. H.F.,f. 88— MU. I, p. 84, 11. 6-8) : H.P., f. 118 and f. 154. 

Difference observed as regards the culpability of the righteous and the 

wicked, when the bodily refuse of either comes in contact 

with water or fire, 

■.■">- i . 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama :— Q.— Here is a man who goes on business 
and nasa separates from his (body), and reaches water or fire. What is the 
decision ? ■ 



i Cf . Vd. VII §§ 32-35 : 

§ 32.— Can the corn or the fodder be purified . . . which has come in contact with the 
nasu of dead doge or men ? 

,,§ 33.— They can be purified .... If the nasu has been eaten* by the corpse-eating dogs 
or corpse-eating birds, (then they should reject) as much portion of it as a Frdrdthni long (from 
where it has come in contact with nasu), if it is dry ; but if it is wet, (they should reject) a°s much 
portion as a frabdzu long ; they should place (the rest) on the ground, sprinkle water on all the 
four sides of it : then it will be clean. 

§ 35— But if the nasu has not been eaten* . . . then (they shouldreject)asmuch portion 
as a frabdzu long (from where it has come in contact with the nasu), if it is dry ; but if it is wet 
(they should reject) as much portion as a vibdzu long ; they should place (the rest) ... 

* for aiwighnilchta .'read unaiwighnikhta, and vice versa. 

2 v'^b in contradistinction to v'ii'j : it is the same as the modern technical term 
avav (=za-pddydb) : cf. Nirangistan OOO- ( = ao^&iy \ folio 43, 1. 5 ; folio 45, 1. 16 and 1. 25. 

3 X iS.x»ij.j : in., concealed (underneath the skin). ■■!.-'. u 

4 MU. is*j4 —better H.F., <•=*•*« jj (See Vol. II p. 11, and p. 31). - 

B i^AyJ : kt., concealed. ..,,.... 



81 

A. — When he is engaged in business and the nasa (from his living body) is 
separated unwittingly and without its being known, and conies in contact with 
water or fire, then the man is innocent. If it (i.e., the nasa) comes in contact* 
(with water and fire), and he cannot observe it, he is sinless 2 ; but if he is occupied 
with iniquity and if the nasa separates from his (living body) and steeps in water 3 
or comes in contact with water or fire, then that man is a Margarzan sinner. 

MU. I, p. 84 11. 13-16 : H.I 1 ., f. 129. 

Before cultivating a piece of land, care should be taken to free 
it of nasu, if any. 

Kama Bohra :— The 83rd Chapter is this that if a cultivator wants to irrigate 
his land, he should first of all go round the channel of water and the field to be 
sown, and examine them well whether there has faUen therein any nasd or 
anything impure or not. Thereafter, water should be brought into the field ; . 
but if, during the interval that (the field) is being irrigated,* nasa is found, then if 
he can remove the nasa, he may remove it therefrom; but if the nasa comes 
unexpectedly in contact with water, there is no sin therein ; but if the channel 
or the ford has not been well inspected, and if the water comes in contact with 
nasa, he is a sinner and becomes ri»» 5 ; he should wash himself with the 
Bareshnum (purification). 6 

i 

MU. I, p. 84 U. 16-19 and p. 85 1. 1 : H.F., f. 87. 

Precautions about nasa to be observed in the cultivation of the fields of a 

Zoroastrian, under the superintendence of Zoroastrian or 

non-Zoroastrian servants. 

Kama Bohra : — Q. — A man holds a piece of land and appoints cultivators 
thereof (who are) both Zoroastrians and non-Zoroastrians, 7 and he has ordered 
his Zoroastrian (cultivator) thus : " You should examine several times the 
channel of water and the piece of land which are under my ownership, all at the 
proper place and time^ and then you should irrigate the land." For this work this 
man has been chosen, 9 who has assented to it himself saying that he would do it. 
What is the decision ? 

f 

A. — If he does not know well that what he has undertaken can be brought to 
consummation, it is not proper (to entrust that work to him). 



1 uJiyH =to touch; to handle. Cf. p. S4 11. 6-8 *Ajh"i (cf. Pah tHS^seoi ) — scraped off; 

pulled out. 2 This sentence is omitted in MTJ.-H.F. gives it thus : 

&&Ti gU£y aJkib ^ly-J »e.J j ij&) o&y) a3| j ( so Kaus Kama in HX : but Kama 
Bohra has eJ Ijfc for iy IjB ) 3 i'jm t aj-w 

& /.i^-J j i <-> l ; Ht^ fastened or closed with water. B i.e., impure. 

6 Cf. Vd. fargard 6 (See note further on) and Saddar Nasr, eh. 75. 

7 Both H.F., MU. have J^\j *i}J> J &j j : better F.S.M., j¥^JPjt ' J^JJ*. J (of. p. 85 1. 9. 

8 i.e., at the proper time of the cultivation of the land. 

9 ti,j$ l&ij in,, been made manifest. 

11 



» 82 

MU. I, p. 85 11. 1-3: H.F., f. 87. 

Kama Bohra : — Q. — There is a man who has entrusted the irrigation and 
cultivation of his land to a non-Zoroastrian and has ordered him thus : 
" Examine the channel and the piece of land at the proper time. 1 For this work, 
this man has been chosen 2 and that non-Zoroastrian has himself assented to it 
saying that he would do it. Is this projDer or not ? 

A. — A non-Zoroastrian is not naturally fit 3 for observing the precautions 4 
about nasa. What you have asked about is not the rule ; for if water comes in 
contact with nasa, that man is sinful who had entrusted the land to the non-Zoroas- 
trians. 

MU. I, p. 85 U. 4-13 : H.F., f. 116 ; f. 155. 

4 Kaus Kama and Kama Bohra : — Q. — There is a piece of land (owned by a 

Behdin) and its cultivators are both Zoroastrian and non-Zoroastrian. (The owner) 
orders the Zoroastrian 5 (cultivator) thus: "You should examine well the whole 
land and the canals on the surface of the land and should remove the nasa of the 
dead as well as the living from every place whereon it lies and as is enjoined in 
religion, you should inspect it." For this work, 6 such a man has been chosen 
who has undertaken it on himself. What is the decision ? 

A. — If the cultivators be Behdins, it would be better 7 ; but in case a Behdin 
be not got 8 and as a Zoroastrian 9 has been appointed over the non-Zoroastrian 
and as the former has consented to examine the land and water and to remove any 
nasa of the dead or living thereon — then if he knows how to execute properly what 
he has undertaken, it will do. 10 

MU. I, p. 85 11. 15-18 : H.F., f . 95. 

Cultivation of a field held by a Zoroastrian in partnership with a Juddin. 

Kama Bohra : — Q.—A Behdin holds a piece of land in partnership" with a 
jud-din and it is difficult (for the Behdin) to examine his canals of water and his 
piece of land and to preserve them from nasa and impurity of the water of the 
jud-din. What is the decision (in this case) ? 



1 j^T ui^5_j.J (according to someMSS.) i.e., at the time when the land is to be cultivated, 
but H.F., MIT. V' ^>y i.e., at the time of irrigation (cf. U*}}** ej'-"3 S& p. 84 1. 18). 

2 MU. *W ; better H.F., '<**J : lit., is produced (cf. p. 84 1. 18). 

3 MTJ. &«UJ oil).* j j, • h.F., **>4J lM* 1 iJ>j& lit., has not in his mind or nature. 

4 cA!H*jSj (cf. Pah. \\W-^0)=isJiTji— F.S.M=J'irjJ 

5 Ijtj for bji) J (se P- 841 - I 7 )- 

6 H.P. (Kaus Kama) Ur [x * itfi' °*f^ j' for MU. jt£ c^ 1 i£ *f^ k j' (Here MU. is correct). 
? MU. (Kama Bohra) om. ■»■£ '>_/*? 8 MU. (Kama Bohra) ^ l i j for H.F. *i l V 

8 MU. (Kaus Kama) and H.F. lyi!>^» better J:! 1 J^ (as in Kama Bohra). 
l° cf. Vd. 6 for this and the previous Rivayats. 
11 Both H.F., MU. isJ L — better BK., F.S.M. tsJ^ 



83 

'A.— (The Behdin) himself should make an endeavour that for every canal of 
water, i he should not allow the nasa to remain in the passages for water and should 
keep thereby the cultivation 8 free (from pollution), because if he executes what has 
been ordered (in the religion), he himself is pure, and it is a meritorious act but if 
he does not make an endeavour therefor, he is riman and margarzan. This secret 3 
should not be -revealed to the jud-din as it is not desirable that he should do evil 4 
on account of hostility. 5 

MU. I, p. 85 0. 18-19 p. 86 1. 1 (See MU. I, p. 89 11, 10-12) 

H.F., f. 96. 

How should a Zoroastrian act when he sees ilasa on a piece of land 
cultivated by a Juddin ? 

Kama Bohra .— Q. — There is a piece of land which is cultivated by a jud-din. 6 

Nasa has fallen thereon. " A Behdin comes up to that place,* and he is hi doubt 

that it will reach water, or will make a person riman, or will be carried to fire. Can 

(this nasa) be removed without sagdid 8 or without Mmzur 9 (two persons united 

oge ) 

A. — If he knows with certainty that (the nasa) will reach water or fire, he can 
(remove it) ; but if he has doubt about it, sagdid as well as hamzur (i.e., muting of 
two persons by holding a piece of string between them) is necessary. 

MU. I, p. 86 II. 3-7 : H.F., f- 262. 
Dead matter in flowing and stagnant Waters. 

KamdinShapur :—Q.— If there is dead matter in water, how is it if the water is 
flowing 2 

A. If the nasa is up the stream* i.e., the direction whence the water flows, 

the water as far as nine steps away from the place where it comes in contact with 
nasa 10 (is polluted) and (therefore) one should keep Oneself away from it ; and down 
the stream (it is polluted) upto 3 11 steps and along the breadth (i.e., alongside, or, 
across), (it is polluted) upto 6 steps and (therefore) one should be away* 2 (from it), 
(This is the case) when the nasa is entire and perfect.* 3 But if the nasa has fallen 



i MU. V^ f$ \sh^ Ji —H.F. and BK. && jrt 

2 MTJ.'cjfy^— H.F.andF.S.M. ej'tj^f \6L jj J 1 ^ ) 

3 So., of how to preserve the land from pollution- with nasd, as enjoined by religion. 

4 H.F. MU. J**. — BK. j^.j C5^ s when the juddin is not on good terms with the 
Behdin, for some reason or another. 

6 MU.J^I ', H.F. (s)|^4*l 7 MU. 1*3 f; H.F. ^ U 1 ^ 8 i.e., the gaze of the dog. 

9 lit., being united together in strength. It is necessary to dispose of nasa or, for -the 
matter of that, any such thing by two persons united together. by holding a piece of string 
between them called ■paiwand, and by the proper recital of the Vdj. 

l° H.F., BK. omits ***J ^-*i /•&': ') <->"*■ *■■* 15* ^ "^ ^ J' L5 AJ ^ as tms P^'-ise is 
explained elsewhere in the same way. " MU. 15*— H.F. BK. M» 12 MU. omits. *« fj ^ 
which H.F., BK. give. 13 i.e., not in a scattered and crumbling state and not easily fo lling to 
pieces. 



84 

to pieces, then whatever part (of the water) of the spring is greasy* and (mixed) 
with matter 2 is impure. 3 If the dead matter is falling to pieces and if one 
wishes to drink water down the stream, ten seers of oil should be poured on the water 
]ust about where the nasa is and it should be noted how far the oil is seen on 
the water. If one drinks water from the place where the oil is distinctly seen, he 
is riman ; but if the water is drunk from the place where the oil 4 is not seen by him, 
he is not made riman. 

MIL I, p. 86, U. 9-11 : H.F., f. 82. 

Kama Bohra : — Q. — There is a spring continually flowing, and nasa falls into 
it, then how far down the stream, how far up the stream and how far from the 
two sides of its breadth, the water is impotable 6 and (how should it be used) for 
purificatory purposes 6 ? 

A. — When up the stream, i.e., the direction whence the water flows, the water 
nine steps away from the place where it comes in contact with the dead matter is 
pure. When the water passes over the nasa, and flows on to the other side, 7 three 8 
steps (away from the place where it comes in contact with the nasa, it is pure), 
and on the other remaining sides (i.e., across or alongside), 6 steps. 9 

MU. I, p. 86, 11. 11-17 : H.F. f. 109, f. 163. 

Kama Bohra :— If the water* is stagnant, it is impure 11 for 6 steps of 3 feet 
(each) round about the nasa ; if the nasa is not scattering to pieces or if the blood or 
any greasy matter has not mixed up with the water, pollution is as far as 12 these six 
steps which is the (usual) proportion. The water which is away from the nasa 3 13 
steps and which has thrown off its impurity 14 is pure and potable. 15 And if the water 

i MU. <*i*j I t&j^— better E.F, BK., F.S.M. A& b l t^irt 2 KJ. ^t^-HJ, 
**&&.& — better BK. and F.S.M. A**^ (see p. 99 J. 9. of. Av. ftf-fOWJ ) 3 H.F. does not give 
the rest from here. 

4 MU. 4: better F.S.M. iy>*jj 4 

6 BK. ait* eJ^r^ and H.F., MU. "SgflAJrjy ty.ja. 



6 BK. adds j* J 

7 i.e., down the stream. 






8 Both i5« for A*t 

9 MU, BK. ff <jk« jHi ts^iyjl:' but H.F. instead has ts'^j&'l _j*>j>S j! j 
hm> /J.aS j.Sji i_ Bm> an( j j t j^g been (already) mentioned about the two other sides (i.e., of 
its breadth). 

1" H.F. (f. 109) has Ui but has yT on f. 163 ; BK. yT* Lj for y' 
" MU. u*ij yT — H.F., BK., CJ+J j 

12 H.F. (f. 109) has &lk but has wl tj on f. 163. 

13 MU. tff« — better BK. H.F. **> 

14 yCjikj fory'i^lj (H;F.) 

is mtj. AjU yijy*4j uJ'j iMj{ y^b For the last sentence H.F., (f. 109) BK., F.S.M. 
have a-£'j eJ lj-30 Jtej w >Vj &jU yl/ify ( UlJ jjb US jl *\g ^m ) 
i.e., The water which is away from the nasa 3 steps is impure, but (if it is regarded pure and 
potable) it must be regarded as an injunction (given) in case of helplessness. H.F., f. 163 has 
instead *i l " yijjAjj w*b i'^j^i uLU (**ljjji Ljjl ,*(? J.«) ; hers v Uj is j or yj^lj 



85 

Is taken (for drinking purposes) three 1 steps away from the nasa, or (for better pre- 
caution), if it is taken 6 more steps (away from the above 3 steps), it is pure and 
potable. 2 When they remove the nasa from the water and they remove it 3 so that 
the water chipping from the nasa mixes again with the water (of the stream), it is 
all impure, and that which is 4 far off is also impure. But if the nasa is taken out 
so that the water which drips from it does not mix with the stream-water again, 
then that water is pure. If any greasy matter is mixed up with the water, that 
water is entirely impure and cannot be and is of no use, 5 therefore they should let 
alone that water to be dried up. Such water should not be carried 6 for irrigation' 
and every one who comes in contact with it is such as if he had come in contact 

with nasa. 

: ' -'' '-• 

MU. 1, p. 86, 11. 17-19 and p. 87, 11. 1-3 and MU. p. 90, 11. 17-19 to p. 91, 11. 

1-3 : H.F., f . 110, f. 164. 

Kama Bohra : — There is a spring continually flowing and there is nasa therein 
which is unseen and if water is drunk from up the stream or down the stream or 
from other directions, then it ought to be known that from the direction whence 
the water flows, i.e., up the stream, 7 the water is impure as far as 9 steps of 3 feet 
each from the place where it comes in contact with nasa, and down the stream, 
the water which has passed over the nasa is impure as far as 3 steps of 3 feet. 
each ; and (the water is impure) as far as 6 steps on the other (remaining) sides. 8 

MU. I, p. 87 (U. 5-19)— p. 88, 11. 1-2 : H.F., f . 107. 

Kaus Kama and Kama Bohra. — It is manifest in the religion that if one 
throws nasa once in water, 9 one is a Margarzan, and if one throws it 10 10 times 
in water, one is 10 times Margarzan ; how much the more it is thrown into the 
water,! 1 g much is the Margarzan more, thus if nasa is every time i2 thrown 1000 
times in water, it is a Margarzan (sin) 1000 times. 

The side whereon the nasa is thrown, the water is polluted 3 steps of three 
feet each, and on! 3 the other sides (i.e., alongside, or across) the water is impure 

1 all iff" 

2 H.F. omits this (f. 163) but has it (f. 109). 

3 MU. *>ji u JJ& '■ better H.F., BK. 4 *y eJ '■**■ &>j\ &sj# 

4 MXT. *-*^ *!>ji: better H.F., BK. *" ( J tiyi 

8 MU. *}"> J *£&* jK ■ H.F., omits ij^ 5 (f. 163) but has it (f. 109). 

6 MU., BK. *jji ■ H.F., urr ^ (f. 163) and *'{?> (f . 109). 

■f til ■ - 

7 MU., H.F., isX"U— BK. t5.j" * U . 

8 For the translation of p. 87 (11. 1-3), see p. 86, 11. 5-7. Instead of j^"*a of p. 86 we 
have jt**»8<J or j^^ji . j li " = (Pazend. ?#£*■« or JW •«■*> : c f. Per. 4N?.J a brass 

kettle i.e., here a bucketful ; BK. gives (J>^* for C5J-*" but has^i" on margin. 

9 H.F., BK. add W^j (H> 
1° H.F., j* 

ii H.F., om. **&• ylji &&kj ff **^J<t *"'j ii)tjj$j#ti 

12 H.F., adds tjkjt ' MU. only J-^ 1 

13 H.F., BK.jkij\— MU. jki- 



86 

for 6 steps of 3 paces* each, and down the stream it is impure for 9 steps of 3 paces 
each, 2 and up the stream, it is impure for 6 steps, and from over the surface, the 
water (is impure) for 3 steps of 3 paces each, 2 down to where the water descends. 3 

If the nasa* is underneath the water, it is impure in the proportion (mentioned 
above) from the top to the bottom. 5 If the water" is stagnant, and dead matter 
be in its midst, then in order that the nasa may be dragged away from one side of 
the water and from that side whereon there is dead matter, the water should be 
drained off 7 j n the manner and in the proportion for every side* mentioned by 
me ; because if they do not drag the nasa out of the water, it is a Margarzan sin 
except when there is any cause of fear or dread (of something) so that one cannot 
drag it out ; but if on account of this cause of fear it is not dragged out, it is still a 
Tanafur sin. . If there is no cause of fear, it is not allowable in any case that they 
should turn their back on the Nasa and leave that dead matter in water. 

In case he goes away with the intention that he may bring the (necessary) 
apparatus 9 for the work and when he (thus) goes away and can return 10 but does 
not come back, he is riman, but if on account of any cause of helplessness he cannot 
return, he is not riman. When he goes into the water so that he may bring out 
the nasa and may bring it out alone,* 1 he should step into the water and proceed 
with this intention that he may bring out as much of the nasa as there is in all ; be- 
cause if he does not go into the water with this intention, he is riman if he moves 
the nasa that is in water. When he wishes to drag the nasa out of the water it is 
necessary that he should drag it out from the side whence it can be sooner drago-ed 
out, and carry it so (far) away from the water that the water tricklino- from the 
nasa may not mix with the water (of the stream), because 12 if the water (tricklino-) 
mixes with that water, it is a Margarzan sin. When the nasa is brought out of the 
water it may be left (on a dry piece of land) 13 so that the dead matter may be dried 
up 14 ; then sagdid should be performed and it should be taken up by two men (with 
,a paiwand) and carried to its place. 15 






i H.F., BE. om. ^i /"• 

2 The text has 9 steps and 3 paces ; &c. 

3 MU. *^ijS—BK., H.F., F.SM. ij" J J 

4 H.F., BK., F.S.M., begin with l ~Lr^! J I MD". om. 

5 MU., H.F., ^ L>0' —better BK. V' piJ j 1 
8 H.F, BK. j [ l ; MU. V 1 " 

i mu. <nky. M-m ; h.f., bk. om. W.I& 

8 M.U. (si M JT j '— better H.F., BK. ^UjJ (SJf^jJ (after />■>'+*;• H.F., has wrongly 
lf M i in red ink). 

b MU. O^J ; H.F., BK. iSj-1 j j'« . 

10 MU. e3&"T *JlyJ; : better H.F., BK. w^T &JfjfS 

11 H.F., BK. omits *^-"i * <* J.J &JJ& ii>^i V' j' '*""' J 

12 H.F., BK. /"■*■ — MU. J 

!3 Cf . Av. hushke zeme nidaithyan (Vd. 6) : H.F., <£*»• I &* &t k* ; MU. *«■ ' ^ *t% 
14 h.F. yl j' J> ^ '•! : better M.U. l ~J ejT (*'•; or, better Bk. yf j 1 U3 (jT y.3 13 
( by*" u£Ju£>. ) 

is i.e., to the dadgah i.e., Dakhma ; F.S.M., *(f<>l*i for t&J&l 



87 

It is said in another place that it is permissible that when nasa is caught hold 
of, it should be carried far from the water so that the water of the dripping corpse 
does not reach back the water. 

It is said in another teaching that (the nasa) should be taken up from the water 
and carried so far away that the water dripping from it may not mix* with the 
water (of the stream). 

This is also said that it (i.e., the nasa taken out of the water) should not be 
(again) placed on the surface of the water. This is also said that the clothes worn 
(by a person who brings out the nasa from the water) are riman, and he should 
wash his head and body 3 with pddijdb 3 (i.e., gomez) and water. This is also said 
that when one drags the nasa over the water, it should be dragged upto the place 
where the water is continuously flowing 4 ; but if one sheet of water is disconnected 
with another, i.e., if there are different sheets of water 6 it should not be dragged 
(from one sheet on to another) 8 . 

1 yi'tj = to place. 

2 i.e., the whole body. 

3 Pddydb is technically used for the consecrated urine of the bull. 

4 MU. *5"¥»;>4j| vT J i: better HiF., BK. /&*>!!» jjVt.VI. i.e., over a whole sheet of 
connected water. 6 MU. tlj* »<>/; H.F., BK. t^ **/ V? 

Cf. Vd. 6 §§ 30-41. 

§ 30.— How much of the still water (of a lake or pond) does the druj nasu infect with 
defilement, corruption and pollution ? 

31. Six steps on each of the four sides. The water is unclean and impotable so long as 

the corpse (or parts of the corpse) has not been removed therefrom. They shall take the corpse 
out of the water and lay it down on the ground. 

32. They shall draw of |, -}, J, or ^ of the water according as they are able or not. 

After the corpse has been removed and the water is drawn off, that (still) water is clean and 
cattle and men may drink it, as they like, as before. 

33. — How much of the water of a well or of a well-spring does the druj nam infect, &c. 

34. — The water is unclean and impotable so long as the corpse is not taken out therefrom. 
They shall, &c. (See §31). 

35.— See § 32. 

36. — How much of a sheet of snow or hail does the druj, &c. 

37. — Three steps on each of the four sides (in water dribbling from melting snow) . ; 
(See § 31). 

38. — After the corpse is removed .... (See § 32). 

39. — How much of the water of a running stream, does the druj, &c. 

40. — Three steps down the stream, nine steps up the stream, and six steps in other direc- 
tions, the water is unclean and impotable — (See § 31). 

41. — After the corpse is taken out and the water has flowed three times, the water is pure, 
&c. (See § 32). ; 

Note. — As the water is running, the decomposing matter therein does not remain in contact 
for a longer time with any given area of water than is the case with the water of a stagnant 
pool or pond which is polluted in much larger quantity. It is for this reason that in the case 
of flowing waters, wherein a corpse is being dragged away, the water as far as 3 steps down 
the stream, 9 steps up the stream and 6 steps in the remaining directions is unfit until the corpse 
is removed therefrom ; whereas in the case of stagnant waters wherein nasu is found, the water 
as far as 6 steps in all directions is unfit for use until the corpse is taken away from it. The 
extent of pollution of the water flowing up the stream is greater than that of the water flowing 



88 



down the stream or the corpse has been a longer time in contact with the water in the former 
case than in the latter. As the extent of pollution caused by a corpse or any dead matter thrown 
mto a pond or a lake or any stagnant water is the same in all directions, water as far as 6 steps 
from all sides of it is regarded as unfit. 

In the case of the water of a well as well as any underground spring or that of a stagnant 
pool contaminated by dead matter, it is enjoined in the Vendidad that the decomposing matter 
after being taken out of the water should be placed on dry land to avoid further putrefaction 
and one-half of the water thereof at the most or £ in the least should be drained away and then 
it should be taken into use. 

As well-water or stagnant water becomes contaminated to a great extent and in much 
larger quantity, it is enjoined that a greater part of it should be rejected after removing the 
corpse than that of the water of a running stream. 

Vd. 6 §§ 26-29. 

(26) If Mazdyasnians, walking or running or riding or driving come upon a nasu in running 
water, what shall those Mazdyasnians do ? 

(27) After taking off the shoes, and putting off the clothes, they should wait and then 
proceed onward (in the water) and take out the dead. They should go down in the water 
ankle-deep, knee-deep, waist-deep, or to the length of a man's height, till they can reach the 
dead body. 

(28) If the parts of the nasu are falling to pieces and rotting, what shall those Mazdayas- 
nians do ? 

(29) They shall draw out of the water as much (of the corpse) as they can grasp with both 
hands, and put it down on the ground. He is not sinful, if any bone, hah-, grease, urine or blood 
may drop back into the water. 

Pah. Vend, 6 §§ 26-29— Commentary. 
Soshyos and Kiryatan Bujit have said that if blood or bones fall back in water (while carry- 
ing the nasa out of the water in his hands), he is not sinful (because he has done this with proper 
observance). 






It is apparent from the Avesta that this happens when a man comes to where a nasa is- 
lying m water and if there is no fear or injury (arising from dragging the nana out of the water), 
then he must take it .out if he can take it out and it is a tandfur merit for him; if he does not 
take it out although he can, it is a tandfur sin for him. Gogoshasp said that he is a Margarzan 
sinner. 

The putting off of the clothes is necessary for the care of the clothes (that they may not be 
polluted), as they are not polluted until they come in contact (with the nasa). 

If he goes (into the water) he should go with this intention : " I shall remove it as far 

as lies in my power " ; because if he does not go with this intention—" I shall bring out as much 

as I can "—then if he does not go into the water with this intention and another piece of dead 

matter lies there (concealed) and if he comes in contact with it, he becomes polluted. 

• When he seizes (some portion of the nasa) and leaves it off with the intention "I will not 

remove it," so that he goes away at last and does not remove it, he is indeed riman. 

Whatever can be best removed may be taken up (in the hands, or, any receptacle, and 
removed). 

To grasp and relinquish it and bring it (thus) from water is not allowable while removing 
it (yedruntan). 

From different channels (ndldn) connected with water, if it is not possible to bring it out 
thus (i.e., according to the mode shown above), it should be cut off in pieces and removed' 
piecemeal. After (the removal of) every piece, the hands and knife shall be cleansed with a 
liquid (z.e., bull's urine, according to Shayast-la-Shayast). For every piece taken out (of wator) 
and for every piece removed (to dry land therefrom), thereis a tandfur merit. 



Sis. Ch. II §§ 83-87. 



-^j ^ tW $g iremor j»n ^ku) *!s frwj&to mfjo ^ ^<?$ (83) 

-J ^kkj us nqp 9 (84) wptqrfe* ^j %* fj»\y? k aJti ^ ^ ^ ^ mm 



89 

£ JO 1 ^ J -Hif IRJIIOT" ff K lTOlr^ 3 JMj lHO-u ■HJ-S i>i5| £ -Hjey (85) 

■"OORfyltf RJIKW -")J JB-^I l? -> -H3^ ff ^ Wllf^O « J (i£ *1 ^W 1W11«)0 -^lj J*"- 32 ! 

•\ ipoiv^ j^j jjjji ivV no i«ji-"^i jjj*^ eno a5 £ -^ey i \po^£ ueiifge --of % *■»?> 

■•KJOJJtQ'a liniK)^ JMJ 1IK3-" f£>" W <?\)f&4 K31j£jU rtWHRjl ^V) -H3-? if ?$■ l (86) 

rp .*. aoo-meca -^ hhiW i iinw *. J oo-"(©>o *ts$ -w J iiot^ (87) 
Jff 1 J O0-"(© 1 7^(0' J tS-6' 1!°$' new-*" -o^ -J -"Of ^1 "Of -L_l-H)£ $ 3S 1WH i£jl? WW- 8 

„?. JOOJJtO'O ■» ^^ ' tf)l» 

(83) When he wishes to bring the corpse (from the water), he should put off his clothes; 
for it makes the clothes polluted ; what he is first able and best able to bring out is to be brought 
by him. 

(84) Even when he is able to bring it out through the breadth of the water, then even he 
may bring it out [so that the nasa may come in contact with the least quantity of water] ; 
but if he is not able, it is to be brought out through the length of the water. He should not wait 
for its being shown to a dog and for the two men (with pahoand and bdj.) 

(85) He should carry it away from the vicinity of water so that when he puts it down, the 
water which trickles or oozes from the corpse may not reach the water back. For when the - 
water which comes out from the corpse reaches continuously the water, it is a Margarzan (sin). 
Thereafter, it is to be shown to a dog and should be carried away by two men (with a paiwand 
and bdj.) ■ . ' 

(86) If he wishes to throw it out from the water, Mard-bud said that it is allowable to throw 
it out so that the water dripping from the corpse may not reach continuously the water. Boshan 
has said that it is allowable to throw it away (from the water). 

(87) It is allowable to drag (the corpse) over the water ; to take it up and put it down 
(again in the water) is not allowable ; and when it is possible to act so that he may carry it from 
a great (quantity of) water to a small (quantity of) water, when the waters are connected, it is 
allowable, but when separated it is not allowable. 

Sis. II §§ 92-93. 

jjjj )$£*) <?f j lmvrcj-Hs }£)w -"jj iikj-" ■wg , -- j .^'ia iiw-" -^Hfi ?T , (92) 
oiff no rci-"| \ujjp -ud 7^7 J*)? -v>°j ireir'se-'o -^nj o?*a « iwn^o 

•H3-" WV0-H5 -f]J -*"J -17^7 -^7 (93) .'. UWO-5) ■VeV J 07- J JJI?1 i -"V no icoiv^-" 

•*• 7^1} __j>-»WY? 

(92) If a nasd is so decomposed that it can be brought out (of the water) after breaking it 
in pieces, then even it may be so cut off (into parts) and brought out. For every piece (so 
brought out), he should wash his hands and knife with gomez ; the moisture, thereof,' should be 
completely dried up with dust. : ■ . . . 



(93) For every piece (so brought out), there is a tandfur merit for him. 

12 



* 



90 

MU. I, p. 88 11. 2-6: H.F., f. 109, f. 163. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — If in a desert place, there is all water and 
there is dead matter in it, then one should step into the water with this intention 
that one should drag out as much of the nasa as there is in the water ; he should 
(thus) step into it, take hold of the nasa and bring it out. If it happens that in 
bringing out the nasa he is exhausted and becomes helpless 1 and cannot bring it 
out (further), then he should so endeavour that he should carry the nasa from the 
place where there is more water to the place where there is less and (then even) he 
should desist (from his work) with the intention that he should (for the time being) 
go away 2 but should return a second time and carry it out (of the water) ; if he 
withholds his hands from the nasa not with this intention, he is riman, although 
even (on a -second thought) he goes (into the water) and brings out the nasa. 

Shapur Bharucki : — If there is nasa in a place where there is the fear of (its 
reaching) fire or water, or if (a person) sees nasa in water and if that nasa is 
of a Zoroastrian (air), or non-Zoroastrian (an-air), then he should order a non- 
Zoroastrian to dispose of the nasa. If there is no non-Zoroastrian, then, out of 
necessity, a Zoroastrian having wrapped up a piece of cloth on his hands, (which 
would serve as hand-gloves) and united with a paiwand and (reciting) the Vaj of 
Srosh, must dispose it of. If there is no other person (with whom to join himself 
with a paiwand), and if he does not know (how to recite) the Vaj, then he may 
dispose of the nasa without paiwand and without Vaj. Then he should tear off the 
clothes worn by him and undergo the Si-Shui purification (because he is a riman). 3 

Shapur Bharuchi :— If a Behdin dies and his corpse is in water, then a Zoroastrian 
(air) with hand gloves (bllhd) on and making a paiwand (with another person) may 
bring out the nasa from water. If there is no other person there, he may, out of 
necessity, dispose of the nasa alone, i.e., he may bring it out of the water. If he 
does not know (how to recite) the Vaj (i.e., the Sarosh Baj), then he may, without 
Vaj or without paiwand, (because there is no other person there) bring outtheraisa 
from water. Then he should tear to pieces the clothes on his body and undergo 
the Si-Shui purification (because he is a riman).^ 

1 H.F., BK. om. &£& fyfah} j 2 H.F., BK. om. j fjjh 

3 MU. omits this Rivayat. Antia'a MS. f. 85 gives it thus : — 

fS 4oU_^ jl^jJjJI O..WOJ fS A«U jAJI 'jjj.jl J!)' jl '"-3 (jf J$\ &AJJ t->Tj,J /c'«*-3 

i^jjM u»jy" tL^ **yi£ '-J K*iHWj{ o*.W|}jj 13 A x> b$. j.j I j la. 13 Sij Lj Si I j$ | iVA r j.aJ 

^j* ^jm IS „ _j yiljS Xjb ij\i W XJ ,S 

4 MU. omits this Rivayet. Antia's MS. f. 86 gives it thus : — 

l~j (jjf lj.i3 j la. tj AjLJ ^.S jiii lalif j.?! iljjf ti)jj£ V' j' '"*■' 41)' *■*"*? 't^ i^3}V 

1 



91 

MW.. I, p. 88, 11. 6-14 : H.F., f. 82. 

Kama Bohra .-—When a person sees dead matter in water, he should not go 
away from that place until he brings out the nasa therefrom ; but if he goes away 
with the intention that he may bring implements and apparatus for bringing out 
the nasa from water, it will do. When he goes into the water so that he may 
bring out the nasa, he shouldi step in with the intention that he may bring out 
as much dead matter as there is in the water. If, in this manner and with this 
intention, he goes into the water and if there is another dead matter and he disturbs 
that nasa on both sides of the water, he is rimari*. If the breadth of the water is 
more extensive, he should drag the nasa over (the surface of) the water until he 
comes to the bank and should push it away from the water with an old piece of 
cloth or a stick which he may possess (on to a dry piece of ground) and it is 
necessary that the nasa should be so far thrown away from the water that the 
water dripping from the nasa, may not reach the water back, and it is (also) 
necessary that that nasa may not again be thrown into the water. The nasa 
which is to be brought out of the water should be dragged over the surface of 
the water and (thus bringing it near the bank) it should be taken up and placed 
(on a dry piece of land). 

If there is a desert place which contains water and the (whole) nasa therein 
cannot be brought out (with safety), one should go into the water with the inten- 
tion that one should bring out as much of the nasa as is seen by one but if he can- 
not bring it out (on a dry piece of land), he should so endeavour that he may 
remove the nasa from the place where the water is more to the place where it is less, 
where the place (drenched in water) will be dried up soon, and whence the nasa 
may be dragged out (on to a dry piece of land). If he does not act with this inten- 
tion, he is riman. 

MU. I, p. 88, U. 15-16 : H.P., f. 163 and f . 109. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama .-—Disposing of the nasa is in this way: If 
a person brings out the nasa from water, the clothes worn by him are impure, and 
he should wash his head and body with gomez (pddydb). 

And this is also said thus : It may be that they may act thus 3 ; but if one 
sheet of water is disconnected (with another), e.g., if there are different sheets,* 
then let it be known that they should not act thus (i.e., the nasa should not be 
dragged from one sheet on to the other). 

MU. I, p. 88, 11. 17-19— p. 89, 1. 1 : H.F., f. 109. f. 163. 
Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama :—Q— There is a heavy nasa, and it cannot be 
brought out (of the water) alone, what is the decision ? (Again), there is a nasa 
which cannot be brought out wholly (out of the water), what is the decision ? 5 



1 MU. ***4 ; H.F. tJ»fpiU 2 The meaning is, that one whole nasa should be managed 
properly by both hands at a time and dragged over the water. 

3 i.e., they should drag the nasa out of the surface of a whole sheet of water, as prescribed. 

4 8 ij.£ t&j> = different pieces (of water). 

5 H.F., (f. 173) :— H3J^ J* J V*jJ VljX *S**ya-j 



92 

A. — It may be brought out piecemeal ; after every*,piece is brought out of the 

water, the hands should be washed with gomez and should be dried with dust, and 

then one should go (into the water) and bring out another piece. He should in the 

same manner wash his hands with gomez and dry them up with dust, until the 

whole (of the nam) is brought out. For every piece which is (so) brought out, there 

is a tanafur merit. 1 

' ri 

MU. I, p. 89, 11. 3-5 : H. F., f. 88. 

Kama Bolira : — Q. — A man sees nasa in water but does not drag it out of it 
and says : "I will bring another person, or I will tell a non-Zoroastrian to take 
out the nasa." He goes away with this intention^ What is the decision ? 

A. — If he does not himself drag it out, he should so endeavour that he brings, 
All the sooner, a person who can drag that nasa out of water, and if the latter .sees 
nasa in the water, and if there is no cause of fear or dread about bringing out 3 the 
nasa and if he does not remove it therefrom, it is a Margarzan sin. 

MD. I, p. 89, 11. 6-10: H.F., f. 109, f. 164. 

Ob the proper irrigation of a field.. 

Kama Bolira and Kaus Kama : — If a person wishes, to irrigate 3 a field or to 
water any place, it is necessary that he should walk three times round that piece 
of land which he wishes to irrigate and inspect the canals three times.4 If there- is 
nasa or bodily refuse or an impure thing, he should remove it with precaution. ; 
and then he should irrigate the field. If he does not do so and irrigates the field 5 
and then if dead matter appears hi the midst of the irrigated water, then, if he .can 
turn away (the course of) water, he can do so ; or if he can remove the nasa, he 
can do that ; at that time the nasa should be removed without the perfor- 
mance of sagdid or without hamzur s (i.e., united with a paiwand) ; if he cannot 
do any of these two, 7 and if water suddenly comes hi contact with nasa, the 
man is innocent ; but if he does not inspect the canals or the piece of land and 
irrigates 8 the field, and if the water reaches the nasa, the man is rima,n. 

MU. I, p. 89, 11. 14-15. 

Disposal, by Zoroastriams, of the nasa of a non-Zoroastrian lying on the road. 

Sliapur Bharuchi :— If there has fallen nasa of non-Zoroastrians on a place 
where there is the fear (of its coming in contact) with water or fire, or if there is 
the fear on the roads passed by men so that men may come in contact with it, 
it is necessary that two men of the good religion should remove (ceremonially) 
the nasa and wash themselves and their clothes with gomez. and water. 



1 Cf . Sis. II, §§ 92-93 (See Note further on). 

a M.U <ijj' UjjV. ; H.F. &bjj fcjjj." 

3 H.F, (f. 164) &j>. fc Ijif j I) oJJtf j i 4 h.F, (f. 164) *Jr? 4 J k *». &J& for 

A* cffi* B HJ\, and F.S.M. add &**> /■■> J I j cJtfj^ u.f _, ai&b x^jo (jAUjil 

6 M.U. Jjj*t LSi J Ai - aS *» isi : better H.F. jj_j*- 7 ^J _, *J O.L, ^> 

1 H.F., (f. 164) 4^ *1»^U j* £, and H . F . (f . 109) and MU _ tj ^l/xiji . 

8 H.F., (f. 109) awj — MU. a&f :. H . R (f- 109) om j ts the r6st of the sentenca from ^ 



93 

MTJ. I, p. 89, 11. 17-19 i H.F., f. 117, f. 153. 
How should nasa lying on the main road be disposed of ? 

Kama Bolira and Kaus, Kama:— Q.— A man finds nasa on the main road and 
there is fear of the water coming in contact with it, or men may trample it and 
bruise it to pieces, making themselves riman ; can it be removed alone without 
sagdid 1 or not ? 

A.—li he sees the nasa (lying) in this way, he should remove it without sagdid 
alone to a place where there is no fear* (of its, coming in contact with any man or 
anything), if he can ; but if he himself cannot, it is allowable if he orders a non- 
Zoroastrian to remove it, which is a meritorious deed. He should carry it away3 
from the road and canals of water. 






MTJ, I, p. 89 1. 19-p. 90 (11- 1-4) : H.F., f. 87. 

Kama Bolira :— Q.— A man sees nasa on the main road, and there is fear of 'the 
water reaching it and there is fear of its being bruised and making men riman,_ and 
it is not possible to perform the sagdid or be with paiwand. Can it be (removed) 
without sagdid and paiwand ? ' <■ 

A.— It is allowable that they remove the nasa from such a place as you have 
spoken of, without sagdid or paiwand, and if he orders a non-Zoroastrian to take 
it away, it is also permitted ; but the nasa should be taken to a (far-off) place and 
the injunctions about taking it up and carrying it away should be put into practice, 
and it will be a merit. 

MU. I, p. 90, U. 4-6 : H.F., f. 87, f. 117, f. 153. 

Disposal of nasa lying on an arable piece of land belonging to 

Zoroastrians or non-Zoroastrians. 

■ 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama:— Q.— A man goes on some business and finds 
nasa on other persons' land, but not in water *; What is the decision? Can he 
leave it alone or not ? 

A.— If the Nasa is on a piece of land of the Behdins,* the owner of the land 
should be informed of it so that he may remove the nasa. If the nasa lies on a piece 
of land of the jud-dins, he should take it up and dispose of it ceremoniously. 6 If 
there is cause of fear or any harm or injury about removing it, he should leave it 
(there). 

MTJ. I, p. 90, U. '7-10 : H.F,, f. 138. 

Kama Bolira (according to H.F. Kaus Kama):— Q.— A man .approaches a 
piece of land owned by. non-Zproastrians, and finds nasa on. it. That piece of 

1 MU. O.J AJ !_i.A : better H.F. *^** <£• 2 H.F. (f. 117) and MU- f*?Sj u Sl ^ [i 
H.F. (f. 153) 0i /->' UT*M 3 : better (& yi V*}* , G 3 H - F ' £ U7 > and MU - =!S ^ uM* 
ijj? ■ better, H.F., (f. 153) ^ Jji'^ LSJ^ *b J 1 ^ f— 

4 H.F., (f. 87) = °--!: 5 V^" J^'j for <-J _>*JI A . 6 BX(I.87J: V^k^Sx for W 1 ***^ 
6 H,F., (f. 1-53) omits this whole sentence. 



94 

land is cultivated and there is no fear of the nasa reaching water or fire or of its; 
being turned upside down. Can that man alone take up the nasa and dispose of 
it without sagdid ? 

A. — The nasa (may be disposed of) without sagdid, if there is any fear of (its- 
coming in contact with) water or fire or if there is any fear of (its being thrown on) 
the roads traversed by men. If not, the nasa cannot be shaken without sagdid : 
at any place where there is no cause of fear. If he can carry it away but does not- 
remove it, it is a sin. Hence they should endeavour so that sagdid should be 
performed over the nasa which should be disposed of with paiwand, so that it 
may be a merit. 

MU. I, p. 90, 11. 14-17 and p.91 , 11. 5-8 : H.F., f, 110, f. 164. 
Well-water polluted by nasa. 
Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — The top of a well should be left open.* (In 
case dead matter has fallen into it), one should always be on the lookout so that 
no one drinks water thereof, and should not shake it. If nasdhaa fallen into it and 
one drinks water therefrom, or if one shakes the water, one is riman. (Even) 1 if one 
drinks water unknowingly 2 from that well, one is riman and the owner of the weU is- 
a, Margarzan (sinner). The person who has drunk of the water of the well should 
undergo Bareshnum and the person who shakes the water should also undergo. 
Eareshnum. 3 If there is another well in its vicinity, or if they sink (another well in. 
its vicinity), they should drink of its water. 

MU. I, p. 91, U. 10-17 : H.F., f . 213. 

Kamdin Shapur : — A well is built of burnt bricks 4 and in its bottom, pieces of 
wood are fastened and if greasy matter issues from the nasa lying into it, that nasa 
should be removed by two men united with a paiwand and with (the recitation of) 
Srosh 5 Baj. They should wear hand-gloves 6 made of three layers and a vessel with 
the handle 7 like a large iron bowl 8 (in the shape of a bucket) should be made a long 
paiwandfm the hand 9 and (the Srosh Baj should be repeated) upto ashahe.w Thereafter 
one person should go down the well, use the iron bowl, take up, in the bowl, the nasa 
lying on one side of the weU and make it separated from water, and so that a portion 
(only) of the nasa may be in water, he should let the water (from the nasa) drip* 
into the water (of the well) and then place the nasa in the bowl in such a way that 
the water issuing from it may not mix with the water (of the well), and if that water 
drips (into the well-water), both (persons) are riman and should undergo the Baresh- 

1 H.F. (f. 110) <M&5 <8A&J.Uj* j\y> »U^« (bk adds^jlw rf) and H.F. (f. 164) 
— dij\'&U fS *J U j 'J 8 'a. jm f or fljxj- *5j I *J />S" AJ U*5 »U.j..w 2 H.F., A"3 I a Uu g (g 5 1 3 ; 
M. omits *W 3 3 H.F. (f. 110, f. 164) om. the last clause. 

4 MU. />>**> J v^J tiUki: : better omit J as in H.F. 5 H.F. omits J»jj m 

6 /^iS" 7 Ji*» (p az . %mjx or -i\*x> per UJa« = a brass kettle, or a vessel with a 

handle. 8 /,: &*^- a cup or a bowl. ; , 

9 This paiwand [lit., connection) of the handle of the iron bowl used for removing the dead 
matter will keep the hands unsoiled. 

10 H.F., a«I with wey-*^-" beneath. 



95 

num. If the water does not* (drip off the nasa)* the nasa should be taken out (in. 
this drenched state) and be placed in a place where it is dried up. 

Then sagdid should be performed over it and it should be carried to its proper 
place (ddd-gdh). If greasy matter exudes from the nasa (and it is falling to 
pieces), it should be removed from the water in the bowl piecemeal. Such wells 
are unfit for use. The parapet of the weU should be raised to the height of a man 
ah sat once, and then^ the water thereof should never be drunk by Behdins until 
a year elapses. 

If the nasa is in a perfect state (i.e., not scattering to pieces), the parapet of 
the well* should be raised to a man's height (and should be so kept) for one year ; 
,and (after a year) the water 6 of the well being pure should be drawn and there is 
no fear if, thereafter, the water is drunk. 

The wood (at the bottom of the weU) and the burnt bricks should be taken to 
a desert place (as being unfit for use)' and a covering^ (should be made) on its top 
:(so that no one can use the water). If any greasy matter is found thereon, five 
(layers of) bricks from the bottom and five from the top should be removed and 
should never be used again. If the covering 9 is made of stone or of pipe-clay, it 
*an be used after a year. 

MU. I, p. 92, II. 13-15 : H.F., i 439. 

Water of a pond. 

Kaus Mahiar :— Q.— When is the water of a pool or a pond used ? 

A.— As mentioned before, if a darvand [i.e., a person of another faith) had usedi" 
that water, then the Behdins should, in no case, use it. 

iQ .—(What is the decision) about the water of a pond which is in a desert ? 

^ —It can be (used) by the Behdins" out of necessity, because (in that ease) 
it is allowed that they should drink it. 



1 H.F., *>■" J 3 '■ better MU. ij-*J 2 i.e., if the dead matter is so drenched in water 
that the water cannot be removed. 9 

3 H .?. adds a-i i H.F, » If (S J ; M U. 8 L* J 4 6 H .F. rightly I k ij* 5 MU. S k 

8 MU. tSjl; H.F. tsjf 

7 l^swc jjUj ji, . (p a z. 1jj»ji»jj) : p er s. J J W. — gain, profit ; or, Pers. yj¥.= 
work, business ; or W [} l M = a desert ; Otherwise : " The wood, &c, should be used for the 
work of the desert, i.e., it is useless." Cf., the usual Pah. phrase in such eases Itf)^ Vol W- 

SMU.jV; better H.F. &j}& (Paz. $*\ji&»\ ) Cf. Pah. VOH ' Here the following 
words, omitted in MU., are given thus in H.F : — 

" &j}j Cf. Pah. ?ar °r *W) = Per. i^p 
10 t&jf d±* lit., disturbed. i.i but the Herb&ds (i.e., the priests) should abstain from 
making any use thereof. 



96 



'■ 



MU. I, p. 92, 11. 17-19 to p. 93, 1]. 1-2 (MU. II, pp. 466-467.) t 

What becomes of the water spilt on the ground ? and the water 
of Ardvi Sura Anahita. 

Shapur Bharuchi :— Pure water which is poured on the ground reaches and 

ioins with the bottom! thereof after one year. If the water is filthy, it joins with it 

after 3 years. If the water is riman, i.e., if it has come in contact with dead matter, 

then it reaches the (bottom) place! in 9 years. The water used for bathing and for 

pMydb 1 joins with it in 3 years. 

Again, the spirit- of the river Arduisur Anahita pours its water daily into the 
sea Zareh Frakard through 1000 aqueducts which are golden channels. All canals, 
i.e., the golden channels, have 3 lands of breadth, as has been said thus : The 
orifices of 333 channels are so wide that a cavalier can pass (easily) in each ; those 
of 333 channels (are so wide that in each) a man can stand up, and those of 333 
channels (are so wide) that in each a gospe?id may pass easily.3 






MU. I, p. 93, 11. 4-9. 



Bahman Punjya .-—The creator Ormazd has formed, through His power, 999 golden 
channels from the sky upto Mount Alburz. (The orifices of) 333 channels are so wide 
that a cavalier can pass in each. Those of 333 channels are so wide that an ox can 
pass in each. The orifices of 333 channels are so wide that a gospend (sheep or goat) 
can pass in each. In aU, 999 golden channels have been made manifest* from the 
sky upto the Mount Alburz. Aban Arduisur carries water through these channels 
perpetually from the court of Ormazd and pours it in the sea Zareh Frakart. It 
is on this account that the water of the sea does not decrease. If not, although the 
rains coming' down from the clouds will pour down, the waters of the sea will 
diminish in 3 or 4 years ; but the water of the sea is not lessened through the action 
of Arduisur Banu. 5 



! i.e., with sub-soil water. 

2 i.e., the water used for washing the open parts of the body for performing the husti. 

3 This is simply an amplification of Avan Yasht, § 101 : "It has 1000 channels. The 
extent of each of these channels and. of each of these canals is as much as a man riding on a 
good horse can pass in 40 days." Cf. Pah. Rivayat XLVI, p. 130 § 12 :— . 

IKI rea-^ _y *\) -oif iS iVK)'_j» fiei -0 -hjW' -co. «eS- lutf 4fif & u»,f *) 

-> nyX 1, JjpJ vw _r_jt_r no ?} W «tw *i *>iJL -otf a5 im > _j» j, 

Cf. Bundehesh Ch. 21 § 4. 

4 MU. utfji — better S.D.B. and F.J3.M. U «j J 

5 Cf. Bundehesh Ch. 13 §§ 1-2 :— 

(l)..On the nature of the seas. , It, is said in the religion that the Frakh-Kart sea keeps 
one-third of this earth on the south-side of the border of Alburz, and so wide-formed is this sea 
that the water of a thousand lakes is held by it,'.such as the source Arduisur, which some say 
is the fountain lake. (2) Every lake has a fountain-(source) of water; some are great, some' 
are smaU ; some are so large that a man 1 (ridmg)-on ahorse might compass them round in 40 
days, which is 1000X 700 leagues in extent. (Cf Yt 5 § 101) 



97- 

MU. IS p. 93, 11. 11-19. 
The Alburz Mount, Far&kh-kart sea and the three-legged ass. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — Again, Mount Alburz encircles the whole world, and in the 
same manner also, the sea encircles the whole world. The sea which has been made 
manifest has been created by the good 1 and propitious Ormazd from the side of Mount 
Alburz and He has made the waters running. From Mount Alburz upto several 
Farsangs, this water resembles quicksilver and the water flowing through the mountain 
falls first into hell. This warm water falls into hell for this reason that pollution and 
impurity are washed off hell by the warm water. Now when the water flows 
out of hell, it falls into every sea. When the water flows out of hell (it falls into the 
sea Vourukasha), where the good and propitious Ormazd has created a three-legged 
ass, which is called by the name of hhar-i-taldtd. [Taldtd in Pahlavi language is 
used for three 2 ]. And when the water flows out of hell (into the sea Vouru- kasha) 
the gaze of the three-legged ass falls on it, and on account of this gaze of Ms, the 
waters which have become impure in hell become purer and cooler. 3 The Creator 
Ormazd has given so much purity and magnificence to this ass that if dead matter 
or impurities of menstruation or bodily refuse 4 or any (other) impurity fall into 
the sea, all this is seen by the ass and all these impure things become pure through 
the sight of this Ass. 

9 

Again, the water of the sea which every day flows and ebbs twice, falls into 
hell and purifies the impurities of hell 5 . 

1 k for M as in S.D.B., and F.S.M. 2 MU. '3 ,,« — better F.S.M. (j />»■ 
3 mf.j$}pm forj.3 <>j.« as in S.D.B. & F.S.M. 

* mu. j**; s,d;b: j*» ** (Av. #&*)'. 

5 Cf. Bd. Ch. 19 §§ 1-10:— 

(1) It is said of the three-legged ass that it stands in the midst of the sea Vburu -kasha ; ; ; 
(10) It is even on that account when all asses which come into water stale in the water — as ft 
is said thus: 'If, O three-legged ass ! you were not created for the water, all the water in 
the sea would have perished from the contamination which the poison of the Evil Spirit has- 
brought into its water, through the death of the creatures of Ormazd." 

'at'. Bd. o£. 13 §§'*-ro,^- 

(4) On the south of Mount Alburz, a hundred 1 thousand golden channels are there formed: 
and that water goes .with warmth and clearness through the channel on to Hugar the lofty ; 
on the summit of that mountain is a lak6 ; into that lake it flows, becomes quite purified and 
comes back through a different golden channel. (5) At the height of a thousand men, an open 
golden branch from that channel is connected with Mount Ausindom and the wide-formed 
ocean ; from there, one portion flows forth to the ocean for the purification of the sea, and oner: 
portion drizzles in moisture upon the whole of this earth, and all the creatures of Ormazd 
acquire health through it and it dispels the dryness of the atmosphere . . . , . (8)> Of all three 
(lakes), the Putik is the largest in which is a flow and ebb on the same side as the wide-formed 
ocean, and it is joined to the wide-formed ocean. (9) Amid this wide-formed ocean,, on tha 
Putik side, it has a sea which they call the Gulf of Sataves. (10) Thick and salt the stench 
wishes to go from the sea Putik to the wide-formed ocean ; with a mighty high wind therefrom, . 
the Gulf of Sataves drives away whatever is stench, and whatever is pure and clean goes into 
the wide-formed (ocean) and the source Arduisur ; and that flows back a secondtime to Putik 
[or, the rest (i.e., the stench or the unclean element) flows back to Putik]. 

Puitika is the sea where water is purified before going back to its gatherihg-p ' e (which 
is) the sea Vouru-kesha (cf. Vd. 5 § 19) T& hishtenti< ghzar$. ghzareniUHi. 'antare... 
aredhem. zrycmgho. yaozdaya. tachinti. dpo. zryanghat. Ivxcha. Puitilcat, avi. zryo. Vaafi<-Kashe,m r 

13. 



98 

MU. I, p. 93, 1. 19 to p. 94, 1. I. 

The Saokant Mountain. 

Bahman, Punjya : — From the Commentary of Dod {i.e., Narn-Setayashna). 
The Creator Ormazd the high and the exalted has created a mountain called 
Saokant-gar and in the midst of that mountain He has made a golden channel 
(reaching) from the earth to the sky and from the orifice of that golden channel, 
the water goes up to the sky and the wind blows over that water which comes down 
to the whole earth. This water is called dew. 1 

The Horn Tree, the Water of Life and the Kara Fish. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — The Omniscient Ormazd has created the tree Horn for this 
reason that at the time of resurrection He may give, to all men, the Water of Life 
with the leaves of Horn, so that all men may become immortal by eating it. It is 
for this reason that the Water of Life and the Tree of Horn are created. 2 

MU. I, p. 94, 11. 3-8. 

Shapur Bharuchi. — The Creator Ormazd has created the Horn- tree 3 in the midst of 
the ocean Zareh Varkash and created the Mar-fish 4 for protecting that tree. This khar- 
fish is so great as no other fish is greater than it. This fish is like an ass and hence it 
is called khar-mahi 5 (lit., the ass-like fish). This fish revolves round the ifom-tree.. 
The filthy 8 Ahriman has produced several thousand noxious creatures 7 for the- 
destruction of that i7om-tre i e, but the noxious creatures cannot pass before that 
tree on account of the fear for that Mar-fish. 

Secondly, when that Mar-fish utters a cry, every Ormazdian fish which hears 
the cry becomes pregnant 8 and the other fish which are Ahrimanian and are noxious 
creatures cast their young on account of the utterance of that cry of the Mar-fish. 
The Creator Ormazd has given such magnificence to that fish. 9 

1 Sea MU. Vol. I : " Commentary oj Nam-setayashna :" p. 415, 1. 10 (The commentary on the 
word bad i.e. wind.) 

2 MU. omits this Eivayat. Antia's MS. f . 87 gives it thus : — 

iAl«I 8*Jj.'T |«j. r O.i.j.1 j i^>U=- of (jjT ^\y. Mj»> iJj.<«I tjj.U^^ ^ +7 ^T 

S Called Gaokard-tree in Bd. 4 Bd. = kar-Gsh. 

S The author here confounds the account given in Pahlavi Bundahesh about /car-fish and 
the Icliar or the ass which is three-legged. 

1 MU. >-!5^.; S.D.B. (No. 235) = £**$& n The lizard (vazag), according to Bd. 

8 In the Bd., this effect is produced by the Ichar-i-talata, or the three-legged ass and not 
by the Kara-fish; • ■ . < 

8 Cf. Bd. Oh. 18 §§ 1-5:— 

(1) On the nature of the tree called- Qokard, it says in revelation, that it was the first day 

when the tree they call Qokard grew in the deep lake ( ' ) "within the wide-formed ocean ; 
and it is necessary as a producer of the renovation of the universe, for they prepare its immor- 
tality therefrom. (2) The Evil Spirit has formed therein, among those which enter as 
opponents, a lizard as an opponent in that deep water, so that it may injure the Horn. (3) And 
for keeping away that lizard, Ormazd has created there ten fcw-fish which, at all times, 
oonimually circle round the Horn, so that the head of one of those fishes is continually towards 



. 



99 

ML I, p. 95, 11. 1-5. 
The Birds Amrosh and Chamrosh. 

From the Commentary of Dod (i.e., Nam-Setayashna) :— 

The Creator Ormazd has produced on the shores of the sea Varkash 1 a tree 
and two birds who are immortal and without death. Every year a thousand new 
branches spring up from that tree and all kinds of seeds hang on those branches 
and all those seeds become ripe. A bird called Amrosh comes and sits on one of 
the branches and shakes it and scatters -down to the ground all the seeds. Another 
bird called Chamrosh comes 2 and strikes all the seeds with its wings and sides and 
throws them into the sea. All those seeds go inside 3 a cloud full of rain and that 
cloud rains on the ground and all the seeds appear on the earth. 4 

The Sea-ox Sarsaok. 

Shapur Bharachi:— The Creator Ormazd has, with His power, created a bull 
in the sea, and a fire is ever burning and blazing on the back of the buU, and 
every calamity produced by the accursed Ahriman in the sea is removed through 
the glory of that fire. 5 

the lizard. (4) And all the fish are spiritually fed, i.e., no food is necessary for them ; and till 
the renovation of the universe, they remain in contention. (5) There are places where that 
0sh is written of as the ' Ariz > of the water ; as it says that the greatest of the creatures of 
Ormazd is that fish, and the greatest of those proceeding from the Evil Spirit is that lizard. 

• 

Cf. Bd. Ch. 19 § 9 !— 

When it utters a cry all female water-creatures, of the creatures of Ormazd, will become 
pregnant ; and all pregnant noxious water-creatures, when they hear that cry, will cast their 
young. 

l oS.ij for urO-5 tF<S.M.) 2 Om.>1 J after *i l M as in F.S.M. 3 lit., go into the mouth of. 

4 This commentary is given under the word (Satar-i ms) tohhma of Doa Nam-Setayashna. 
Bee MTJ I p. 415, 11. 5-9. Cf. also MK. Ch. 62 §§ 37-42 and Bd. Ch. 19 § 15 :— 

MK.Ch. 62 §§37-42. ., 

(37) The nest of the griffon-bird is on the tree opposed to harm, the many-seeded. (38) 
Whenever he rises aloft, a thousand twigs will shoot out from that tree, (39) and when he alights 
he breaks off the thousand twigs and bites the seed from them, (40) and the bird Chmamrosh 
alightslikewise in that vicinity ; (41 ) his work is this that he collects those seeds which are bitten 
from the tree of many seeds, which is opposed to harm, and he scatters them there where Tishtar 
seizes the water ; (42) so that while Tishtar shall seize the water, together with those seeds of 
all kinds, he shall rain them on the world like the rain. 

Cf. Bd. 19 § 15:— 

Kegarding the bird Chamrosh, it says that it is on the summit of Mount Alburz ; and every 
three years many come from the non-Iranian districts for booty (gird) [or, in a flock], by going 
to bring damage on the Iranian districts and to effect the devastation of the world ; then the 
angel Burj, having come up from the low country of lake Arag, arouses that very bird Chamrosh, 
and it flies from the loftiest of all the lofty mountains and picks up all those non-Iraman districts 
as a bird does corn; 

6 MU. omits this Bivayat. Antia's MS. ft 88 gives it thus :— 
kji VJj^ cSJ^LAi^^^ &*)j}'.'j)*i* ^ J+* •'• IS*JJ'- jjjj** ^-^ & 

XZ&p jo,j Ji3f J ij jl l,& ^ cm\ t&j* kj* ji u-V 
This is the ox called Sarsaok in Bd. 17 § 4 and 19 § 13 arid Srfiv6 in Zadsparam 11 § 10. 



100 

MU. I, p. 95, 11. 7-9 : H.F., f. 253. 

The sin of walking bare-footed. 

Kamdin Stopur /—About walking bare-footed, they should know that when 
they put their barei feet on the ground, there is a farman sin for three steps for 
every one of those steps and when they take the fourth step, it is a tanafur sin. 
If they walk with one boot on in one leg and with the other foot bare, it is a sin of a 
like nature. Both man and woman have the same merit and sin in connection 
therewith. ■ If any member of the body of a menstruous woman touches the 
ground, it is a greater sin and Asfandarmad Amshaspand trembles. 2 

MU. I, p. 95, 11. 11-13. 

Batman Punjya :— If a woman puts her bare feet on the ground, it is a tanafur 
sin within three steps. 

Jasa .'—It is not proper for a man or a woman to walk with bare feet and 
place them on the ground : espeeiaUy it is a great sin for a menstruous woman. 

MU. I, p. 95, 11. 15-18 [=MU. II p. 468]. 
Shapur BkarucM .--Walking bare-footed is caUed Aimuk-davarashni (lit, 
walking without boots).3 Such sin is incurred thereby as if a Yasna is offered to the 

1 H.F., adds. **tH after tjJj 2 Cf. Saddar Nasr, Oh. 44. Cf. Sis. Ch. 4 §§ 10 and 12 and Sis. 
Ch. 10 § 12. 

*e *tay^ iia a J(4a -j p ^ *o_jm $, m i^ <0W3] j ^ (10) (Ch 4) 

Ifff wfi *r na v? .\_j^ )W $e ^U $, W^j? ^ (12 ) - - - ^m* 

(10) The sin of running about uncovered, as far as three steps, is a farman, for each step ; 
at the fourth step, it is a tanafur sin . . . (12) Walking without boots as far as four steps is a 
tanafur sin ; when with this movement (i.e., without sitting down)," one shall walk as much after 
the fourth step, it is a tanafur ; when he sits down and walks on, the sin is the same that it 
would be from the starting point and some have said that it is a tanafur for each league. 

Of. Sis. X. § 12 : — 

4K JJ ) W no <)s$ *f vs. -oey <s$v fro w twiner J ^$y « ft jKf 

*e & 1 j»o na J iaf f'f .'.Wira J ^ iwrff J ^j ^„ m}Wf > *i*, 

■ 

.;. IKJIKJ-SJ W3 

One is this that one should not walk without boots; the advantage therefrom is even this 
that when a boot is on his foot, and he puts the foot upon dead matter and does not disturb the' 
dead matter, he does not become polluted ; when a boot is not on his foot, and he puts the foot 
upon dead matter and does not disturb it, he, is polluted, except when he knows for certain that 
a dog has seen it j or if not, it is to be considered as not seen by a dog. 

3 The sin incurred thereby is called Kushade-davarashni in Saddar Nasr, Ch. 44 (which 
is also the sin incurred for walking without Kusti on the waist), and in Sis. The amount Of 
sinfulness, in walking improperly shod is therefore deduced from that incurred by walking 
improperly dressed (See Sis. Ch. 4 § 10-12). " 



101 

Daevas Tairich and Zairich. A person who gives food to him (i.e., to one walking 
bare-footed) incurs the fame sin. 

- 

Again if a person walks bare-footed, then for one step, the milk of 100 cows, 
sheep and camels decreases, and for the second step the milk of 200 animals 
decreases, and for the third step, the milk of 300 cows and sheep decreases and at 
the fourth step the milk of all the cows, sheep and animals on the seven regions of 
the earth decreases. 

MU. I, p. 96, U. 1-2 [=MU. II, p. 436]. 

Dastur Barzuji :— The reply about walking bare-footed : In any case, it is not' 
allowed to walk bare-footed because it is a great sin. If a herbad performs the 
Yasna with bare feet, then it is proper that a carpet or a piece of cotton-cloth 
or a leathern piece is placed (on the ground). If not, it is not allowed. 1 

1 Cf. Vd. 18 §§ 40 and 43 :— 

(40) The druj demoness shouted out to him : " O holy and stately Sraosha, he is the 
second of my males who makes water (extending the trail) beyond the instep [or, 'when a man 
makes water an instep's length beyond the toes' — Haug], (lit., who makes water the length of 
the fore-part of the foot beyond the fore-part of the foot)." 

(43) She who is the fiendish druj answered him : " O righteous and handsome Sraosha : 
this is the extermination of it when a man after he stands up (from the squatting position) 
shall repeat, three steps off, (the Vaj) &e." 

Cf. Vd. 18 § 43-44 Commentary :— 

This is evident from the Avesta : it happens so when a man, through sinfulness, makes 
•water an instep's length (or, the length of the fore-foot) beyond the front of the instep ; this ia 
the origin of a tanafur (sin) for him and he should atone for it by the Avesta (i.e., by reciting 
the Avesta-i Ghumsh). When he makes water standing up, this is the origin of a tanafur (sin) 
for him, and he cannot atone for it by (reciting) the Avesta (i Ghumsh), because it (i.e., the trail 
of the flow of urine) goes in front and does not remain backwards. It is as to that which 
proceeds from the body that the following Avesta is applicable : — "as much as the top-joint 
of the smallest finger." Even that amount of distance (dolak-hamar) is an affliction (cf . J)&- i.e. 

a, crime, or tj"jj7 a sore, i.e., calamity), and he^ who comes in contact with it [SV J | —j)? 1 . =a dust-- 
man, i.e., one who sweeps (the ground)] raises a sore (hhurag — '->■•' it = **Jt — blister 
on the hand cf. Al<). Gogoshasp said that for the sake of taking care of the clothes, one 
should make water far off. When one does the action lawfully and well, when he squats down 
one Yatha .... is to be uttered by him. Soshyos said that in case of haste (or 
■ga,ia=:aushtap) when he utters it on the road, it is also allowable. When he stands up, the 
Avesta is all to be uttered by him within three steps. Some say : " beyond three steps," (i.e.) 
on his walking apart (i.e., when he is three steps beyond), the whole Avesta is to be uttered, oy^ 
after making water (Javit-cliamashna) i.e., after keeping himself aloof (javit) from the (place 
where) urine (chamashna) has accumulated, he should recite the whole AveBta. 

This walking (chamashna) * is this that when he goes beyond 3 steps, then the Avesta should 
be recited inwardly by him, (i.e., recited in a low voice), [or, This Avesta-i-Chamashna* 

is this that ] When he accomplishes the action lawfully and well, but . 

through sinfulness does not utter the Avesta, it is not clear to me whether it is a tanafur or 3 
sroshocliarnamA Gogoshasp said that when he accomplishes the action lawfully and well, ho 
should also utter 3 Ashem &c. 

* Avesta-i Ghumsh designates prayers like those of gomez, bushasp and of ghosal &c, of 
Jjj+'a. r eji* 1 ?- = excrement and id &$*<$■ to walk. 

•f A tanafur is equivalent to a great number of Sroshocharnams. 



102 

MU.I,p. 99,11. 6-12: H.F. 266. 

The Tana Ceremony, i.e., the Foundation-Laying of the Dakhma 
and its Construction. 

Kamdin Shapur : — Q. — Inform us how the Dakhma is constructed. 

A. — On the site which is selected, (the surface of) the ground should be made 
vacant. (It should be) in a place far from human habitation. In its vicinity 
there should be no tillage and cultivation (dbddani) and it should be far from houses 
and abodes of men. Then they should proceed. In the space they want to 
enclose, 1 four iron nails should be driven into 2 the four (cardinal) points. They 
should be driven into, after reciting the vaj of Sarosh, and a cotton thread 3 should 
be wound round the nails three times and the interior of the Dakhma should be set 
with stones and plastered with mortar in such a way that (the upper layer of stones) 
may be separate from the ground 4 and (that layer) should be, so made that when 
they lay down the corpse, the pollution or any matter 5 (from the corpse) may not 
reach the ground. The wall should be constructed of stone and mortar. When 
(the Dakhma) is completed, they should sit within the central well 6 and a Vendidad 
should be consecrated with the Khshnuman of Sarosh. When they make a door, 
it should be of iron or of stone. May it be according to the will of God and the 
Amsliasparids. i 

Q. — When a new Dakhma is being erected, four Daruns should be consecrated : 
first, that of Sarosh, 2nd, of Dadar Ormazd, 3rd of Asfandarmad, and lastly of 
Ardafarosh ; then it is proper if they raise the structure on that ground. 

MU. p. 99, 11. 14-15. 

The Dakhma. r 

Nariman Hoshang :—Q.—Oi what material 7 should a Dakhma be constructed 
wherein the corpses of Behdihs are carried (and placed) ? 

A.— It is said in the Mazdayasnian religion that it is commendable and better 
if it is (made) of stone and mortar, but if it is not within one's power to build it of 
stone and mortar, then it will do if it is made of raw bricks and clay. 

I MU. L, p. 99, U. 17-19 to p. 100, 11: 1-2: H.F., 208. 
Kamdin SMpur : — A Dakhma may be built of raw bricks and mortar 8 in 
such a way that the matter (issuing) from the corpse may not reach the ground. 
Four large nails, 9 36 middling ones and 260 small ones (should be used.) 10 



1 for MU. Qftify 'A jl* 5 " wT^Mj (u^)— bk - has /^ jl*«* e4 ui M j ( <_r i ) : 
Zyiijt for iO&j&. * is'^ BK. u>S& ( =a long thread or rope). Cf. fcl OJoUj = to cause to 
weave ; or N*" 1 a web fr. <i) ,i, ■i A ■ , =to twist, weave. 

4 if there are more than one layer of the stones, then the upper one will not necessarily 
come in contact with the ground. 

5 /■M^i Of. Av. ddkhshta lit., mark, or sign: hence any impure matter (cf. p. 86, 1, 5.) 

6 astndan lit, the repository of the bones : the central well of the Dakhma (called bhandar 
in Gujarati) wherein bones of the dead are collected. 

7 >*^ lit-; item : F.S.M. adds /**>■* 

8 After &i/ *M H.F. adds:— ts><s/ *ik J j «&ft ***■<> VjJ*'^ J 

9 4 nails to be driven into the ground as representing *he four cardinal point 8 
1° for driving them in into the foundation of the Dakhma. 



• • 



103 

One hundred cotton threads should be twisted* into one thread and this thread 
should be wound round the Dakhma 3 three times. First the vaj of Sarosh 
should be recited upto mraotu. One Yatha, for every nail, should be recited and 
then driven in so that it may descend fuU dowri* into the ground. Then the 
wall of the Dakhma should be erected on the surface of the nails and thread* 
and let the waU of the Dakhma be completed. The interior of the Dakhma 
should be completely set with stones and mortar. Then they should sit within 
(the central well of) the Dakhma and three Vendidad of Sarosh should be 
consecrated: On the recital of 100 Ashem and 200 Yatha (in the 19th fargard 
of the Vendidad) 300 small 5 pebbles should be thrown into the interior of the 
Dakhma.* 

MU. I., p. 100, 11. 2-3. 

Eamdin Shapur :— If a platform' is shaky and if the stone-am's 8 of the fire is 
on its surface, 9 then such a platform' should not be made. 10 

MU. 1., p. 100, 1. 5. 

Kaus Eamdin (not Kaus Raman) :—Q.— Should a Dakhma which may be 
erected be circular or square ? 

A.— A Dakhma should be made circular" and the door (thereof) should be placed 
on the side of the rising of the sun, i.e., the east. 

i 

. MU. I., p. 100, 11. 7-9 [MU. II, p. 452]. 

Kaus Mahyar : — Q. — How should a Dakhma be made ? 

A. — Water can be used in erecting a new Dakhma, but if an old one is to be 
repaired, it should be built with padyab (urine of the bull) and by persons uniting 
themselves with a paiwand, and performing sagdid over it. 

Q.—li a new Dakhma is built, then whose corpse should be placed in it first 
of all ? 

A. — That of a Mobedan Mobed should be placed into it ; but it should be well 
ascertained that no sin has been committed by him. 

1 &&J? lit., made. 2 i.e., the space enclosed by the four large naila which are driven into 
the i cardinal points. 3 MU. JJ*— H.F., &jj>— T31 -Kj«^ --JJ and T33 ?Jfj- 

4 i.e., on the foundation wherein the nails are driven and the thread wound round them. 

5 jjff^Pah. -0^=Per. ^'=small; BK. gives (J"5" iSjj^- (one of the two being redundant). 

6 i.e., in the central well itself wherein they consecrate the Vendidad. Cf . Dr. Modi's " Re- 
ligious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees " :— The TSua Ceremony and the Consecration 
of the Towers of Silence, pp. 245-252. 

7 BK. <*=- 3 for a*^ 5 

8 the arvis is the stone-slab on which the censer of fire is placed. 

.... • ;• . ' ■ 

9 !_£.■> = /«J = bottom ; surface. 

if lest it be upset and the fire in the censer fall down on the ground. 
H So as to occupy less space of the ground. 






104 

MU. I. p. 100, 11. 11-12 : H.F., f. 209. 

Kamdin Shapur :— If water issues from the inner surface of a Dakhma and 

spreads to every place except .... i ... . then an aperture should be made 3 

n that surface so that the water may be drained off and it may not remain there. 

MU. I. p. 100, 11. 12-19 to p. 101, 11. 12. 

From the letter brought to the address of Kunverji Nanabhai from Kirman : 3 

As regards what you had written about the explanation of the Zand (about 

the Dakhma) in a clear hand, let it be known that in the 3rd f argard of the Vendidad 

it is said how many steps one should be away from the Dakhma : 

here Vd. 3 §§ 16-17 are given in Avesta and Pahlavi. 

It is necessary that for (usual) intercourse, one should keep oneself thus much 
away from the Dakhma. 

MU. I. p. 103, 11. 2-7. 
Controversy about the disposal of the dead body of Nanabhai Punjya. 

Kaus Mahiyar* : Q.— The Behdins of Samarqand had asked of Dastur Adar 
Farrokhzad thus : " A Dakhma has become dilapidated and the surface thereof has 
its stones turned up.« If a man of affluence" who is a doer of righteous deeds'' 
dies, where shall (his body) be laid until the time when a new Dakhma is erected " I 

A— Farrokhzad answered : " As long as « a new Dakhma has not been com- 
pleted, when a person dies, stone-slabsS should be arranged on the surface, and in 
a corner, of the old Dakhma and the corpse should be placed thereon with (proper) 
rites. Afterwards when™ the new Dakhma is erected, then it is proper that the 
carriers of the corpse having a paiwand between them, should take. up" (the body 

1 **** Ml #-W> «s» 1 ** &>** Paz. g^ .(^ ifrfcjf ijj,;, .^^ 
This clause is ambiguous, the Pazand and its Persian transcription both being obscure 

2 MU., H.F., AjI_jT_bk. tyi/*jljf 

3 Letter addressed from Kirman to Dastur Rustom Peshotan of Surat, Behdin Kunverii 
Nanabhai, &c, on the subject of the new Dakhma. 

_ . i MU. does not say whence this is taken. The Rivayet of Kaus Mahiyar quoted in full 
m MU. II, pp. 451455 does not give it. Some MSS. e.g., S.D.B. No. 235 say that it is from 
Kaus Mahiyar's Rivayat (j«j»U J,^ t^Vyfyl See p , 8 . TMs pieo6 seems to be tmQ _ 
scribed word for word from Pahlavi into old Persian. 
5 Lit., there are no stones on the surface. 



e ^ *jjj.j I— Transcription of Pah. -hjkT (Cf . MK 15 §. 36 and 2 § 8), which may be read 
" \ or Ichavim (Cf. Per. **^-=f a me, celebrity). 

v J f *0y />r!y = Pah. ^Ki&) ■)«)} • 

A • 

s »J J • This is here simply put down from Pah., which is i) (vad); it should be ' 3 and 
A 
?n fact S.D.B. gives '•» f or *J • . 

9 ^ (-&«— p ah . -0$ (kas) = ^ = small. 
A A 

i°jl (See note above). This is Pah. -l| (vad)=Per. ^ and this last word s found ia 
S.D.B. 235. 



105 

of) that chieftain of the good religion and of virtuous thoughts therefrom, and 
place it first in that new Dakhma because (the bones of) our ancestors and warriors 
and kings have been preserved in this maimer and because the work of the religion 
should be done with (an eye to) the greatest good (mah-sudi). If rain has fallen 
on it, it is not proper to remove it therefrom. If he is a simier,i it is not proper 
(to place his body first) in the new Dakhnia.2 

MU.I, p. 103, U. 7-19 and p. 105 U. 1-2 : H.F., f . 459. 

From a letter (sent) from Herman :— [MU. II, pp. 472-473]. 

About the ennobled Dakhma they had written that Behdin Nanabhai bin 
Punjya, of pious soul, resting in paradise and located in the court of heaven, had 
commenced that great meritorious work and gained the highest distinction but 
there being no reliance on this mundane existence, 3 he was unable to bring it to 
completion, as he had reached the divine mercy.* He had made a testament in 
his lifetime that when the noble Dakhma may be brought to completion, they may 
carry his body or corpse to the great Daldima. 

AU the Dasturs and great men of thai quarter"! pondered over it with proper 
deliberation and caused his body or corpse to be placed in safety in the old Dakhma 
on stone-slabs deposited underneath and above," and after two months they removed 
his body or corpse to the new Dakhma but some declared that this mode was 
contrary to religion, Let it be known that in Zend books and in the books of the 
good religion it is so (said) that whenever they place a corpse in a place on a. 
atone slab underneath it, that place should be clean and there should be no corpse 
or body of any other person there. It is necessary that two men of the good religion 
with the paiwand between them should recite the vdf in Avesta, and perform 
sagdid* take it up therefrom and carry it to the new Dakhma and thereafter 9 the 
two men who had removed the corpse should be purified by a Yozdathragario pr i es t 

1 MU w*8>. — better S.D.B. and F i.fil *** &>. 

2 The religious practice referred to in the last part of this answer is that of preserving the 
bones of the dead in an astoddn (i.e., a receptacle for bones). The Achsmemdes, as we learn 
from history, had such aMUddm. VendidAd 6 §§ 49-50 refers to th.s custom : Where shall 

we bring and where shall we lay the bones of the dead 1 " "A receptacle should be 

made for it " This receptacle is called astudan in Pah. Vend. 6 § 50. Of. Dad. .furs. 

Purs. 17 § 3 :— 

" It is very authoritatively said that when the fleshy part has been- eaten away, they shall 
lawfully convey the bones to the astuddn i.e., the ossuary." 

3 j* s lit., life. 

4 % *.£ <JU> \j (J i>il ^+-=^J an Eastern way of saying that he died. 

5 i.e., of India. 

« MU. Jl'j J 1 y.j— better F.S.M. SLj j jij 
7 The Baj of Sraosh upto the word " ashahe." 



8 H-F- *Bv£3 -(a-*- 13 lit., the gaze of the dog. 

9 MU. ^I***— better H.F.,- tfl'lj'l*** . 

10 lit., one who knows how to purify others according to the rites of religion. 



14 



106 

with the Bareshnum, the nirangi an a (the retreat of) nine nights, but this is not 
allowable without the Bareshnum or (the retreat of) nine nights. Our hope is so 
(fixed) in the court of God, the great and glorious, that the spirit and soul of Behdin 
Nanabhai who was of one accord with the good religion may rest in Garothman, 
the abode of Orrnazd and the Amshaspands and of the pious ; just as it is said in 
the Avesta and Zend of the 19th fargard of the Vendidad :— avi.garS-nmanem. 
maethanem. Ahurahe. Mazdao. maethanem. Ameshanam. Spentanam. maethanem. 
anyaesham. ashaonam. i.e., in the commentary of the Vendidad it is said : " In 
the Garothman, the abode of Ormazd, the abode of the Amshaspands and the 
abode of other pious people.''^ May God have mercy on Nanabhai : all have this 
way 3 in front of them. 4 

MU. p. 105, 11. 4-11 : H.F., f. 86 and f. 114 and f. 153. 

How should land he cultivated, in which a Dafchma or an old astodan 
(ossuary) stands, or if there is bodily refuse of the living on it. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : 11. 6-8 :— There is a Dakhma in the midst of a 
cultivated piece of land and when they water the land, the water may approach 
within the proper measure of space 5 (prescribed by religion). Can this piece of 
land be cultivated or not ? 

A.— If the moisture of the water does not reach the dead matter the decision 5 
is that it may be cultivated. It should be admitted that the piece of land and water- 
should be taken care of and if there is any dead matter or bodily refuse, it should 
be removed with propriety. If this is allowed, then it is proper. 

MU.I, p. 105, 11. 13-19 and p. 106, 11. 2-7=H.F., f. 118 and f. 157. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : Q.— There is an old ossuary (astodd?i) on a 
piece of land of the unbelievers, and when they irrigate the land, the bones of 
the dead are soaked in water 7 and the unbelievers do not sell (the land to the 

1 H.F. <&fff<U\ : bull's urine which is necessary to be applied to the body during the: 
Bareshnum ceremony. 

2 Ci. Vd. 19 § 32 with Pah. :— 

where _?)» a5=Ji>i5- 

3 i.e., of death. 

4 Nanabhai Punfya, a wealthy inhabitant of Surat, erected a new Dakhma there, in A.Y. 
1037 ; but as appears from the above discourse, he died when the Dakhma was being construct- 
ed. His body was, therefore, placed in the old Dakhma, and after two months was removed ■ 
to the new Dakhma. There seems to have raged a fierce controversy on this question and a 
messenger Meherban Sandal (MU. II, p. 472, 1. 7) was expressly sent to Kerman by Behdins 
Kunverji and Hirji, two sons of Nanabhai and Dastur Rustom Peshotan and others with a letter 
for the elucidation of this question at dispute. 

5 />■>'**;? =measure. The space prescribed by religion to be kept away from dead 
matter is 30 steps from water (thrisata. ydim. hacJia. apat.). 

A p. 105, 1.4 gives ^J^f* for ^J &*» ■> 1 4 (1. 7) ;. e „ for the greatest good, it should be tilled.. 
• Ht., stand in water. 



107 

faithM) and do not allow a wall to be erected round the ossuary, The fear of 
it is that (the place occupied by) the ossuary will be put to cultivation! and the 
bones will be buried under the ground. What is the decision ? 

A— They should supplicate the king 2 with many entreaties so that the bones in 
any way whatever may be kept out of the reach of water. The questioner said : 
" This was also done by us and out of the regard 4 for men, and the dread of the king 
we withdrew awhile our hands from that piece of land but thereby 8 there is no 
hope of security." The answerer said : " These are anxious times, 6 but one should 
exert oneself and hope for the best. Perhaps, there will come a time when one will 
be able to deprive the unbelievers of this piece of land and when you exert yourself 
and your work prospers, then it is a great and noble merit, but if the work does not 
prosper you will not 7 be sinful. 

MU.I, p. 106, 11. 9-10=H.F., f. 87. 

Kama Bohra : There is a height in the midst of a cultivated piece. of land. 
Men carry and throw the bodily refuse of the living on that height. What is the 
decision ? 

A.—li there is no fear of the moisture of water (reaching the refuse) or if there 
•is no fear of the wind (blowing over it) and carrying the refuse on to the cultivated 
place, or if there is no thoroughfare for men thereon, then it is allowable to leave 
(the height) as it is. 8 

MU.I, p. 106, 11. 12-16 and p. 106, 11. 18-19 to p. 107, 11. 1-3=H.F., f. 117 

and f . 153. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : Q.—A man holds a piece of land and in the 
midst of it there is a height. A person says : " There is dead matter in the 
midst of that height" ; but that height is not owned by the man so that he 
may see whether there is dead matter thereon or not. And again, (that man) 
thinks that it is possible that the person gives utterance to a hearsay 9 and no one 



1 MXJ. f*3 J ) i&i&S — H.F. (* jji J '*"■'**' better BE. 
( *bJ iS* ) J* *Af (see ,p. 106, 1. 3. J lj **& i.e., *5j ^Jj [j *** jS»l ij>*-<«1 <J 
(where (a>1<SJ**I stands for ejtj*.*«l ) i.e., the bones will strike the field and earth i.e., they will 
be mixed up with them, 2 lit., put their hands on the skirt of :the king. 3 MU.j *» lj . 
—better H.F. A*^ 

i fj*» =shame ; sense of shame. 

5 jl (Kama Bohra}— better jj' (Kaus Kama). . . 

6 ^ji of. f> j i — distracted, wicked, thoughtful. Kaus Kama's Bivayet (p. 106, 1, 6) 
gives yi*^ f& ' }[/ °j the times of the unbelievers; and BK. has tM^' J isty* "^J 

1 *£ Mi., less. 

8 i.e., if refuse is carried over it, it will do. Cf. Vd. 6 §§ 6-7. "If the Mazdayasnians 
wish to till that piece of ground, to irrigate it, to sow it, and to plough it, how shall they 
act ? " " The Mazdayasnians shall inspect the land, whether there are any bones, hair, dung, 
urine, or blood thereon." 

9 For » **** (in Kama Bohra's Bivayet), H.F., gives » <J l *H which might mean 'having 
taken (on trust).' 



108 

' has seen with certainty whether there is dead matter there. Now men carry 
.bodily refuse and throw it on the height. If (the owner) sells his land (on that 
account), he cannot maintain himself and family. What is the decision ? 

A. — If (the owner) is in doubt and men throw bodily refuse (on the height) 
without his consent, but if it happens that the refuse can be kept away from fear of 
the water (reaching that refuse), and if the refuse is not (thrown) on the thoroughfare 
of men and if there is no fear that the wind will blow away the refuse on to the 
cultivated land, then it is proper that they aUow (the refuse to be thrown on the 
height) and cultivate the land. 

MU.I, p. 107, U. 5-9. 

How should the bones of the dead he removed in the inner well 

of the Dakhma? 

Shapur'Bharuchi : An account of removing the bones 1 in the sarada 2 i.e., the 
inside (well) of the Dakhma : — 

First sagdid should be performed to the door of the Daklima ; then sagdid 
shoud be performed to all the four sides round about the Dakhma. Again sagdid 
should be performed in the interior of the Dakhnia on all the four sides round about. 
Then the bones 1 should be removed in the sarada {i.e., the inner well). Then the 
corpse-bearers should come out of the Dakhma and having torn away their clothes, 
bury them under the ground. They should wash their bodies with pddydb [i.e., 
bull's urine] three times and put on new clothes, but (they should do aU this) after 
entering the Bareshnum-Gah. 3 

MU.I, p. 107, 11. 8-9. 

If a person is killed by wild animals and his corpse is found out after 
a time, it should be ceremoniously removed to the Dakhma. 

Shapur Bharuclii : If one is killed by a Hon, or a wolf or any animal, or has 
been killed by a thief and if his corpse is found out after a month, then although 
that corpse is identified with certainty, it is necessary that sagdid should be first 
performed and the nasa-salars (corpse-bearers) should carry it to the dad-gab.* 
with religious rites and place it there. 

MU.I, p. 107, U. 11-12. 

Juddins, i.e., men of a foreign faith, cannot lift up the biers of Zorostrians. 

Nariman Hos/iang : The corpses of Behdins should not be carried by un- 
believers (kafir) to the Dakhma. Whether (these corpses be of our) grandfathers 
or fathers, these, if uplifted, should be uplifted by Behdins, but it is not proper 

1 i ^ lit., dead matter ; corpses ; here, the bones denuded of the flesh. - 

2 8 i \jm or a* Lr« = inner apartment ; closet. Of. Ar. l3 Jlj-w— It is the central well of 
the Tower of Silence called bhancldr in C4ujarati. 

3 The place where the Bareshnum purification is administered. The bath of the si-shui 
(lit., 30 washings) should be undergone by them as they haifc become riman (polluted). 

i lit., the proper place i.e., the Daklima. This term is used both for the Dakhma and for 
the place where the fire is kept. 



109 

I 

according to the good religioni that unbelievers may uplift them. Nothing 
(more) can be said (about it). 3 

MU.I, p. 107, U. 14-19 to p. 108, 1. 1. 

Precautions to be taken by the Nasa-salfirs, if blood or any matter 

exudes from their bodies or if the paiwand is let slip, or if 

they utter in a loud tone without finishing the Baj. 

Shapur BharucM : Q.—A nasasalar after having placed the corpse in the 

Dahhma proceeds a step or two and at that time some matter or blood issues from 

his foot or from any part of his body, what is the decision about it, if this 

happens when he is within the Dakhma or has come out of the Dakhma ? 

A.— 11 he has come out of the Dakhma and finishes the vdj, 3 he does not become 
riman. 

Q.—A nasasalar after having placed the corpse in the Dakhma and after having 
shut the door thereof goes a step or two further and if at that time blood issues 
from the body of the nasasalar, or if his nose bleeds, or if any matter issues from 
a sore, what is the decision ? 

A.—Ii he has come out of the Dakhma, 4 and if this happens, then he does not 
become riman; but it is necessary that he should not be bold enough to do this 
work wittingly. 5 If the paiwand of the string is broken and if he has not yet 
finished the baj and utters any word, 6 then by way of helplessness and out of the 
force of circumstances and on account of evil times he is not riman, but in this 
matter efforts should be made and one should be vigilant and not negligent lest 
the paiwand of the string should break off, or lest he should utter any word openly 
without finishing off the. vdj ; because our religion is closely allied to purity. 7 

MU. I. p. 108, 11. 3-6 [MU. II. p. 478]. 

From the letter written to the Suratyd Adhydrus (i.e., priests) : 

Q — About the nasasUltirs* and the other carriers of the corpse ; When blood 
issues from their hands or feet, (what is the decision) ? 

a 

#J 4 .—Whenever blood issues, it is necessary . that it should be removed with 
the pddydb which is called the buU's urine and it should be washed out with water 



i MU. nrfi— S.D.B. vi&j* 

2 As said here, in the 15th century and thereabout, the corpses of Zoroastrians were handled 
by Jud-dins and as said in another Bivayat, even the gahan (i.e., the bier) was made of wood ! 

3 The Srosh Baj which was recited by him upto the word ashaM at the time of lifting up 
the corpse is now to be finished by him after the disposal of the dead. This is called (J iij'** g'j 
in contradistinction to ly^f? jj b the baj recited at the commencement. 

4 MU. s*^* j 1 — S.D.B. j*lf jii i-£sJ ^f^j' 

5 If he knows that any matter or blood issues from the body, he should not cany the dead. 
It is enjoined that strict silence should be observed after reciting the first part of the bdj. 
7 i£u*l ^Xmj jb m e a ns 'has grown' (out of purity): better as very often found <*W»I A">*.,yi '■ 

Cf . Vd. 5 § 21 : " Purity is Mazdayasnian religion." 

B jjj % '+■=» = carriers, porters ; here used for what is called in Gujar&ti ' hhdndyds ' i.e., 
those who shoulder the dead and assist the principal carriers of the dead called nasasalars. 
Hit., corpse bearers]. They are frequency called (J 'itf V*^ lit., those who go beneath the bier . 



no 

If the blood comes out in excess from the wound, then when it issues for two or 
three days, they should become naked every day and wash themselves with pddydb 
after reciting the Srosh vdj [upto ashuhe] and then they should finish the baj, and 
as they are naked, they should be given a clean kush and a clean pair of shoes, 
so that (putting them on) they may take their meals and thereafter they should 
put on the same wearing apparel until there is no fear of their wound (making them 
polluted). (In this case) they should not wash themselves with water.i 

MU.I. p. 108, U. 8-17. 
Shapur Bharuchi:—Q. — The nasasalars are in the Dakhma and out of 
negligence speak out something or at the time of reciting the dasturi* they speak 
any word openly, so that the vdj 3 is vitiated. 4 What is the decision in this ease ? 

A. — Both 5 are riman. 

Q. — The nasasalars after having placed the corpse in the Dakhma proceed 
a step or two further, and when they are still within the Dakhma, the paiwand of 
the string is let slip or breaks off. What is the decision ? 

A. — If the paiwand is let slip in the Dakhma or breaks off (there), then they 
are riman. They should be vigilant in this case so that they may not become 
riman. 

Q. — The nasasalars have recited the wj, s and they carry away the corpse, 
but they become fatigued and let down the corpse from their shoulders and sit 
farther away from the corpse. At this time, the paiwand of the string is let slip 
or breaks off through negligence or both speak out openly through negligence or 
blood issues from their bodies. When (any of) these things has happened, they 
have been sitting farther away from the corpse. What is the decision ? 

A. — If this happens unwittingly, they are not riman. They must recite again 
the vdj, and take up the corpse. But if they are bold enough to do such act know- 
ingly, let it be known that they are riman. 

MU. I. p. 108, 11. 16-19 to p. 109, 11. 1-9. 

The Dasturi — A formula to be recited by the Nas&saiars in an undertone. 

The dasturi 1 recited by the nasasalar in vdj (after placing the corpse in the 
Dakhnia) : — 

Shapur Bharuchi : — With the permission of the Creator Ormazd, with the 
permission of the Amshaspands, with the permission of the righteous Sarosh, with 
the permission of Zaratusht Asfantaman, and with the permission of the Dastur 
of the time who may be living. 

1 but should apply pddydb or gomes (bull's urine) instead. 

2 For dasturi, see below. 

3 Srosh baj upto ashahe which they have recited before lifting up the corpse. If they want 
to speak, they should do so in a suppressed tone. 

6 lit., does not remain sound or valid. 

E There are always two nasasalars working together. 
e lit., have the vaj in their mouth. 

7 This formula, as variously given below, is recited by the chief corpse-bearers in an 
undertone (vaj) after placing the corpse in the Dakhma. 



Ill 

Iiamdin Shapur : — With the permission of the Creator Ormazd, with the 
permission of the righteous Srosh, with the permission of Zaratusht Asfantaman, 
with the permission of the Dastur who has been appointed, with the permission of 
the Dasturs of the time, with the kingship of king Gushtasp of the religioni and 
with the Dahmobedih 3 of the Mobeds of the time. 

Jasa's Bivayet : — With the permission of the Creator Ormazd, with the permission 
of the Amshaspands, with the permission of the righteous Srosh, with the permission 
of Zartusht Asfantaman, with the permission of the Dasturs, (and) that Dastur who 
is by all means (appointed) over the Dasturs — his name should be (here) recited. 

Bahrnan Punjya: — With the permission of the Creator Ormazd, with the 
permission of the Amshaspands, with the permission of the pious Srosh, with the 
permission of Zartosht Asfantaman, with (the authority of) King Vishtasp, and 
with the permission of the Dastur of the time who may be living. 

From the Boole Avesta and Zand : — With the permission of Ormazd and the 
Amshaspands, with the permission of the pious Srosh, with the permission' of 
Zaratusht Asfantaman, with the permission of Adarbad Mahraspand, with the 
kingship of King Vishtasp and with the permission of the Dastur of the time 
who may be living. 3 

MU.I, p. 109, U. 11-13, or, 15-17=H.F., f. 91. 

What should the Nas8>salars do, if any open part of their body, or their 
garments, conies in contact with nas&? 

Kama Bohra and Shapur Bharuchi : — They (i.e., the nasasalars) carry ' (the 
corpse on the bier) with their hands^ ; (but) we have a doubt that their hands 
have come in contact with the fleshy part 5 or their naked 6 hands have touched 
the naked 7 corpse. What is the decision ? 

A. — If they know for certain that (the hand) comes in contact with the fleshy 
part of the corpse, they must undergo the Bareshnum. . The doubt (which has 
arisen as regards this) should not be taken into accounts. But if the open 9 (hands) 
strike the naked corpse and if they are ham-zur (i.e., united with a piece of string 
called paiwand), they should not, for that reason, undergo the Bareshnum. 1 " 

l i.e., who was the chief promulgator of religion. 

3 A Dah-Mobed is the chief Mobed who guides the various ceremonies of the dead. See 
Sir 3,. J. Madressa Jubilee Volume, pp. 312-313. 

3 Cf . Dr. Modi's Paper : ". The Khutbah of the Mahomedans and the Dasturi of the Parsis " 
in the Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay (1922) : Vol. XII, No. 5 of 1923. 

4 °"W u*r '^'"i — For this phrase, Shapur Bharuchi' sRivayet and BK. give ^jr>. ^* t ^-wii 
=" They carry (the corpses, evidently) in a proper way {i.e., according to prescribed rules). 

5 U*'. J^- fat, or the fleshy part of the corpse. 

6 /A^^_b e tter BK. ^-y. which is == Ajj» Cf - ^ji=Mij*. : — S.D.B. = A^j* 
(^Tj J . as explained below the word.) The tiasdsdldrs must put on the W [>**• & dastvdna i.e. the 
hand-gloves. If, by chance, the gloves get loose or are removed from the hands, it is improper. 

1 The corpse also must be properly covered with old clothes ; but if, by chance, they are 
removed and the naked part of the corpse comes in contact with the hands of the corpse-bearers 
thev are riman. 

S The benefit of the doubt is not given to the corpse-bearers. 

9 M.U., H.F ? A&-i*i : better BK. A^-y. — A, J. 

1* Bareshnum is necessary, if there is no paiwand. 



112 

MU. I, p. 109, 1. 19— p. 110, 11. 1-5: H.F., f. 121 and f. 161. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — Q. — (A nasasalar) carries a corpse and if his 
hands or any part of his body or his garments 1 come in contact with the naked 
part of the corpse or are polluted with its blood, 2 what is the decision ? 

A. — If the clothes are polluted and come in contact with the naked corpse, 
the clothes should not be used 3 ; and if his body or his naked hands come in contact 
with the naked corpse, 4 they are not to undergo the Bareshnurn purification for 
the reason that they are ham-zur (i.e., united with a paiwand) ; but if the body is 
poUuted with the fleshy part of the corpse then notwithstanding the paiwand, he 
is held riman° by some as in a case of doubt. 

MU. I, p. 110, U. 7-13=H.F.,' f. 121 and f. 161. 

Hojv should one purify oneself after coming in contact with a dead dog ? 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama :■ — Q. — One carries a (dead) dog 6 so that it may 
be (lawfully) disposed of and when the dog is disposed of, 7 the (nasasalars) united 
with the paiwand become separated, but if they observe (more carefully), one or 
both has become polluted with the carcase. What is the decision ? 

A. — If before being separated (from each other), the clothes have become 
polluted, they are to be disposed of 8 (lawfully) ; but if the body is polluted, they 
are not riman (if they wash themselves) ; but after the separation, whoever is 
polluted is riman. 

MU. I, p. 110, 11. 15-16. 

What should tie Nasasalars to, if their hands with the gloves on, come in 
contact with any bare part of the nasa. 
Shapur Bharuchi : — The nasasalars are united with the paiwand and have put 
on hand-gloves. If, through negligence, the hand with the gloves on come3 in con- 
tact with the naked part of the corpse, they are not riman ; but when they have 
disposed of the corpse, and come out of the dad-gah (i.e., the Dakhrna), they should 
dispose of the gloves (lawfully). 9 

MU. I, p. 110, 1L 18-19— p. Ill, 11. 1-2=H.F., f. 80 and 81. 

Sagdid — The dog's gaze : and the kinds of dog required for Sagdid. 
Kama Bohra :- — It is so manifest hi the religion, that when a person dies, sagdid 
should be performed over him and the sooner the dog is shown (to the corpse), the 

1 A*''? (Kama Bohra) and u i SjoIo. garments of the body (Kaus Kama). 

2 MU. cA 5 ^ : H.F. (_£o^ (Kama Bohra) = with the sweat, or with any filth; H.F., 
U*"? j$$ (Kaus Kama)=with the fat or fleshy part. 

3 J^\ = ~Pah. lu|A); iWU.'om. AijA \J"«*\ (Kama Bohra) : In Kaus Kama, both H.F., 
M.XJ. hav,e it. 

5 and therefore he is to wash himself with the si-shui and not with the Bareshnurn. 

6 MU. and H.F. *i^^« (Kama Bohra) — better l -*"« 'as in Kaus Kama). 

1 MU. and H.F. (sjbrji J "-^» WJ^" J (Kama Bohra)— better &jizj# L> *■*"" tt 
(as in Kaus Kama). 

8 i.e., they are useless and therefore should be torn to pieces and buried in the ground. 

9 i.'e., the gloves should be torn off and buried under the ground. 



11:3 

better it is. If a corpse is in the midst of water and if the shadow (of the dog) falls 
over it, it is no sagclicl. If the corpse is within a glass-case when the shadow (of the' 
dog) falls over it, it is no sagdid; and if a corpse has become wet with water, sagdid 
cannot be performed over it until the moisture of the water is removed therefrom ; 
and if a mother gives birth to a child which is still in the pura* i.e., the womb,' 
sagdid cannot be performed over it, but when the dog's gaze falls on the head and 
face of the (dead) man, then sagdid has been completely performed. If the back 
of a dead dog is shown to the dog, then sagdid has been completely performed. 

MU. I, p. Ill, 11. 4-5. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — If the head and face of a man are shown to the gaze of the 
dog, then sagdid is completely performed; but if the back (only) of. the (dead) dog 
is shown to the dog's gaze, sagdid is completely 2 performed ; but na,sush {i.e., 
corruption) is removed when the shadow (of the dog) falls on the nasa ; and if the 
shadow falls on the hair or on the nail, the nasush is not removed. 

MU. I, p. Ill, 11. 7-19 to p. 112— U. 1-11, H.F., f. 105, f. 106. 
Kama Bohra, Kaus Kama and Shapur Bharuchi :^-It is so manifest in the 
religion that when a person dies, the sooner the sagdid is performed over 
him, the better it will be, and again, when they want to % lift up (the corpse), 
sagdid should be performed, and it should be carried to the ddi-gah [i.e., the 
Dakhma) with pakvand (held between each other by the pairs of the corpse- 
bearers). The mountain-kite (sari-gar), the vulture and the black crow are also 
the destroyers 3 of nasu (i.e., the demon of corruption) ; but they destroy the 
nasu at the time when they throw their shadow on the corpse, but if the shadow is 
thrown over the hah' or the nails, it is not destroyed. If the corpse is in the midst 
of water or in a glass-case and the shadow falls over it, it is not destroyed. If a 
dog sees the corpse in a glass-case, no sagdid can be (said to be) performed. If 
the corpse is wet with water, no sagdid can be performed over it until it is divested 
of. the water. If sagdid is to be performed Over any thing, and if the head and 
face of the dead are shown to the gaze of a dog, then sagdid is said to be performed 
completely. If a pregnant woman who is on the point of giving birth 4 dies 
and if it so happens that a part of the child has come out (of the womb), 
then first sagdid should be performed over the mother and then over the child; 
If a woman gives birth to a still-born 5 child, then a dog should be taken there so 
that the mother may show forth the face of .the child from ; the womb .and scigdid 
should be performed thereon because the nasa in the womb cannot be (properly) 
shown to the gaze of a dog. If the hand or foot (of a man) is cut off and is thrown 
away on a certain place, then if that man dies the nasush which rushes 
on to the body of the man rushes also on to the members cut ofi. Then if sagdid 



1 gj»J cf. Pah Jej-istV or J|e!-"(V :Av. ^m^M> 

2 MU. />+, ; S.D.B. (No.. 235). *, 

3 MU. jl^tj— better H.F., B.K.jlij 

4 8JJ..M — 8j=:Womb. of. (jilj j.« p. 112,1. 7; 

5 MU. Aijji — better H.F., aye ajj^j 

15 









114 

is performed over that man, those members of the body thrown off should also be 
shown to the gaze of a dog. If they want to perform sagdid over the corpse of a 
dead man fallen on the ground head downwards, 1 it should be shown completely 
to the gaze of the dog.^ If a woman on the point of giving birth dies, then 
sagdid should first be performed over the (dead) woman and then over the child. 3 . 

1 jjAAiflij ^, T j I =f alien headlong. 

2 i.e., all the parts of the body should be shown to the dog. 

3 With this whole passage, cf. the following : — • 
Sis. II § 5 :— 

„\jm^ ) -KX» -J J")l ] ijaijiJS _)£p .u^ta K)H«JJ)^ -H5W) )£ -)rV (5) 

(5) The birds which destroy the nasush are three : The mountain-kite (sar-gar), the black 
crow and the vulture. A bird destroys it also when its shadow falls on it ; when it sees it in the 
water or a case of glass or a looking-glass, it does not destroy it. 

Pah. Vend. VII § 2. Comm. (Dastur Hoshang's Edition) pp. 238- (I. I0)-39 (11. 1-9) :— 
The mountain-kite, the black crow, and the owl (y+Jlj) strike it if they throw their 

shadow over (the dead). If the cloud is above /^gju— _jj)\ and if (the birds) fly over (the 

dead) thus [i.e., so as to east their shadow over it], and if there is no cloud, then if they throw 
their shadow over it, they strike (the nasu). (The bird or the dog) strikes the nasu from within 
everything except (the nasu) within glass. Some. say that it does not strike the nasu in water 
or in the womb (of the mother). If a dog sees the back and face of a man at once, it strikes the 
nasu. When living, if one's hands or feet are cut off (in a battle or otherwise) and if they be in 
different places, then the nasu runs on all sides when he dies ; thereafter, if the dog sees (all) 
places {i.e., all the members of the body), then (the nasu) is destroyed in all places. 

Pah. Vd. Ill § 40 Com. (Dastur H's Ed. p. 92 (11. 7-8) and p. 93 (1. 3):— 

If a dog sees the corpse in a glass-case, it does not strike the nasu . . . . : If a -dog sees 
(only) the hair or nails, it does not strike the nasu. 

cf. Pah. Vd. 111. §' 14 Comm. (p. 65, 11. 10-12 to p. 66, 11. 1-3). 

This is manifest from the Avesta : If it happens that he knows that (the man) has died 
and if he knows that the dog is not shown to it and he moves it, then it is the sin of margarjan. 

If it does not happen that he knows (i.e., if he does not know) that the dog is not shown 
and carrying it alone takes it away and moves it attached (to his body), then also it iB not 
otherwise : he is riman and margarjan. There is no washing for him. 

Cf. Sis. II §§63-64 :— 

■#¥ iwnwj \F4 ** lie* iM^-f __r .*. Wals iw^js _jw? »ja ju-u, } f (63) 

9j>>\ n\y ) VWO J-d£> *m llWa)|Ku -A _di^ iik« -uj^ -iu-"|l .M^ilf -Oil,, ijm 

.j -oj>n jG Wr* ^f i£ji? ^ ? vO" var J& (64) :. -kj^^ i -ti^G iTji<? 

(63) Ha who earries the corpse on his body (or, alone) is a margarjan. 

Know thai, margarjan (sin) arises at that time when a dog has not seen the corpse. If he 
has means (Per. ij^) and ability (tuidn) (to dispose of it ceremonially), and needlessly 
moves it (i.e., carries it on his body) and moves it (i.e. , carries it) in one and the same way (i.e., 
not according to prescribed rules) and he knows that it is a sin, then he is a margarjan. And 



aj a <-£.*. 


Luj 


r-i 


M 


i>>J *m 


|>J l^K-W />r$~ li 


aayo *>}j 


4 


IS*) 



115 

MU. 1, p. HI, II. 17-19 top. 112, 11 1-3=H. P., f. 148. 

Kaus Kama, : — (For translation, see above). 

1.19: MU. aj^« 4 Wt —better H.P. 

„ MU. *j*L, ,.+, 1j — better H.F. 

p 112, 1. 2. MU. 8V yjj —better H.F. 

MU. 1, p. 112, 11. 11-19 and p. 113, 11. 1-6= H. F., f. 106 and f. 148. 

Kama Bolira, Kaus Kama and Shapur BTiaruchi : — [About one dying head 
downwards] ;* and again if a dog dies with head downwards, then if the back 
(of the nasa) is shown to the gaze of the dog, Sagdid is said to have been 
completely performed. 

If a person dies and if sagdid is to be performed over him,, his face should 
not be covered up, 2 for if the corpse has been all covered up, then if they want 
to perform sagdid again, they will not be able to do it ; and if sagdid is not 
performed, and the corpse is lifted up or is shaken, all are margarzan and also 
riman. There is no remedy except this that the head of a needle should be 
curved and forced into one end of the garment which covers up (the dead) and 
as much (portion) as covers up (the head of) the corpse lifted up. 3 (When doing 
so), it is necessary that (the nasasalars) should be with a paiwand ; because when 
it is done, it is in conformity with the rites of religion. If not, 4 a thread 
should be let into (the hole of) the needle and tied to the neck of a dog and 



for a corpse which a dog has seen or not seen, the accountability should be well understood 
(thus) : (Whether) the man (has) means (»/.».) and ability (to dispose of it ceremonially) 

and (whether there is fear of) plague or contagion. 

(64) Afrag has said : No account should be (taken) of means and ability (ehdr va tuban) 
(i.e., although he is able or not to dispose it of ceremonially, he must do it anyhow) : for 
it is not allowable to commit a margarjan for (cases of) plague or contagion. 

Cf. Pah. Vd. 3 § 14 Comm. (p. 66 11. 3-5) :— 

Afrag has said : No account should be taken of chdr and tubdn i. e., means and capacity. 

(i.e., If one moves the corpse without the performance of Sagdid, under any circumstances, 
whether willingly or unwillingly, knowingly or unknowingly, he is margarjan). Gogoshasp 
has said : Account must be taken of ehdr and tubdn, i.e., means and capability. 

(i.e., If one does not know the laws of the disposal of a corpse, or if one knows them,- 
but is unable to put them into practice, then he is not a margarjan). 

Cf. Sis. X § 32 :— 

ioipl -Hxaai jj^ -"O^fii -o-ts 110 -^-"l W) *£ W D^o-hj 8^? ••••• (32) 

(32) .... This, too, is well for the good that every corpse should be well shown again 
to a dog in the beginning of a gah (pavan gas pish). 

1 This is treated elsewhere. 

2 i.e., with any piece of cloth. A fierce controversy raged here in India in former times 

whether a part of the face should be covered with Padan (mouth-veil) or not. It seema 
that the Iranis are generally against this custom, but some here cover the dead with Padan 
i.e., mouth-veil, while others keep the whole face open. One reason assigned for using Padan. 
is that vermin may not enter through any orifice. (See Jamasp Asa's Kivayat).. 

3 lit., shaken. 

4 i.e., if even by so doing, the garment feorn over the corpse cannot be lifted up. 



116 

cries should be raised up 1 for (frightening) the dog so that garment (from over 
the corpse) may be separated and sagdid then may be performed over it, and it 
may be carried to the Dakhma ; and when the corpse is carried to the Dakhma, 
it is "necessary that it should be (all) covered up 2 , so that it may be known that 
the sin may be on the decrease. 3 

MU. 1, p. 113, 11. 8-9 and 11. 15-16= H.F., f. 94. 

Kama Bohra and SJiapur Eharuchi :■ — Q. — There is a corpse in a wilderness. 
They want to take it up and carry it to another place. Is it proper that they 
should take it 4 (for granted) that a dog or a raven or a mountain kite {sUrigar) or 
a vulture has approached it 5 at that place ? Should they regard it as the perfor- 
mance of sagdid and take up (the corpse) ? Is this proper or not ? 

A. — The corpse should assuredly be shown to the gaze of a dog. No suspi- 
cion should arise 6 (on that account) . 

■. 

MU. 1, p. 113, 11. 11-13= H. F.,f, 124 and f. 137. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama: — Q. — There is a corpse in a wilderness 7 , that 
'is, in a desert place and they are in doubt whether a dog or a raven has 
approached it (or not). 8 Is it proper that this should be regarded as the 
performance of the sagdid ? 

A. — There should be undoubtedly the performance of the sagdid. 9 

MU. 1, p. 113, U. 18-19 and p. 114, 1. 1 and p. 114, U. 5-12=H.F., f. 106, 

f. 81, and f . 148. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — Q. — How many kinds of dog are there and 
o'f 'what colour ? 

1 It should be borne in mind that the nasasdldrs who act in this way have taken the vaj 
and therefore they should not now utter a single word with open mouth, before the proper 
disposal of the corpse. What is meant is that by clapping the hands, or by any other sign, 
the dog may be frightened or made to move hither and thither and in so doing , it may remove 
the garment which covers up the face of the dead. 

2 For amIu sAamjJ. better read ^1j z&^jj (cf. MU. 1, p. 115, 1. 11). 
4 H.F., (f. 106) adds oJola U cULi ^l^j gU? £ 

4 &>Ji> (ji^j-Gf. Pah. nrew-Hs ■»?* nei 

6 i.e., the nasush has been destroyed by the gaze of a dog, or by the shadow of the 
birds flying over it. 

6 MTJ. ajUJ |j gfj.Cs? — better H.F. csjUj ^SU? 

1 j.S. M or ^Cfi (which is a corrupt form of jSJ» j is Pah. ^^HJ)— wilderness. 

8 i.e., they have not performed sagdid themselves, nor have they seen it performed with 
i their own eyes. 

9 Kaus Kama has a,jtj ^U$ g^a, ^li s>fy 6JJJ Si'b&m j* —for ^^ read ^J 
' =far from :■ — 

" It should be with (the performance of) sagdid, that even Juddins may lift up (the 
corpse). This should be above suspicion." Juddins are not allowed to lift up the corpse, 
but in- extreme eases, out of helplessness, this is 'allowed (See MU. p. 115, 11. 1-9). 



117 

A.—BashahwA i.e., the shepherd-dog. 2 Vishhur 3 i.e., a household-dog. 
Vohunazg i.e., a strange dog and Turuk i.e., a puppy. 4 

A blind clog is also the destroyer of nasush, but only at that time when it places 
its mouth 5 over the corpse ; but if it places its mouth 6 over the hair or the nails, 
nasush is not destroyed, for let it be known that dead matter is concealed under 
the hair or nails. 6 . _ 

MU. I, p. 1W, U. 14-15. 

Shapur Bharuchi :— A male dog is necessary for the performance of the sagdid;. 
over a corpse. It is also necessary that the whole face of the corpse should be 
open. The face, eyes and the nose should be open (to the gaze of the dog). When 
the shroud is put on, this injunction should be observed in such a case.'' If all 
these (members of the body, mentioned above) are left open 8 . to the gaze of the 
dog, then it is (proper) sagdid. 3 

l Av. pasush-ha.ur.va. 2. ^°J jXg or ur 5 '•»* «-&* 3 Av. Vish-haurva. 

5 SJ) j-J _p a h^Oyl2J- It may be read /&*} paw. 

6 MXJ. p. 114, 11. 1-3 and 11. 0-7 and 11. 11-12 is treated elsewhere : See above. With this 
passage, cf. the following :— 

Sis. II 3-4 :- 

ai.^, W f\)a vf imilB^ !# « nei ^ tti?4 (4) .'. }w««* * i»lHtt-» 
:. wtm^f -^ lwuior imi <w ->£ -w ?t i weiwef-fi *z }(ew8 

(3) The dog destroys the nasush at the time, when it sees the flesh, and when it sees the 
hair or nails, it" does not destroy it. (4) Even a blind dog destroys it at the time when it 
places its mouth ( j '% ) on the corpse for destroying it ; when it places it upon the. hair or 
hails, it does not destroy it. 

Pah. Vend. VII § 2 Oomm. (Dastur Hoshang's Edition, p. 238, 11. 10-12) :— 

" The dogs which destroy the nasush are these : the Pasush-haurva, the Vish-haurva, the' 
Vohu-nazga and the Turuk." Soshyos said, "the rukanih (a blind dog ?) also destroys it. 
A blind dog (strikes the nasush) when it places its mouth over it." 

Sis. II § 2 :— ' 

m $ $<? t i5im Ijhxoi i Wjjja \ % Ut4 irjiiw-^ vw }f fjS .va ft 

J %» vaf jiu *V j')ieKjj»& f -^mm :.->fr> <?)> «»«»«» we ^v w i 

Wliich are the dogs which destroy nasush 1 Pasush-hur, Vish-hur, Vohu-nassg, and Turuk 
(slender-hound ? ) and the rukunilc {i.e., #&. '-£"' or puppy as said in the gloss or, the blind 
■cloa as said in Rivayets). As _to the -rukunilc, they have been of divers opinions, as Vand 
Auharmazd said from the teaching of Afrag that it does not destroy it. 

1 S.D.B. (No. 23*5) adds here again :— *f^ **!ff <** l?*»- J <JJ-> J (*ff ** 

3 lit., fall to the gaze. 

9 This Bivayet clearly shows that the practice of covering the corpse with Padaii (or, 
mouth-veil) was not countenanced by " the Irani Zoroastrians, as was the case here in India 
with some members of the community. ' 



118 

MU. I, p. 114, 11. 17-19. 
Kaus Kamdin : — Q- — (What is the decision about) the dogs which are shown 
to the corpse and about those which are taken to the Bareshnum-gahi ? 

A. — A dog which sees a corpse or which may be taken to the Bareshnum-gah 
should not be less than four months old. It is manifest in the commentary of the 
Vendidad thus : Spanem. zairitem. chathru-chashmem. spaititem. zairi-gaonem, 
i.e., a yellow dog with four eyes, or a white dog with yellow ears 2 is necessary. 

* MU. I, p. 115, 11. 1-9: H.F., f. 156. 

Kaus Kama, Shapur Bharuchi (and Kaus Kamdin) 3 : — Q. — That which you 
asked thus : If there is a dark cavity 4 where it is impossible to perform 
the sagdid, what is the decision about it ? 

A. — Two unbelievers should be sent after this work so that they may perform 
the sagdid and remove (the corpse). 

MU. I, p. 115, U. 11-19 ,+p. 116, 1. 1. and p. 117, 11. 1-10 : H.F., f. 97 & 98 and f. 

126. 
Various precautions to be observed on carrying the corpse to the Dakhma : 
Who, besides the Nasasalars, can carry the corpse in case of necessity. 

' Kama Bohra: — This is also manifest in the religion that when they carry 
a corpse to the dakhma, the head of the corpse should be put (on the bier) facing 
the dakhma. It is necessary that it should be all covered up, for if it is not all 
covered up, it is a great sin. Two corpses of men should not be lifted up at one 

With this, cf . Sis. X § 40 (which is according to some an interpolation) : — 

£ s^teui i goej to^fi M jj -hj^-" •*)) rp fop Sw^-A^G iro'tniK)' £s £y W 

.*.)WW0 W-* ! - u iPjH -"O^ )W5!H af i^-^-fj 

(40) One is this : Adarbad Maraspand has said : ' If any person dies, the padam (mouth- 
veD) and the clothing (for the shroud) are to be well made from the gifts (of clothes given 
as ashoddd on the dawn of the fourth day when a person dies) so that his soul may be more 
comfortable. 

Cf. also Sis. 

.^>J^>a -3-»«j •> •ri¥'J3>3 -> -(igaJig •|.»8jjJ -laa .giji^ajilj •f-i=-»J •••J -hi -Jri 

(This Pazend piece is found in several MSS. of Sis., at the end of Ch. XX (as given by Dr 
West in S.B.E. Vol. V) :— 

One is this that if a person dies, paddm (mouth-veil), kusti and the sacred shirt ( i-£.+*J ) 
should be in proper order (preserved) as the shroud j for the religion of God is purity. That 
soul will go to the spiritual world of the truthful joyfully. 

1 The place where the Bareshnum purification is administered. At this purification cere- 
mony, a dog is necessary to drive away the nasush. 

2 See Vendidad 8. | 

3 In Kaus Kamdin's Rivayet (See E 60 of NMRL.) this portion is not given ; hence it may 
be inferred that Kaus Kama's Rivayet is here repeated. 

4 M. U., and H.F., (in Kaus Kama) have £y»ji> —better £ 'jj*» only (as in other 
Rivayets, or Jd forjd) 



119 

e 

time but the corpse of a man* and the carcase of a dog* can be lifted up (together). 
The corpse of a man and the carcase of a porcupine 2 can be lifted up together. 
Two dogs, or two porcupines, 3 or one dog with one porcupine can be conveyed 
together. Those who carry the corpse should be two men, or a man and a woman 
will also do. Two women will also do. Two menstruous women can also do.(?) 
Two 4 women who are unclean 5 will also do.(?) Two boys, each eight years old, who 
know how to dispose of the corpse or bodily refuse will do. A boy and a man 
will do. A corpse cannot be carried at night or on a beast of burden except on 
account of helplessness. If it rains and they lift up. the corpse from the house to 
convey it to the dakhma, it is a Margarzan sin. When they lift up the corpse and 
convey it and if it rains on the way, it is not proper to bring it back ; but if there 
is a sheltered place on the road where there is no fear or dread, 6 the corpse should 
be placed in that sheltered place there until it ceases raining. Again, if there is 
any fear or dread in laying the corpse there (in rain-water), it must be conveyed to 
the dakhma. 1 If water is coUected on the surface within the Dakhma before the 
corpse is laid there, 8 it should be laid outside. 9 A covering™ should be put up over 
the place where the corpse is to be placed outside and the surface below the covering" 
should be made dry and the corpse left outside (therein), and the covering! 2 should 
be removed (when the surface is clean dried up and the corpse placed inside the 
dakhma). 

MU. I, p. 116, U. 3-19— p. 117, 1. 1+11. 12-15=H.F., f. 106, f. 107, f. 167. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama ;— A corpse should not be conveyed (to the 
dakhma) when it is raining, for it is a margarzan sin. But if it happens that (the 
nasasalars) lift up the corpse and convey it (to the dakhma) and if it is raining 
on the way, then until the rain-fall ceases, the corpse should be placed in a sheltered 



1 ^jf <X» j ^J'f |*iiy This is the Pazend form of JDJH I -iU-flRi-C i.e., = iS^y 

i5 t« j (See MU. p. 117, 1. 2). 

3 ^sijs. or /»=?•=. = P a h. iifS =*Ujj • The 'r^iJ^ or porcupine is so called (See 

Vend. 13). 

3 BK. only adds *iH /& y i ^ (i.e., should not be carried together) which is correct 

See p. 116, 1. 9. 

4 H.F., rightly adds. J <1 ■ 

5 i_>lj,l[j a s opposed to Vi^i i.e., those women who cannot offer prayers 
on account of their uncleanness owing to menstruation or any other such cause, (cf, 
it jUi ^j) but see Shapur Bharu'chi's Rivayet, MU. I, p. 117 and notes thereon, below for a 
correct translation of this according to Pah. Sis. II § 8. (pp. 121-22). 

6 i.e., of rain-water coming in contact with the corpse. 1 although it is raining. 

a U3 ^J 9 H.F., (f. 126) has /*&•& Vjjjii 10 C5\JJ = Pah. -hA U tjjjrij the space 
below the covering (cf. Pah. J^ ) ■ 

12 ijj or &&jr j . 8jj= the surface (rah) thereof should be divested (of water), 
or, this last phrase &&jr J • <U may be thus translated : — (After disposing of the corpse), 
they should come away from the place (See MU. p. 116,1. 7) : S.D.B. (No. 235) h as *) for tj 



120 

place or in the frontage of a housei or in a refuge where the rain may not fall on 
the corpse. Although there is« fear or dread (of the rain- water coming in contact 
with the corpse), or, if there is no sheltered place, the corpse cannot be brought 
back. Then there is no remedy except this that they should carry with them a 
curtain or a blanket and when they lift up the corpse and convey it to the ddd-gdk, 
then several persons (i.e., iiasasalars) should form themselves into pairs (with a 
paiwand) and there where they want to place the nasd (on the road when it is 
raining) they should hold the ends of the blanket, from before and behind, 3 over 
it, whereas some should make the place dry. If there is water on the surface, 
that also should be removed. Let it be known that in such a place the corpse, 
being lifted up, should be placed.* Then when they return and come away from 
the place, they should wash their heads, 5 their clothes and the blanket with pddydb 
{i.e., bull's urine) and water. It is not allowable to carry away the corpse on a 
beast of burden, or when it is raining, or at night, except in case of helplessness when 
no other remedy can be contrived. Two corpses cannot be carried together at once 
and the carcases of two dogs cannot be carried away as one 8 (because) the corpse of 
a man and the carcase of a dog are alike. 7 ■ 

The dead bodies should be. taken away (in the manner prescribed above) 8 ; 
because both (nasasaldrs, as well as the other carriers) should have then- hands 
over that (one corpse). 9 This also is said that it is not the rale that two loads 1 " 
(i.e., corpses) can be carried away in one band (after being placed) on one gehan" 
(i.e., bier). Moreover the corpses 12 of two men cannot be carried hi one gehan. 11 
He who knows how to dispose of the corpse (in a, proper manner) should carry it 
away. A boy, 13 eight years old, who. knows how to dispose of it properly can 
carry it away. Two menstruous women will do.(?) Two nasa^ women i.e., who have 



1 W^ ^ or perhaps (jjj U^ = a covered place in front. 2 MU,, BK. *"»'f> 

3 MU., H.F. U^r! better BK. wj j L&J 

4 For Ui'fJj ^ty. BK. eJj'^J W^ 
6 J" 1 " — head; the whole body is meant. 

6 ^Uj* i-i-M ut^ m one pi acej j.„. ; m one reC eptacle. 

7 i.e., to be disposed of with proper xwecautions prescribed. 8 i.e., one at a time. 

9 Two corpses cannot be conveyed one on each hand. Cf . Pah. Vd. 8 : — 

r)'tf o"e> 5POO -"H _jW $> ^-to ""H no i iriii »iei ->«i 

One rat (i.e., liasSsalar) should be at the top and foot-handles of the gehan (bier). 

10 Both H.F, MU. give jkji for J ( JjJ (BK.) "c? 1 ^ is for Pah. 7 WJO (ijehanak)= 

bier. 12 MU. fij* — better H.F., BK. f^-" (j U 13 For ' two boys ' See p. 116, 1. 16. 
14 csi»j (K aus Kama ^i^j MU _ p_ 118 j 17 Qr jm j ^ j MTJ _ p _ n7 L u j which last 

stands for *j>H giving birth). M the original Iranian MS. of Kama Asa which is in 
the Navsari Meherji Rana Library, this word which is nothing but nasa is written with 
a flourish like L 5"^ J : moreover two dots are unnecessarily placed in the cavity thus 
.formed: So the word is here written tS*«*»J r \s^"' s The phrase simply means 
" a woman who gives birth to a still born child. " In fact such a woman is called -t»#>*\ -l\-»i 

= (■"*- Wj) only: See Pazend Rivayet of the Pazend Texts published by E. K Antia 
p. 220, 1.20. 



121 

brought forth still-bora children may carry the corpse.i(?) A man and a woman 
can carry away the corpse. A man and a boy eight years old will do. When they 













































' 


. 





* Cf . with the above Rivayet the following passages : — (It seems that the writer of this 
and the foregoing Rivayet has not understood properly the tenour of the original Pahlavi 
but see, just below, Shapur Bharuchi'a Eivayat, where this blunder is set right.) 

Sis., n. §§ 7-11 :— 

«, retx* -^ £tfcl£ W no J i ifoir*-* 1 ^ >±l W no jf -^ Wwo i (7) 

-J \^<f W) .MW'OO WIIWP JU- 13 ! -> 0^0 )f ■»]) (8) .'.WOO £|rW \±%}% 

j jjjji ota J"- 13 ) jj ow iPftjoa -»j» ^Oi» . T . 110*00 HeiueP tv'co i£ ^■ UJU J o^i? 
#c jito^js -«A ^>«h it ff (9) .-.woo ^-nji ^i? -> *Hj-»jw ijjjjwi » 
vhto n^o" Jr T (10) .mpAJ* iro£» ijA») do .*.*H) ■ IUJU ! 
hhi , io j o $w ^i W* hoikti w»k>» -o 4 ^ nei ?$■ i jmo^b lifcir** 1 -»}j jw f w^iv 
•"orp jjioei) -J o^*oo -viif a.5 nomw" -"JJ ^ 1W-" jo**oo -o^a ?$> i •hjojjrj'o ■*» 
w jJjjj *,ej jp -hj* vjriroir^ &>&■% -»jj ^"a •"oo* uei^-HJo i»-'fl> r'f 'oooikco -*£j 
si j W__A k; 1W *a^iie£ (11) T Vjoffo? -^Ji ie»HW f*tJ dh? Wjfl* 
lj i 1101190*1"* *»■" V*^ -"^o" ■ a,js pi •'• iwif'i JB -ii!_i f^P ^o" iwiv-^j" ji» jjij ^w 

(7) On account of contamination (patowTiafc), two (corpses) aie not to be carried at one 
time. Two (corpses) by one person are not proper (to be carried). One dog and one man will 
do. (8) Every one who understands the care of nasa will do. Two boys, eight years old, who 
understand the care (of nasa) will do. A woman free from menstruation or, a woman who has not 
given birth to a still-born child, or a man or a woman and a boy eight years old will do [This 

last passage must be particularly noted: the text gives. -ui-M| J_y «k> )f&0i ->_)> #02] 
which is translated in the Rivayets as " two ( jp\ menstruous women, 01 two ( _j» ) women 

who have given birth to a still-born child. " This Jjl some take to be for jfty (awtewithout) 1 

and in fact some MSS. give the last reading : — in that case, the translation will be " A woman 

free from menstruation or a woman who has not given birth to a still-born child or,: " 

and this meaning is preferable to that which is given in the Persian Rivayets]. Dr. West haa 
correctly done this Pahlavi passage (See S. B. E. Vol. 5 pp. 248-49). 

(9) It should not be carried all covered up [when the day is clear], for it iff (the sin of) bury- 
ing the corpse ; to carry it in the rain is worthy of death. 

<t 

10 When clouds have gathered ( \ ju» — CJ^* ' = brimful), it is allowable to carry it 

away from the house ; but if it rains on the way, it is not proper to carry it back to the house : 
but if there is a veranda (or, vestibule) in front, it should be laid down there.; and if he who is 
the owner of the veranda is possibly afraid (of some damage to his property) and does not allow 
(the corpse) inside it, then it should be carried to its place (i.e., the dadgah). If water stands 

the height of a javelin and even if one knows (noilW is for KMHOl") (that it is wrong 

to take away the corpse in water), it should be carried away. (11) Mediomah has said: 
A covering should be put up above that place and (the surface) below should be made dry, 
and the corpse should be placed under that shelter and (when the corpse is finally disposed 
of), the covering should be taken away and rejected. 

16 



122 

carry the corpse to the ddd-gdh, it is necessary that the head be placed (on the bier) 
facing 1 the dahhma. > ' ■■■••.,■• 

MU.I, p. 117, 11. 17-19 and p. 118,,. 11. 1-5. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — It is manifest in the religion that when they carry the 
corpse to the dahhma, the head of the corpse should be placed (on the bier) facing 
the dahhma. The corpse should be covered up, because if the whole is not covered 
up, it is a great' sin! Two corpses cannot be lifted up at once. 2 A dog and a 
puppy cannot be lifted up at once. 2 . Two men are necessary to carry away the 
corpse. If eve* there are two women it is not proper, 3 and there is fear (of the 
corpse being not properly handled). If the nasasalars are (two) unclean 4 women, 
it is not proper. 6 If there is a boy eight years old, he may necessarily form a pair 
(with the paiwand) with a man who is a nasasalar. Out of helplessness, the corpse 
can be carried away at night, but' it cannot be conveyed in the dahhma'. If it is 
raining and if the corpse is taken out 8 (of the house), it is margarzan sin ; but if 
they lift up and carry away the corpse and if it rains on the way, the corpse cannot 
be turned and brought back. As long as the rain falls, the corpse camiot be left 
in the Dakhma, until the rain ceases. ' If there is a place 7 , on the road which can 
afford protection, it can (be laid there). If water has collected on the surface of 
the dahhma, it should be drained away to a place until the surface of the dahhma 
dries up and then the corpse ruust.be placed there.. When the nasasalars and the 
(other) carriers of the corpse return, they should wash themselves with the urine 
of the bull and then purify themselves with water. If there is no urine of the 
bull, the urine of any creature of Bahman Amshaspand 8 will do. 



. .. Pah. Vend. VIII. § 7,:. Comm.j— (pp. 301-302). 

It (the corpse) should not be carried when it is raining ; it should not be carried when the 
rain is threatening. When the clouds appear closely above, it is allowable to carry : it out of the 
house ; if it rains on the way, it may be placed on any place, if possible ; if not, it is to be 
oarried away (to the Dahhma) ; at least, it should not ,be brought back. At least,' no covering 
(avarsar, lit., that which is on the head, or avar-saya=zwitk a shade over) should be taken (with 
the corpse) for making a shelter over it (in any place on the road)., , . ., . 

When they reach the place [i.e., dahhma) and if the azdn i.e., dakhma is full of water, it ia 
allowablerto put (the corpse) down, there; '. :,.',: ■'<'.'• . .• ' del . lotl> 

a Pah, Vend. VHI,§:10 Corn, (p. 305, 11: -3-5 and -11. 7-11). :. , ,r ..,, , 

It (the : 'corpse) should not be carried ali covered up ; half 1 of it covered' tip should not be 
Carried ; it should not be carried up suspended (with anything). ' Soshyos has said : It is proper 
to carry it as said above (i.e.,-in- a fit manner as prescribed by law.) Two "(corpses) should not 
be carried as one. (load) ;, it should not be carried.on the back of cattle. It'should not be carried 
at night. When I say night, it is about the night which falls when they arrive at the place 
(i.e., dakhma.) 



. 



1 {:>>*» for '{j)"* Seel. 18. 
i 2 J k <&& at once, or, as one load. 3 Of . the above Rivayet, where it issaid that any 
two wpmen might do.. 4 vMj=unclean (Seenote.above). , , -. 

5 Of, the note given above from Sis. This translation into Persian is.here in consonance 
with the Pahlavi. on p. 121. 



6 WW;; lit., they shake. ' ' '. ; 






1 For l5t'^ readijj'* ■ ■ •■ ' ■"• • •''" i 

« Any cattle which are under the protection of the Amshaspand. 



123 

iMU.I, p. 118, 11. 7-9=H.F, f. 157. 

Kerns' Kama:—Q.— Several hien follow the profession (of nasasalars). They 
carry (corpses) to the Dakhma and carry it there being united with pavwand. They 
first thought that they were eight persons in all; but when they observed minutely, 
there were (only) seven persons.i What is the decision ? 

A -Mobed Adar-Farrokhzad has said : " If there is one corpse which comes 
in contact (with several persons) and if these persons who carry the corpse, be they 
two, or three, or five, or more, are all united with paiwand and if eagdid-haa been 
performed over the corpse, they are not riman. ' 

* h ' ■ ■ 

MU.I, p. 118,11. 11-13=H.F., f. 207. . 

-■ Kumdin Shapur and Shapur Bharuchi .—There are dead men. If two or three 
men have' died, then2.it is proper -that the carriers of the corpse? and Nasasalars 
should take away (the corpses to the dalchma one after another) and then they 
should wash themselves, and patet should be recited separately for each, of the 
three. " : ' 

MU.I, p. 118 11. 15-19 and p. 119 H. 1-6=H.F., f. 81. , 

Precautions with regard to the corpses of persons dying 
unnatural death. 

' Kama Boftra ;— If there is the' corpse of a man Who has been killed, or put to 
death or has been killed by a dog, or killed by a wolf, or by witchcraft, or has died 
by the sting (of noxious creatures) or. has died by poison or has been frightened to 
death or has died by falling down, a precipice or has been condemned to death by 
men unjustly, or put to death according to law,* or killed by a thief,* or has been 
put to death by the calumny of calumniators or has died when hanged on a gibbet, 
or if any one dies in such.a way, then sagdid should not be performed over him 
at the ! particular g ah (i.e'„ the period of the day) during which he dies and should not 
be removed 1 to- the dad-gdh [i.e., the -dakhma] ■: because all such 'corpses as have been 
mentioned are of all those who have met with violent death.* And druj-nasush 
ti e corruption) does not sit on such a corpse during the period of the day in which 
he dies- It should be treated like (the. case of a woman hi) menses and anything 
coming in contact with it should be washed like those things which have come in, 
contact with (a woman in) menses.' And when the period of the day, changes," . 

hi.: ■„ on e man short of four pairs united with paiwand. . • 

2 After ' U"i ' H.F., (in Kamdm Shapur's Bivayat) adds :— 

8 M rt* lit, those who go beneath the bier i.e., those who' shoulder the bier *.*, . 
the khandhias as distinguished from the nasasalars. The latter alone can go mside the 
dakhma with. the corpse. I 

Mit., killed by judges. 5 Mj ji k 3 So MIT, H.F ; better BK. H) *j& k J also grven 
in H.F., on margin (See p. 107 1. 8) or, * i j Jjj k j ' ov has been killed by oppression. 
i e lit, those who have been killed. 

7 All these cases should be first treated, not as nasA, but as hikhra. 

■8 Lush or corruption, sets in after the watch or gHh nest .to that durmg winch one du»-. 
a violent death. (See Vd. 7 § 5). 



124 

then druj-nasush rushes on it and then sagdid should be performed over it, because 
at that (i.e., the next) gdh (i.e., the period of the day), it makes one riman, and 
although they wish it (otherwise), such corpses of persons who have been killed 
in any way (described above) should not be disposedi of before the time (gdh) of 
the next period of the day (gdh). 

At the time when (such person) is still alive, 2 a dog should be tied near his 
feet 5 because whenever this is done, and when life separates from him, then one 
shall not have to perform the sagdid during the period of time in which the nasush 
will rush over him. 3 A dog must see all (the members) of the corpse of one who 
is killed (in this way). 

If the hand or foot or any member of a person is cut off and has been removed, 
then when that man dies and sagdid is performed, that member which has been 
removed should also have the sagdid performed over it. The corpse of one who is 
killed or struck down (by violent death) does not make riman the place, or the piece 
of land or any enclosed place or any man (coming in contact with it) during the 
gdh (i.e., one of the five periods of the day) in which he is killed, and the same ia 
the case with other things as if sagdid has been performed over the corpse 4 ; but 
when the next watch of the day (gah) sets in, it is as if the life has been separated 
from the body 5 at that period. 8 



1 MU. * 5 _Krj#— better H.F., BK. *i>i v *3 2 H.F., and BK. add. »** 'A* (SJ^V 1 *'* 
i.e., just before death. 3 i, e ., nasuah rushes at the next gah to that in which the person dies 
and therefore during the intervening period of the gdh when he dies and the next gdh, there ia 
no need of sagdid: — MU. Aj'«.3 8jfjiS — better H.F., BK. Aj'AJ j ijtji 

* i.e., those things will not be regarded as polluted, although they come in contact with 
the corpse during the intervening space of the two gdhs. 5 lit., nasa i.e., the corpse. 

6 i.e., if any person or thing comes in contact with the corpse during the period next to that 
in which he dies, then he or it is riman. With this Rivayet, Cf. the following passages : — 

Vd. VII§§ 4-5: (4) "If (a person) is killed, byadog, or by a wolf, | or by witchcraft or by malice 
(ace. to Pah., by poison) or by falling down from a height, or by men (Pah. = sentenced to death 
by judges according to law), or by violence or by strangulation, then, after how long does the 
druj-nasu. rush upon the dead 1 " 

(5) .... After the next watch of the day (to that in which death has occurred), the druj- 
nasu rushes upon it : 

i.e., if one dies a natural death, then the druj-nasu rushes upon the corpse directly after 
death-; but if it is death caused by violence or any other similar circumstance, then the druj. 
nasu rushes upon the corpse in the gdh or watch of the day next to that in which death occurs. 

Pah. Vend. VII § 2 Comm, (p. 238 11. 7-9). 

" Consider this (rushing of the nam) to be at that time when life departs ; if (at that time) 
a dog is bound near his feet, and if nasush rushes on it, then it destroys it on seeing it." 

Sis. II § 1 :— 



IPO 



^ jmj iff n }-u«o •s>fyw£ j Kjo-oooteyi j *iJe) ^tea no &e 



n 4 

(1) For in the 3rd fargard of the Vendidad of Medyomflh, it is declared that he who does 
not die a violent death (lit., he who gives up his life without violence (zur)), then at the time when 
the life goes out if a dog is tied near his feet and when, at last, the nasush rushes upon it, it 
destroys it if seen by it. 



125 

MU.I, p. 119 11. 8-16 and p. 120 11. 5-l4=H.F., f. 147 and f. 105. 

Kaus Kama and Kama Bohra :— If there is a person who is killed by justice* 
or injustice, or who dies if poison is administered to him, or who dies through 
witchcraft practised on him by sorcerers, or if he is bitten by a dog and if there 
where (the corpse) is handled and the clothes of those (handling the corpse) come 
in contact with the naked corpse, the clothes are useless. 2 

Or, if a person has been bitten by a wolf or a wild animal and dies of the wound 
or if one dies by falling down a precipice or from any other place by the same cause 
or if a person dies of a wound inflicted on him or if one is hanged on a gibbet— in 
all such 3 (cases) when one dies, the druj-nasush does not run (on the corpse) until 
the next gdh (period of the day) to the gdh (in which death occurs). Sagdid should 
not be performed until the next gdh sets in and (the corpse) should not be carried 
away, but when it is to be carried to the ddd-gdh (after the next gdh sets in), sagdid 
should be performed and then it should be disposed of ; and about these (cases) 
which have been enumerated, if a dog is tied near the feet (of the dying person) 
from before the time when lif e* will separate from- the body upto the time when life 
separates from the body— if this is done— then, whenever life departs from the 
body, nasush will rush on to the corpse if at that time sagdid is perioral ; but 
if this is not done, then nasush 6 will not run on to it until the gdh next to the gdh 
(in which death occurs). And when these men have thus died in one gdh, then men, 
clothes, houses, and enclosed places are not made riman (during the same gdh, by 
coming in contact with the corpse), and the same is the case with other things as 
if sagdid has been performed* (over the corpse) ; because let it be known that these 



Cf . Sis. Ch. X § 32 :— 

a£y J}<\ ft lis ue^v -^ -k «»ta ww» ^ we wb -> ■« J o Si kjukj & vM 
.«. „?<£, 3_u,»J war jj_^ uoia hjj(3 ,ia j*».M| tjjvj va M r^a-ts 

(32) The rule is this that in the Vendidad, seven kinds of things are spoken of, which ara 
the cause of a man's death and (in those cases) until the next period of the day comes on 
nasrusht i.e., corruption does not rush upon him ; for this reason, it is well for the good that tha 
dog should be properly shown to the whole corpse in the next period of the day. 

l by the decision of a judge. I J V ' or J l *» Pah. ^ S MU., H.F., "^'-better BK. 



i MU. W 3 3'— H.F., BK. W 3 j' e> 1 



c 



' 



6 Cf . this with the preceding Rivayet. What is meant here is : — 
If sagdid is performed before the next gdh then druj-nasush will at once rush on it, If sagdid 

Is postponed, then the druj-nasush will run on the corpse in the next gdh. Or, better read, *J Mi 

for sjU ( aB m the preceding Rivayet), and translate it thus :— whenever life departs from the 
body (of a man who has met with violent death), then sagdid should not be performed (at 
once), as the druj-nasush will run on him (at the same time). 

6 add IT""* 5 after 3 *! (as in Kama Bohra). 

? MU., H.F., *£** '■&* —better BE. **S ^^ (as in Kama Bohra's Rivayat) 



126 

men) have been killed by (divine) .'reckoning. When the (next) gdh sets in, it is 

as if life becomes separated, 1 at that very time, from the body. 2 

. . . .• . . ; , , , 

MU, Ij'p. 119 11. 18-19 and p. 120 II. l-3=H.E,,'f. 148. 

Kaus Kama, andShapitr Bharuchi :— If the palm of the hand, the hand or the 
foot of a man is cut off and if it is thrown in a. place, then if the man dies, the 
Tiasush rushes (also) on the part cut off, 3 whenever it rushes on to the body ; then 
when sagdid is performed over that person; the member of the body which has 
been removed should also have sagdid performed over it: ' • 

''' ' ' ' " .■•;■:■■•. r,i,i. '■ : ! iujoyi , '.■,..., 

'•• ■ ■ o 1.1 a ) , . MU., I, p. 120 11. 16-19. ... 

. Shapur Bharuchi :— If any person ' dies by accident and if a' person lifts up 
and carries that dead, then because" the 'gdh (period of 'the day) next to the gdh (in 
which he dies) has not yet set in, his 'clothes* should be washed just as in the case of 
(a woman in) menses, i.e., they should be washed With'' bull's' urine and 'water, and 
they are (then) pure. If a' person comes in' contact,' through negligence, with a 
■corpse and the gdh next to the gdh (in which; he dies) has hot yet been reached, then 
if his clothes are' washed just as in. the case of : (a woman in) menses, they become 
pure, but the clothes worn by the dead are' rirnan ; they can never be purified by 

washing. and they are useless. 5 ■■ ' 

' '" '-'''•''■'' . .: ' '•■ .: ?! ■ : : .,,,' I}J ; ■..- ' ./ .. ... , : . , . 

M.UI, prWVW l-19and Pl ;I22 11: 1-8: JO\, f. '84, f. 102, f 145 ri . i 
' ! "' ! ' ' *»'*» "» M&aiouij, Ij baa (uaqioa ■ i , , [ «,}, 

Precautions to be taken when death occurs in the Yasna-Gah. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama :— If, in a place, preparations are made for a 
Yasna-service and a person dies in that house and if (thereby) any harm will reach 
the fire, then the fire should be removed if , while removing it, it may be three, steps 
away from the nasd.* If it is not three steps away (frqm the, nasd) it should not 
be removed'as, if any the least heat' -of the fire' 'reaches the' fed, 'it is amargarzdn 
sin ;' and ; although the fire is in (full). blaize,8 one should' not remove it from within 
three steps of the nasd; one may leave it (as it is) so that it may be extinguished. 

Prepared food such as baked bread, or food cooked in a pot or kneaded flour, 
which may be in the house is all useless ; that' which 'is not cooked;, such as wheat,' 
barley, flour and (cereals) like these' become pure in nine nights of whiter and In 
thirty days of summer. The saine is the case with clothing. ■ ■■ 



1 MU.i^ 3 '^ — better H.F..BK. ij-^ I Aa. 

■ ■'. -', 



3 '"J lit., corpse. 

:' r •■■■,■.....••,■. •;. • 

3 After '<ijlji H.F. rightly addd i>'lja '»**$ y^j (as in Shapur Bharuchi, p. 120 1.2). 

4 MTJ. u^' **La>-— better S.D.B. (No. 235) XAJjf \£ &*l». 
6 i.e., they should be torn off and buried in the ground. ■ ' " 

' a a in ' j. 1 t, 1 o or, ' ' '' "■" ' ' ' '' ' '' ' '' ''' ' - "' I 

e See Sis. quoted below : § 38. , . , ■ t 

a ................ 

V i>MU and (jW (p. 121 1. 11 & p. 122 1,3). [ ... 

a For j»-BKji> . ,- • . ,.,.., .. 



.127 

:\<Zur.\i.e h Zaothra water) which is prepared should be , taken to the water.J 
It is better if 'consecratedi clothing are left (to be purified) for nine nights (in whiter) 
and thirty nights (in .summer) ;; but if it is washed instantly, that will also do. 

If 6ne dies out of an enclosed place', prepared food Which' is within three steps 
is useless, but (it is pure) if it is away from three steps (of the nasd). 

If in a house preparations are made for a Yasna-service. and a person dies, the 
first thing to be done is to remove the fire which is the .protector (of the. house), 
i.e., although the fire is the destroyer of the druj (in ordinary cases),, yet at the time 
(when death has occurred) it so happens that it cannot destroy^ the druj (i-nasush), 3 
so long as the nasd is' within the prescribed limit of the fire.* ■ If it can be so 'carried 
away that it may be three paces^ each of three steps, away from the nasd, it should 
be carried away ; but if it cannot be' so carried away, it should be left (as it is) so 
that it may be extinguished ; because if the fire^ is three steps away from the nasd, 
it. is still a tanajur sin 8 .; and if it so havens' that the .warmth of it reaches the 
nasd under any circumstances, it is a Margarzdn sin. " 

' ; Food which is prepared in that house is all useless, i.e.; it should not be eaten 
^(food) such as- bread or .what ifi, cooked in a. pot* roasted or cooked meat or (such 
things) as are prepared on fire ; and kneaded flour is also of no use. The food which 
is notpreparedS . w ffl be pure in 1 a month, if the Rapithwin is on the surface of the 
earth? and it will be pure in .nine nights if the Rapithwin is under the groundA? 
The clothes also which are in that place become pure in as much" time, except" 
those which are (at that time) on the body. 

The zw-water which has been prepared and the 'jum (i.e., 'the milk)" should be 
carried away to the (well) water. About. consecrated clothes,* 4 it is. said in one 
teaching that when Rapithwin is above (the surface of the earth)," they are pure 
in one mohthj.but'ifit'is under the earth," they are pure in nine nights." [It is 

J i.e., should be at once poured out into the water of the .well. , • • •,, I . ■ 

, i o.£j for £*&i (g ee gi B , below) ' 

" ' -2 6j< *5ly? (Kama Bohra) for ; i> j <& 'j# (BK. and' kaus' Kama), ' 

m - 3- The reason is. apparent : as said elsewhere, the pohution caused by the druj-i-na^A is 
the highest when life departs from the body, and therefore if the fire winch m the destroyer of 
23 in ordinary cases is within three steps of the nasd, it does not overpower the druj-nasush. 

U :■'■.'' ". ")Hr " . - " ' •■ . • .' ■ ."• ' "' : - : 

4 ^jUaj : The measure as given in Av. is 3 steps. 

•■■: emu. (•(?>« ^1 : H:IT^ BK : >(^ s»i&1J*. i .'••- ' M '■'■' »«'. 

e For, fire should be carried away so far from the nasa that its heat may not approach it. 
; ' ,*$ %ld (K a maBohra)or, ^'^^»^^ * ^ s0 carried away (from the ndsa). 

s \1&J&$ (KamaBohral-better U*- ^ (Kaus Kama and BE.). 
-,P <,«.,. in summer. ... ,..',,.. 10 i.e., in winter. ^ _ ^ ^ 

'' 11 MtT., H.F., ^^— BK. (•*!**> 

OT&^'tfcli j f .>="_?— better BK. and Kaus Kama t)^ V . f -J ^ ^ 

. I* 'nfikjfify a.s.giyen in Kama Bohra, and Kaus Kama has M* Vi^-better £ J 

■iSm 91 s - quoted below). , . . . . , ■ .,. . a i„ TT saa ■ ■-.■ 

15 This is the.ppimon^of Vand-Ormazd, according to Sis. H, 9 «. 






128 



.said in another teaching that when Rapithwin is above (the surface of the earth), 
they are pure in one month, but if it is under the earth they are pure in nine nights.]! 
It is said in another teaching that if they are washed at once with padyab [i.e., 
bull's urine] (and water), and are squeezed and clean dried, 2 they are pure. 3 



1 This sentence is the same as the above ; it is unnecessarily repeated and BK. omits it. 

3 AiJUo 1;^., they rub. 

3 Cf . the following passages with this Bivayat. 

Sis. II §§ 38-53. 

ftjfj w A>n *\j tjj ftiete ov ±}^ -w m w\* m>*> iwjo il -> $«? (38) 

(•> *ia> 

J" iray irov (39) !?. ifo^ij -^ ^kj )«j^j jjjj o1»Hy wi^js atjj j»j5| je_j» na U- 
.-. Up J L w j -HJie- 5 !^,) na W i V ireitifa *j iyo iwn^o tuyte 
liew^e -m^i »| iwjop ?j» t -ojj|i j L )0 , r (^^iss jj,j3 ( -i jw _j" w ijj)!oi (40) 
-JLJW. liw*' jij ^i ^f ^p }w a5 jo ^ioooj -j icoV (41) :. '$$ 

(£ -i 8^ iRjtHJ'O j|* 118 -> iS J^ Wf o^ru, (42) .\ , WJ )o- W -»)»i JJVj $0-0 

Vw a5 howiaj t^wy j eW ( (43) .Mttw* Ut, w -wr -o^ jA ir^ si 
is: m ^r>f in ^*o «wa (44) .\fflp> «>£. a^ ,K, )r V*> *f % -^J iifj> m >w> 
W 3wkj jmj i?wi jto jo vp f(f> »» ,r«jy ytu iw-^c w -d>»^ -^Vj 48-sj -sj-o^ 

!*» . , ,,.r — 
.'. WIICO JMj -"(5^ f4 \r> 

f jjij ( U^ $j)|> je _/ ^ j $^khj5 jwjV itemed jmj ^t no rc (47) 

1 ^oojj ) -W8 -J«)Oy I -m^ IKSS^ £y }<UtK» j-yoV (48) .M*^ J ^0 o>jL 

L n j *d- 

• • / * I / TWI 

■ 
»>SU ^a no jjp-b -^yj $8-1} •sj j o^ if (Oiv-^ w iw $S \\a -j •v-dri' (50) 

itemed ^u 3T j))$ i -P-u){ot mewo 1 no i -o-dii ^Uwt im^ w no ne-»o' w 

-0J-. ^ M a5 no -Cain -> f«0;ii^ij,W no a^o-f (51) .\-o-Dir jWxc iwi^ jjij 

.\-0J)|| aii(t)0 I1K»^ $-uw Wf 118 ) -O-UJI J ^)v)<f u^jpJ -(j^ )«)l^) -^Ij '(}■" 

■sjjf jjj •HJo^^oaiHy i(f t (53) /.owto'o' f-»|! n? 1 ^^ w no ■vewio'o i (52) 

Wt^t 1£ -01)^^0^ ?>^ ••O-D|)_jlj)|0'^ -OO 1 IHJiW) J)tj J^l lir jl-uj J)|} I»lMl 

(38) In a house where preparations for Yasna-service are made, and a dog or a person dies, 
then the first business to be done is this, that the fire is to be preserved from harm ; even if the 
fire can be so removed that it can be carried away within three Bteps of the corpse even then 



129 

Mtl. tq p. 122 11. 10-13 and 11. 17-19 and p. 123 11. 1-2: HJ 1 . £» 100 and 

f, 143. (.■■..'■,■■■.• .-<■ 

i Death in Atash-Behram,, 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kalim .'—If a person dies on the' terrace 1 of ah Atash 
Behram and if the corpse reaches the ground (from ' the terrace-roof), the empty- 
it may be carried away, but the wall should not be broken. (39.) Roshan said that an. earthen 
tone may be cut into but one made Of mortar may riot be broken ; (but in some cases) damag- 
ing the wall below or above is not to be taken into consideration. (40) : To .'bring the fire within 
three steps 'of the corpse is a sin of one tanafur and if heat '(Rivayets have U** J or Cr^ tJ J • 
the word may be originally )Yoav J approaches the corpse, it is a mtirgarian. (41) The pre- 
pared food in that house is all useless 'an'd that which is pot prepared should be tised after 
nine nights (in winter) and after a month (in summer). (42) As regards garments also, it is 
the same, except those which are worn ton the tody. Those (other's)- which are in use are not 
tolean at that time. ... 

(43) The zor-water which is prepared and remains in that piaffe' is to be carried' away 
immediately t'o the water (of a well) [because at the -end- of- Yasna, zor-water is /always poured 
into a well] > the same should be the case with jiv or jum [jivam, or, the sacred milk]. (44) Of 
the clothes which are consecrated, Vand-Ormazd has said that they are usable in the length of 

'nine nights (in winter), or a month' (in summer). ' Dapir (?{jj == the written') 'said that if they 
are washed after purifying the hands they will become at once clean ..;..'/ 

(47) If one dies in' an openor wild spot [the Rivayats have 'oi$J W$j& i.u, out of airi 
'enclosed place], prepared food which is within three steps is all useless;, and that whioh is 
beyond four steps is not riman. (48) Prepared food is this ; bread, boiled and roast meat, 

&nd juicy meats '(&<&!$' — iJ^J^ i.e. broths) Which are prepared ..... 

(50) If .fire is carried into the house in which the length of riinenights (in winter) 'or a month 
'(in summer) is necessary for its being purified then there is a sin of one' tandfur for carrying it 
in and one tandfur for kindling it and for every spark thereof which is put out and remains. there, 
there is one 'iahdjur sin. '(51 ) For carrying wat6r in, there is a fdlrmdii sib. '; and for pouring water 
bn the place where one's life departs there is a tandfwsin, and for .pouring it in a different place, 
there is a y&t sin. (52) Carrying ceremonial apparatus (pddydhi) within is all uncleanness 
(apddydb). (53) If a person goes within such a place needlessly, his body and clothes are to 
be washed eyery timb ; and the sin is one tanafur. /When, one goes .in out of necessity^ it is 
neither a good work nor a sin. , , . . • , .'..-, 

C/. also Vend. V '§§ 39-44 ; and the Pah. Comin. to § 44 :— (p. 1 83-1. .12 1 84). . 

This is manifest from the Avesta : it happens that when in the room of a house," there ar6 
preparations of a Yasna-sefviee, and -if a dog or a'man dies, then the Yasna should end;, for the 

ground-floor (jiy\<?} is riman. Of the two [viz., the corpse or the ceremonial" apparatus], 

whichever may be carried away first should be carried away. Fire, if it is possible, may be 
brought out (first); If it is to be removed (wjthih three; paces) , of the dead, it should certainly 
be removed. 

The wall should not be broken (for carrying away the fire); .;■ .Roshan said that the earthen 
one may be cut into,, but one of mortar should not be broken..- Such. a house, is .all- pollution 
(hilchra i gerp) from.within and without for, nine nights (in winter) or; for the length of a month 
(in summer). Whatever is there in that place .is. ■.all po]lution'(7w/<:7ira i gera). What is brought 
(after the death occurs) is (also) not pure. Fuel which may be there may be scraped (and theri 
used). 

Prepared food within three steps should not be used for the Yasna of the Yazads. ■ Parik 
Said that the good should not eat it. That which is away from three steps should be used . for 
ceremonial purposes after nine nights (in. winter) or the length of a month (in summer). That 
which has hot been prepared, whether within three steps Or away from three steps, if used after 
nine nights (in winter) prthe, length of a month (in summer), will do in all works. Prepared 
food is this I baked bread, cooked or roast meat and prepared broth. . ; , . 

1 f l J (KausKama) — .o 1 ** (Kama. Bohra)— BE. r> [ ^ uk* 

1? 



130 

space* does not become polluted ; i.e., pollution does not reach the ground upto 
the water (below) from the part above 3 ; and when (the corpse) reaches the ground, 
it causes pollution once (only, at such a time) ; but when dying, if the corpse falls 
«n the ground (at once), the ground is polluted ; but it does not become polluted if 
it reaches the ground a second time. 3 But when (the man) falls on the ground for 
the first time (from the terraee.) then whether at that time the person dies or after 
that, it causes pollution for many years on the ground upto the water (below) 
and from above (that surface) to the highest* (part above it in empty space). 
The empty space within the same Atash Behram is not polluted and the ashes (of 
the fire) if hot within three paces are pure, but what is cold is impure. 5 

MIL I., p. 122 11. 13-15 and p. 123 11. 2-3=H.F., f. 100 and f. 143. 

Nasa on high roads and on a cultivated piece of land. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — The high roads of cities and villages, and 
the springs wherefrom water flows perpetually 6 are not polluted (if the dry parts 
thereof come in contact with nasd). 

The places where there are houses and gardens, 7 {i.e., where there are habitable 
places) and cultivated ground, should be taken care of (from nasa). Of other places, 
the same is the case.* If there is a cultivable piece of land and if they cultivate 
it, 9 then it is a tanafur sun 

MU. L, p. 123 11. 5-19 and p. 124 1. l.=H.F., f. 101 and f. 144. 

■ 

Nasa coming in contact with a wooden couch, a plastered ground, 
a piece of land set with stones or with felt-rugs. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama .-—If life separates from the body on -a wooden 
plank (^e., sofa, bedstead, couch, &c), and if the plank has legs so that the dead 



1 the andarvai, iteS, atmosphere. 



^2 aj£j£* ■l J y r U3 J -Jnqj w i*;jJ"j (Kama Bohra)-and ^ H \^*ij fcfewftfJUj 
*¥*\g*X& (Kaus Kama)— better BK. 4}£i jj ^ tJ ^U-jj |i&B>J *3JIj 

3 i.e., if it isjsarried down to the ground after death has occurred on the terrace. 
i p-SjrV. ~ (»-LW c/. (Paz.) beretum, the highest. 6 Of. the following:— 
file. II §§ 46 and 49 :— 

. . WW * WJ 9-tfi? fZ*ty) j mm-vR? J £&? i (46) 

... ( 

*. iwiiwj ij?"i*J 5^0 no ^w j -hj-ukc J) i (49) 

(46) The space within ( uf* ) the vault (i.e., the sanctum sanctorum) of the Atash Behram 
does not become polluted. (49) The ashes of the Atash Behram become polluted in accordance 
with the measure (specified in Avesta): [i.e., within three steps it is polluted ; beyond it, it is clean] 

Of. Pah. Vd. V § 44 Comm. (p. 185, 1L 4-5) :— 

.*. JfHJI IKJS^WJ lira-" IPOe-upO 1 ->Vj4f 
The vault of the fires should be regarded as an uninhabited place:, i-e., an open place (and 
is not to be treated as a house in which death occurs). 

<?. * <*» />**+7 (in Kama Bohra)— » l i* is the Semitic <q4 whose Pah. form is ©• (dp)= w a,t6T. 

1 Kama Bohra (tfUiU. an( j Ka^s Kama |si^<« t) '■*■$• for 4$**! j (sJ*& 

8 i.e., naad should be ceremonially removed therefrom. 

9 MU. *j/fi — better H.F., BK. AJjKj (i.e., without removing the nasa.) 



131 

matter is not on a level with the legs,i the pollution does not descend to tfe 
ground ; but if the plank has no legs or if the dead matter is on a level with the 
legs,* the pollution descends to the ground (and, therefore, the ground will be pure- 
after a year). .... 

If one dies on a piece of plastered ground and if the bare part of the nasa reaches 
the plaster, then the plaster should be scraped off and if the Rapithwin (i.e., the 
period of summer) is above the ground, it should be washed after the lapse of 30 
days and it is pure. If the plaster is scraped off from that sheltered place 3 and 
if the Rapithwin is below the ground, then it should be washed after the lapse of 
nine nights (and it is pure)", but the plaster should be removed (and thrown off). 

If one dies on the surface of a stone so that the bare parts of the nasa reaches- 
the stone, then that stone is riman just as much as the length and breadth of th& 
nasa. If that piece of ground is paved with stones, then (the piece of ground with 
the stones) becomes pure after a year. Rut if the stones are removed from the 
place, then as much of the stone (as comes in contact with the nasu) is riman and 
just as has been enjoined, it should be washed and will be pure. 

If on a stone, there is nasa of one who dies and the bare parts of the nasa reaches 
it, then the whole stone is riman although it is separate from the ground (i.e., not 
paved and set in that piece of land), and it should be washed, as has been ordered. 

If one dies on the surface of a felt-rug and another felt-rug may have been- 
placed separately on that side, and if it comes in contact with the first felt, therj- 
the former (also) should be washed. 6 

1 i.e., has not come in contact with the legs. 

2 i.e., if nasa comes in contact with the legs. 

3 H.F., BK. >^V ii)f J for <***? £* MU - °r l " s *V 3' g 5 " ( Kaus Kama l ** ni^aft is a- 
place sheltered by a roof or any covering. 

i A^-'j yJ'-J omitted in Kama Bohra : Kaus Kama and BK. give it; 
6 With this Rivayet, cf. the following passages : — Sis. II §§ 13-16-*- 

kp? I, Lp»l j|ej» ew j$ nvp jr^k? -^ «| fcv iw i tew -w «T ( 13 ) 

*§ *?) a» mifft ^J _J»» * **' ( 15 ) -^ J ^ ^ '"■ ! "*" ^ 
tj5 ^ it» *l» £y V» > S *V '«" ,TO ^ V J ^ f*l f^t vm m ?" ** i,Kr 

»n?J.Ti»C! ^ ^ ^ w ^ ^^ WJJ ^ f T ^ JK) wr (16) * wif0 ' L "^ 
^j ^ tvl *>A fro iiei Sihoo ^j wy w J tf -w jwjj ^^« j r ij iw 

J ^ ftjj iw *? .-.TOW} ijL iif j£ Sj "^ ^ # tf& ^j <r new ^ 

(13) When (the nasa) is on a bedstead and its legs are not connected (ayohartah) with the 
ground, when a hair or a limb remains again on the bedstead, it does not convey (the pollution 
= JOtfl ) down (to the ground). (14) When one dies on a plastered floor, the plaster is 
polluted and when they scrape off that plaster and spread (the ground) again with another 

(plaster )t if) is pure. ■ . ' „ . ,.',",» 

t This clause may be also alternately translated thus -.-and throw it off manother(place). 



132 

1 MU. L, p. 124 11. 3-8 = H.F., f. 98. 

,-'' '' • • ■ ■ •• ■' idd ' 

V , Kama, Bdjipa : —If one dies on a plank., (i.e., wooden sofa, couch,, bedstead,, 

&c,) and if that plank has legs, and if there is a hair or limb of that, person on 

the, plank which is not on -a level with the legs,i then the pollution does not 

descend to the ground, but if (the plank) is on a, level with the legs, 2 the pollution 

descends (to the grqund). : 

' ■ ' • i ^ ■ ' :. , , 

!>n If one dies on. a. plastered (piece, of ground),, then the plaster- is polluted. If 
that plaster is scraped off 3 and if the Rapithwin is below the earth, it is.. pure after- 
nine days, but if (the Rapjthwin) is above the earth, it is pure in 30 days,.. 



, (J5) When one dies on a atone. and the stone is connected. with the ground, the stons becomes, 
pure with the ground during the length of a year (but) if they dig up the place, the polluted 
stone must be washed at once (and it is purified'). (16.). When, one dies on a stone which is; 
either connected, with, the ground, or is. separated fi;o.m it, and as much space of the stone, as is, 
the corpse on it becomes polluted, if they leave it (as it is), it will ti become clean, during the 
length of a year along with the ground ; but if they dig it up, the 'stone is all polluted and 
should be washed (and purified)" at once. If the stone is not set (on a level) with the ground,, 
then, the atone, is all polluted,, (which iq) above the ground, and should be washed (and 
purified) at once. 

Gf. Pah. Vd. 6 § 5 Comm. (p. 206 11. 11-14 and: p. 207 11. 1 + 5-10). 

Afrag said that a /piece of ground set with stones or plastered' is (regarded as) polluted,., 
(ayokartalc), , Gogosha.sp sajd that, if the, stone is left there on that plot, then it, will be pure 
along wiljh the ground in the (specified) measure (i.e., in a year)'. But if (the stone) is removed 
and washed, it is pure at once, arid if it is removed, but not washed, it is never pure. ...... 

If on e dies on a plank, but if nothing (from the nasa) reaches the legs, then the ground; 

is-pure. But. if something (of the nasa) comes in contact with the legs (of the plank) and if the 
legs are not fixed into the ground, the ground is- pure. If something (of the. nasal comes in 
contact with the legs and if the legs are fixed into, the ground, the ground (also) \s.riman._ 
■ Cf. Sis. II §§10,1-104 :— ,. V '.:'c. ... . .- ... 

I Sffl hoWj-sj ^ ^w <fQ ,j$ enj ?$ i«uikj£ ;,'^jj -> ajj -ttr' ?f (101) 
«js^ ^K> -w jia n<2y -i ro^ '¥$ (102) T.v» <f£i ^t^wr vp ^_y -»^ aij, 
ju. z5 ts, iff- w'wo ihej^jp i«jii?"j6 -ye saJo\ j oey 1501*1* ■<?)') & \<&iicr howijj 
ajj iws^ )kj.)ihj. nwr" go** M ik^jJjP (103) :.v4 % -m-^i vrf $ iuf' 
3jj h jd^i <?p n©iff).« kwj vbo .f 110 ')£ iik ra%j (104) :.H) fvfr 

■•...' ' ' ■ 

(101) When one dies on a carpet and when the carpet is connected with a rug (of felt), the 
rug an/1 carpet are, both riman ; but if (Separated, the rug is clean, (102) When several cushions 
are heaped (vichit), one upon the other,, and are not connected and if dead matter comes on them, 
they have been, unanimous that only that one is polluted on which dead matter has come. 
(103) A cushion with wool is just the same as a carpet with a rug. (104) Of several cushions 
which are tied' together, when dead matter comes, on the tie. [i.e., on the ropej. &c), 
both the cord and the. cushions are polluted), and when the dead matter, comes on the cushion 
and does not eome to the tie, the cushions are all polluted on account of their being connected 
together, but the tie' (i.e., the cord, &c.) is clean. 

* i.e.,. does not come in contact with the legs. 

2 i.e., if it has no legs ; or if it has legs and if they come in. contact with the: corpse.. 

3- &X& £ or . iw£j, 



133 

If one dies on the surface of a stone, and if the stone is set in the ground, that 
Stone (with the piece of ground beneath) becomes pure in a year. If the stone is 
dug up at once, then it will be pure if it is washed six times with pddydb (= bull's 
urine), as has been ordered. If it is a large piece of stone and if it iS'Set in the ground* 
and if' one dies on it, then as much part thereof, as the nasd is on, is rirmn and it 
becomes pure after a year. But if it' is dug up from the ground, the whole of it is, 
riman and it should be washed so that it may be (at once) pure. If there is a large 
stone separate from the ground (i.e., not set in) and if a person dies on the surface 
of it, then the whole stone is -polluted, but it should be washed (and it will be: 

pure at once). 

...'■■ ■ r ■ 

• MU. L, p. 124 11. 1Q-14 and p. 125 11. 5-9=HJ\, f. 101 and f. 144. 

Death on the Upper Floor or a Terrace : Death hy Hanging ; 
Death on the Ground Floor : Death in a Common Passage 

Leading to Two Houses. 

' • . ■ : , '■■ ■ ■ 

. -Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama ferlf a man or a dog dies on the upper, floor , 
Cor, terrace) 3 so that a single hair, more or less, lies on the ground, then the 
pollution goes down upto the water (below) from as much (space) as is (polluted). 
Until a year elapses, no one should go below (the place contaminated with nasa) 
and on the level surface thereof. So much (space) should be avoided.^ Bargain 
should not be brought within three steps of that place, because it will be 

' [ ) : ." '■'-,'■'.:,''' ' e 

If there is, nasa of one who dies on an upper floor, and the bare parts of the^ 
nasd lie on the floor away from the wall, the floor is polluted and the pollution does 
not descend to the ground^ i.e., nothing of it 4 goes down further. If anything 
of it is on the wall, and if the wall has heen built 5 from the surface of the ground 
nothing more upto the water (underneath the ground) reaches ; and if the pollution 
descends from the surface of the wall, the nasush (corruption) runs as much as the 
length and' breadth of the dead like other cases in which things are more or less 
polluted.,.:.. , .;.; ,,: i • ,' ' l . .! '• _ ■ •' 

■-'■■ A bridge which is constructed (over anything) is dike the upper storey (of a 
house). „ ...>. :■ . ''.■."',. . 

MU. I., p. 124 11. 16-19 and p. 125 11. 1-3 = H.F. f. 99. , 






Kama Bohra :— If a i person dies, on the upper floor and whose hair or a, limb is 
on one side thereof in such a way that it is near the step & (of the ladder) and the, 

1 MU., (j"t*j J<i— H.F. y*.*jjij J* 

2 f". roof, ceilma, or terrace. 

i ' , ' . ." 

3 Kaus Kama jj> —Kama Bohra and BK. e>t/°j tjj> m 

4 J-i lit., one thing (of it): or, from one thing [viz., the floor) it does not descend further. 

5 /Xwj lit., grown. ... , , , 
e MU., H.F., isj-i^J? ■— better ^r;) (See p. 125 1. 1). 



134 

rest (of the nasd) is on the surface of 1 the floor, then, on a level with the nam,, the 
jx>llution goes down (the ground) as far as the water (below), as much as is the 
length and breadth of the nasd. That pollution remains for a year. It is not 
proper that Barsam may be brought within three steps in such a place because it 
will be polluted, if (nasd) is on the surface 1 of the terrace or inside a place covered 
(with a roof, or anything) and the reason of it is that the bare nasd lies on the 
surface and there should be (the distance of) three steps, each of three paces, I 
have spoken of (to be taken into account). If one dies on the surface 1 of the upper 
floor in such a way that the nasd is near the step 2 (of the ladder), then (the 
surface thereof) is polluted as much as is the length and breadth of the nasd. 
But if the bare parts of the nasd reaches the ground and if one dies near the step 
(of the ladder) and if there is no part (of the nasd) on the surface of the floor and 
if even the least part of the nasd reaches the ground then pollution of that (nasd) 
which is near the step (of the ladder) reaches upto the water below as much as is- 
the length and breadth of the nasd, and it becomes pure after two years. 

If a person is hanged by a rope in his neck and dies and if there is no fear of his 
falling down, then the pollution does not descend to the ground ; but if there is. fear 
of his falling down, then (the pollution) descends' just opposite the ground (under- 
neath) upto the water below. 3 






i c*«o lit,, back. 

3 \3ij*-»J. so H.F., MU, for ^ j*»J. 

3 With the above two Rivayats, 'c/. the following from Sis. II §§ 18, 20 and 23. 

?£j -I ii>i$ % Ijj^ if QIC -l£0t» -HSfy H0II5&£ ^ -if) * 19 1 (18) 

$oy> aicr if vrp w* ■$ S*yjjf rj-" iya ^«ta -> #o £ £kv}j ?=) n ww*> ifvej 
tt>iiP0 me-" $iewj -J ^-"10 (20) .". ire^ $i(jiV % i) rj ikjwi-w vt *™ iH^> ^t 

•■• |P?.J IW& 

Wr* 4) iKwi^ei) JJij Wf. iwinetf -^i) }ta (g i»^ i_j»^o' 11a ?? (23) 
wiv-" fvej irui^ iS nei j «oi^ f Jjj iS lirp gj neoiveii -^j wp m&*> -^ <?va 

.MKMiyeii i\Sy tpiv-" fvei if iS iieuim jjij v# y 

(18) If one dies on an upper floor and if a limb or hair is left over the edge of the floor, (i.e.,. 
near the staircase), the floor is polluted as much as the size of the (dead) body, up to the water 
(below the ground) ; and they shall carry away the Barsam which is in that house, from the- 
place where the pollution descends until there are 30 steps of 3 feet to the Barsom so that 
the Barsom may not be polluted, and if the hair or the limb has not come to the staircase 

(l^a) the floor is polluted up to the empty space M-Ow) (as far as the ceiling). 

(Cf. Per. _}(■»■* = empty (space). (20) A built bridge is liable just like the upper floor (of a 
house). (23) If one dies by strangulation with a rope in the throat when there is no fear of his 
falling down, (the pollution) does not descend down (to the ground) ; but if there is fear 
of his falling down, when that fear is as regards one side of him, then (pollution) goes down 
(on the ground) on that side j and if he has fallen down, then as much (pollution) goes down 
on the surface (as is occupied) when he falls down. 
* Per. A* =step of a ladder. '"■ 



135 

MU. I., p. 125 It. 0-12 and 11. 17-18 and MU. p. 125 11. 18-19 and p. 126 1. 1 = 

H.F. f. 100 and f. 143. 

Kaus Kama and Kama Bohra .-—There is a house and its belpngings. If they 
walk on the place therein whereon nasa has reached, beforei a year, it is a tanafur 
sin ; one should wash his head and clothes. If they leave fire there,- it is a tanafur 
Bin. If they pour water there, it is a tanafur sin. 

If one dies on a bedding and if a limb or a hair of that person appears on the 
wall, then the bedding is riman and the pollution descends (on the ground) as far 
as the water (below) from as much space of the. wall whereon the nasa has fallen 
as the length and breadth of the dead ; and it will be pure after a year. 

MU. Is, p. 125 11. 12-15 and p. 126 U. 1-4=H.F. f. 103 and f. 146. 

j > 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — This is also said that if a house has a door 
leading to another house, and if one dies on the passage of the two compartments 
and remains in the midst thereof and if the head be in the house and the legSj on 
the gate of another house, then the ground and the atmosphere (above), as much 
as is (the length and breadth of) the nasa is riman for one year and the same is 
the case with the door. If part (of the nasa) is- in one compartment and part of 
it is in the other compartment, the account should be made up on the same 
reckoning. If one dies on ,a dopr, the door is riman, byt the house is pure with 
both 2 (compartments). If the door is hanging and if nasa comes in contact with 
it, it should be used for the door of a dashtdn-kadeh? 

Of. Pah. Vend. 6 § i Comm. (p. 207 11. 10-14) :— 

If one dies on an upper floor and if nothing whatever (of the nasu) has reached the (wooden) 

staircase ( fi^ei C J. J ^ j?. furniture and A^ =the step of a ladder), then that floor 

up to the roof is riman ; the roof above the surface (of the floor) is pure. U->OW OI^O-u 

J)iJ\<? = /■* surface, fold; or Jti J = empty (space)]. If anything (of the nasdy reaches 
back on the staircase, then the floor up to the staircase (i.e., with the staircase) is riman, and 
the ground upto the water (below) is riman; but I do not know anything about the empty 

space Hiy!?") over the roof. 

1 MU. LT.J (Kama Bohra) and Lr^ (Kaus Kama): H.F., c£| for LrW 

2 ji j., j =and both : both the compartments of the house which has one genera! 
gateway. BK. has '*£*&• J&Jj 

3 The place for menstruous women to live in. 
Cf. Sis. II §§ 45 and 74-73 :— 

£jj V!t "W^ I© 1 )«"K>.£ -^JJ '« J 0^ (£ -J ^fSyV^J" W-" «* *)W tj> (©> (45) 

tieul? iS, % JiP=l K) 1 I Iftf^ IMS) 1 ) #r" -tytJW WW 5«3l) ■$? W'Wm ) (J5WI CIO 

-o-njAi j jt&tv ©■xr nomexi ^euv) _y -"H % ?P ""'•*• iw* W'7 &' ■* iw* itomao 

i>»iO}ii«x> . 1 -"?■£ i£ ->, 4JJ. 110 iteo) 7 ?o J o? , o j**- 13 ) i£ J 4JJ (|74) 

sfiiws ickukjo w £iwj -J ^Jj 110 itoii 7 <«o -iu ^jf no vs. -•$" w»wj. iWrcutfWp 



iflilj ' . ' 



136 

! I < '■ . MU: I.,- p: 126 11. 6-8 = : H.F., f. 213 and f.. 214; [ ., 

Kamdin Shapur : — There is a 1 corpse on the floor of a house. (The floor of) 
the house is built of bricks. Then, as much as the body of the corpse, the bricks 
and mortar should be dug up from round about (that ground) and the house is 
pure after a month. 

If one dies on 2 on an upper floor, the body of the corpse 3 should be taken 
below. (That place) is riman as far as the water (below). It is riman for one year. 
If there is an enclosed place 4 on the upper floor and if the nasa lies 5 on that enclosed 
space 4 on the floor, the house is riman for one year. 

There is a corpse on the ground., The ground-floor is built* of bricks. The 
corpse should be removed and 13 bricks round about the corpse (and the space 
occupied by the corpse) should be dug up and that which is left will be pure in a 
year. '','.• '■• ■ " • - ' . ' ' 



-i^P -j ^Jj (75) .'.woo ■»> n i$r> <?_nm irRw«w^ ^ afo- m ikj->oo 
.'. ik)-»oo ir^ -J iS nei JrW -J sS no-tJO «? ^ f e£y£ ire \$$£ -» 






(45) If in a house there are two f _y -for y I rooms and if one dies in the gateway (of 

the two rooms) and if it is so (possible) that the door may be shut [t> !>j* J Lr° — Ht. also means, 
to open] and the corpse is- on one side (in one room), then the atmosphere) ( tjW? ) (with 
the spot below) of that side is polluted. If the corpse falls on the other side (of another com-- 
partmerit), the atmosphere with the spot below {ffifj of that sideJ is riman. When it 
falls on both the sides (in both .compartments) then the . atmosphere with the spot below 
{'jW? ) of the gateway is only riman and both the compartments of the house are pure, 

(74) About a door on which a corpse impinges : ,as,to the door of a town, and city, they have- 
been unanimous that' it should be left (as it is) for the same work (i.e., it should hot be regarded 

as riman). About the door which is further removed from (-flKJj) from the city, 
they have been of different opinions. Gogoshasp said that it should be left (as it is} 
for the same work. Soshyosh said that it would not do ; as to. other doors,, they have been 
unanimous that it will not do (to have them as they are and take them into use). ' 

(75) The door of one's own chief apartment (i.e., of one's -house jri'tbo habitable! parts of a 
street) (if polluted) is fit for that of the place for menstruation ; that of dashtanishtan is fit for 
that of a ddkhmay and that of the dakhma is not fit for any purpose whatever •" thaf of the easier 



IrW> Vis fit for that, of the more difficult ('^("IV ... , ,-' 

-1 Biy. $■& — better, HjP. >fj. * /^ — p az . = ^ .,,«, = ,j ,/ 

3 i.e., the whole dead matter. 

* lit}, 'Hole,' cavity. : B MU. />Jk* ; &J;J £ L) J^ -^ better fi.F. A^'&V. +)*&■ i ljj»*i 

J 
6 H.F.; ■f* 3 *^.'^ — better MU. &**■£: :■(.'; . . || 



137 

MU. I, p. 126, IL 9-14. 

A Darvand throwing dead matter in the house of a Zoroastrian, 

but of spite. 

Sliapur BhanlcU and Kails Kamdin :— Q.— One who • is a darwand throws 
dead matter on to a house of a Behdin on account of enmity. What is the 
decision ?* 

A.—Ii it is on account of enmity, the nasa should be disposed of (ceremonially). 
If the place is set with bricks or if there is wood under, or, near the nasa, it should 
be dug up, the surface of the ground should be scraped off and (the refuse) re- 
moved therefrom and it should be washed with ab-i-zar (i.e., bull's urine), then 
dried and washed with water. It will be (thus pure). 

MU. I, p. 126, U. 15-16. 

Kaus Kamdin :— Q.— There is a house or an uncultivated place, and nasa has 
fallen on it, (what is the decision) ? 

A.— There where the nasa has fallen, the spot should be scraped off for the 
size of the body (tanvar) i.e., of its breadth and length and (the refuse thereon) 
should be removed and it will be pure after a year. It should (then) be washed 
with padyab (i.e., bull's urine). 



MU. I, p. 126, 11. 18-19 and p. 127, 1. 1. 



Nasa coming in contact with a wooden structure. 

Nariman .Hoshang :— Q.— The structure of a house is made of wood and 
(the joints thereof) filled up with ripe clay, Nasa, falls on it. What is the 
decision ? 

A. If the nasa, has reached the wood and has polluted the Wood, that house 

and all its belongings (or furniture) are riman, 

There are several other cases of nasa and several degrees (or ways) of showing 
a dog to the corpse and not showing a dog to it and to the (corpses of) Behdins 
as well of those of a different religion (ahdin) and several cases of the kinds of dog. 

We can write about all this, but let it be. known that as this will be sent through 
Musalmans, (we are deterred from so doing). 

MU; I, p. 127 11. 4-8 [ s= MU. II, p. 478 ]. 

About the door and the threshold of a house polluted with isasS and about 
horses or draught-animals coming in contact with it. 

Suratya Adhyaru :— If, near the portals of a house, nasa, has fallen within the, 
court-yard, it is necessary that the nasasalars should take up the nasa, united 
with a paiwand and after (the performance of) sagdid, and if the door or the 
threshold be besmeared with blood or impure matter, the nasasalars should scrape 
them off (the surface thereof) and dispose of it. And if nasa has come in contact 



l S.D.B. (No. 235) tU^- u^ilci — MU. om. 



18 






138 

with the door of a house, or if a menstruous woman has come in contact with 
that door, then ingress within, and egress out, of that door should he stopped for 
a year, and from another side where there is a way, they may makei a new 
door and the former door will become pure after a year, and thereafter the same 
door may be opened (i.e., taken into use). 

As regards a saddle-horse* or a draught-ox which has trampled on nasa, the 
metallic implements or clothing (which has come in contact with nasa) should be 
washed 6 times with padyab and 6 times with water, 3 and those (things) whereof 
there was no fear (of then having come in contact with nasa) should be exposed in 
a place where the sun and the moon may shine on them for a year and* (then) they 
should be used. - . 

MU. I, p. 127, 11. 10-13 [ = MU. II, p. 467]. 

Bareshnum to be undergone after coming in contact with nasa. 

Shapur Blmruchi :— If a person has been polluted with nasa, then until he 
undergoes the Bareshnum, he pollutes aU things with which he comes in contact. 
He should not come in contact with clothes or wooden or earthen things, or 
anything whatever. If, out of helplessness, he has come in contact with a 
thing, sagdid should be first performed over it and then two persons, united 
with a paiwand should go there, wash it 6 times with padydb, make it clean dry 
6 times with earth, and place it in a place so that the sun and the moon may 
shine on them and the wind (may blow on them) for four months, but if he has 
come in contact with a man, that man is riman. 

MU. I, p. 127, 11. 13-15 = H.F., f. 83. 

When one is seated upright and his death occurs, what should be done? 

Kama Bohra :— One is seated upright on a chair and dies. If he falls 
down, then pollution descends on that part whereon he has fallen. If he does 
not fall down* but if there is fear of his falling down on whatever side it may be, 
then pollution descends on the ground (on that side). If there is fear of his 
faffing down on aU four sides, the pollution descends to the ground on all 
four sides. 8 



i lit., open. 

2 lj\y. for ^j \j„ ^u»f 3 MU _ ^ p _ 47g; aAJs here __ 

* MU. II, p. 478 adds, J '-^ jl Wj 

6 »**& for *&*& 6 Cf . Sis. II, § 24 :— 






*T -<i«BI$ 



.-. iwiiJja v Aei neural H9y i*n >r> iS ireji|a, 

(24) If one is seated upright and dies, and if there is fear of his falling on one side (the 
pollution) descends (to the ground) on that side ; and where there is fear (of his falling-v 'on all 
four sides, then (pollution) descends (to the ground) on all four sides. If he falls down fat any 
place), then (pollution) descends on as much space as he has fallen on. 



139 

MU. I, p. 127, 11. 15-18=H.F. f. 84, 

Death on. a tree. 

Kama Bohra : — One dies on a tree whose bark is green. If there is no fear of 
his falling down, pollution does not descend to the ground ; but if there is fear of 
his falling down, pollution descends on the ground as much as is the length and: 
breath of the nasa. 

If the bark of the tree is dry, and if a person dies on it in such a way that he 
lies on the trunk of the tree, then pollution descends to the ground, but if he dies 
on a (dry) branch 1 so that it is away from the trunk, and if there is no fear of his- 
falling down, then pollution does not descend to< the ground. 

MU. I, p. 128, II. 1-6=H.F. L 212. 

Kamdin SJiapur : : — There is nasa on the top of a tree, or, there is nasa on 
the branch of a tree. Men who are seated below do not at first know of it. At 
last they come to know of it. Those (below) who are united with a paiwand 
should wash their head and clothes three times (with gomez and water), but 
those who are not united with a paiwand should wash their head with the 
Bareshnum. Two persons should recite the vaj (of Srosh) ; a piece of cloth (for 
wrapping) round the hands- should be (first) washed clean six times with gomez and 
six times with water and then should be so twisted (as to throw of the water) 
below 2 (the ground). A finger should be pointed upwards 3 three times so that the 
dog may see the nasa, there where it is seen by the men and so that sagdid may 
be performed (over it). That piece of cloth should be wrapped round the hands 
for protection 4 with three folds, and with (that cloth of ) three folds 5 (round the 1 
hands), the branch (whereon is the nasa) should be cut off and let the nasa fall 
down. The dog should be shown to it and (the nasa) should be carried to the 
dad-gah. If (the nasa) lies in the midst of the tree, (the twigs thereof) should be 
cut down as much as is the body of the nasa and should be removed. That 
branch whereon the nasa lies should be cut off and rejected ; and the remaining 
branches (cut off) should be laid down in a place for three years ; thereafter they 
will be pure ; but they should never be used for water or for fire. 

MU. I, p. 128, 11. 8-16 =H.F. f. 102 and f. 145. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — If one dies on a tree whose bark is green and 
if he does not fall down the tree, pollution does not descend to the ground. If the' 
bark of the tree is dry and if a person dies on it, pollution descends (to the 
ground) as far as the water (below). 

1 MU. jr il « : better H.P., t^ 1 * ji 

2 ji\ Pah. -**-" Av. j/jjigji = below: 3 because as they have taken vdj, they are- 
prohibited from speaking openly. 

d .Ul C**»a of. Pah. ^L^-" also cf. Per. jk ^>«<> 
« MU. &3H /-"—better- H.F., ^'jii /""» <^ 



140 

If (the nasa) is not on the trunk but on a branch of the tree and if any limb or 
hair does not strike against (the trunk of) that fruit-bearing tree, pollution does 
not descend to the ground ; but if a limb or a hair falls on (the trunk of) that 
fruit-bearing tree, then pollution descends to the ground. Until a year passes 
the pollution descends on the ground on a level with (i.e., as much as) the nasa, 
i.e., as much as is the length and breadth of the nasa, 1 . 

MU. I, p. 128, 11. 18-19=H.F. f. 262. 

Eamdin Shapur : — Q. — There is nasa on the top of a tree ; then what about 
the men who are beneath it ? 

A. — The man who has sat just on a level with it is riman. Again, if the shadow 
of that nasa falls on him, he is riman ; but when a concourse of people united to- 
gether (sit there), then so long as they are united with a paiwand, they are pure 
5f they wash their clothes and themselves with nirang (bull's mine) and water. 



■ 



MU. I, p, 129, 11. 1-4=H.P. f . 103 and f . 146. 

How far does pollution go, if one dies amongst a multitude of men ? 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — If there be a multitude of men sleeping in 
the (same) place and if one of them dies, then all round about him on all the four 

1 Cf. Sis. II, §§ 25-29 ;— 

<?vti wr -$j iiRuivai 0U $ i w<? K»io *ovp nenw£ Oli -'^ •# vp (25) 
■Hi<?g $5P w:io W^ <ff (26) /. wif*> <pta jim3.£ it? £j *}<?$ ( wt^J= -^ 
$<? j ne»K>£ 0D Wf -V? -w ?#» (27) ;.joi^ <?ba £j -^ ■wj" i $j 
j ja>V ew -U w? I (28) : f ijjj'bx>. ^ ?rV ^ jj ntejitai ^ $ *w? 

<£ HXVf OD 'Wt^' iJ f tytp;? -JR)>i t'l lu>»i «o^ , (29) ;,mi^ ^ fl 

(25) If one dies on a tree whose bark is green, and there is no fear of the falling of the nasa, 
(the pollution) does not descend (on to the ground), and if there is fear (of its falling down), (the 
pollution) descends (on the ground) as much a,s the largeness of the body. 

(26) If the bark of the tree is dry, and whether there is fear or no fear (of its falling down), 
(the pollution) descends (on to the ground). 

(27) If he dies on the branch of a tree which is green, when there is no fear of his falling 
down, (pollution) does not descend (on the ground). 

(28) When there is fear (of its falling down) and when the branch of the tree is dry, and even 
If a whole hair or limb remains on the principal part (i.e., the trunk) of the tree, (the pollution) 
descends (on the ground) for the largeness of the body. 

(29) If (the hair or limb) does not remain behind on the principal part (i.e., the trunk) 
of the tree, but if there is fear of its falling down, then'(pollution) does not descend (to the ground) . 
Cf. Pah. Vd, 6 § 5 comm. (p. 207, 11. 14) :— 

If one dies on a tree, and if he dies on the principal part (i.e., the trunk) thereof, the ground 
(below it) is riman : and if he dies on that part thereof which grows out of it (i.e., a branch), 
the ground (below it) is pure. ! 



141 

directions, 1 as far as the eleventh ' contact ' (paiwand) are polluted, if they have 
come in contact 3 with one another. 3 

MU I., p. 129, 11. 4-10 : H.F., f . 156. 

Kaus Kama and Eaus Kamdin :— Q— Dead matter appears in a heap of wood* : 
how should the sagdid be performed over it, when if the pile shakes, there is fear of its 
being polluted ? Or, if the dead matter is ovei; a pile of corn, what is the decision 1 

X — Two unbelievers should be carried near it. They should approach it with 
a paiwand, perform sagdid and remove it so that there may be the least cause of 
fear (as regards it). 

1 Cf . Pah. Vd. 5 § 32 comm : 

= As for the direction (whence the druj-nasu runs), all the four directions are to be taken 
into account. 

Cf . Sis. II § 55 :— 

* ! ■ ■ _ 






ikjiito '1. }«»>$ y* ■">') $ )■"&& ^- u «we>' 



i.e. From the Avesta, it is apparent that the infection (tom-karjakih) [of the druj-nasu] is 
to be regarded as (entering) from one side, but the pollution [rXJO = !|»0@f*00 See Pah. Vd. 
5 § 27] (of the druj-nasu) reaches all the four sides, as appears from the Avesta. 

2 tjji.+j Pah. $j# (See Pah. Vd. 5 § 27). 

3 In Vd. 5 §§ 27-32, a distinction is made between the greater or less defiling power of the 

nasush according to the rank of the dead one, whether it be a man or a dog : e.g., if the dead one 
be a priest, then the defilement spreads upto the 11th and 10 are polluted indirectly (patrid), 
and so on. In the cases of a priest, a warrior, a husbandman, a shepherd's dog, a house-dog, 
a blood-hound, a tauruna dog, Sukurena, Jazu, Aiwizu and Vizu, the defiling power is in the 
following proportions: ff, tf, -ft, T 8 T , -^r, ft, ft, ft, ft, ft, ft- 

Thus the defiling power of the nasush is greater, the greater the rank of the man or the dog 
that dies and vice versa. But this distinction is done away with in the Rivayets where we find 
the defiling power of the corpse or a carcase the same in the case of all, whatever their rank. 
This extreme decision of the Rivayet is given in conformity with the following precept in Pah. 
Vd. 5 § 32 comm. :— 

trVoowo no ^Jj I ^« no -"wor -"ea^i » i ww n,a (v 

:. ipodmj 

i.e., ''In cases of certainty as well as doubt, every man should be regarded as a priest, and 
every dog as a pasush-liaurva dog " ; hence, according to Rivayets, in all cases, in order to remain 
on the safe side, the maximum amount of purification should be exacted. According to the 
commentary of Soshyos, (Pah. Vd. 5 § 32 comm.) until a dog has seen the corpse [i.e., until sagdid 
has been performed], in the case of a priest, the pollution extends to the 12th person who is to 
ordinarily wash himself, but the first 10 require the purification of the Bareshnum, the 11th 
should purify himself with gomez and water, and from the 13th person all are clean. 

This extreme case of the priest, which is thus commented on by Soshyos is, according to 
the Rivayats, applicable to all cases of pollution, whether by a corpse or a carcase, no matter 
what the rank of the man or the dog may be. 

4 Kaus Kamdin gives simply (_jj !|3"l which may be a stack of hay or a heap of corn or 
a heap of wood. 



142 

MD. I, p. 129 11. 12-17=H.F., f. 84 and f. 85. 

What should be done, if nasa, is found in a heap of wood, or corn, 
or corn-fields, or in straw ? 

Kama Bohra : — If nasa is on corn, then as much as there is round about it 
and whatever there is a doubt about is riman ; and it is better if the rest should 
be given as food for the ass. 1 If 3 men want to eat (the rest) they may leave it for 
a while and then eat it. If -nasa has remained on a jar (full of corn), then the jar 
is riman and the back thereof, as much as has come in contact with the nasa is 
riman and flour/ashes 3 and things like them^ are all riman if nasa comes on them ; 
because (the particles of them) are connected with one another and because such 
things (in themselves) are ltam-karde & (i.e., polluted) (when any nasa comes on 
them) ; but they are javit- karde* from the ground, i.e., they do not carry pollution, 
to the ground. 

..... . 

Q. — If nasa pollutes 7 stalks of corn, what is the decision ? 

A— Whatever part has the contaminating^ nasa on it is riman; that also is 
riman of which there is doubt ; but the corn which has been made pure (i.e., what 
is winnowed) has as much 9 portion of it polluted as there is nasa on ; because corn 
with chaff is polluted 10 if nasa comes on it ; but the winnowed corn is pure" 
(from the rest if there is no nasa on it)i 2 . 



1 Cf. Pah. Vd. 7 § 35 comm. 

i.e., Chaff should not be thrown to the ass without exposing it to the light .of the sun within a 
year. 2 BK. ( f ij» ) _/[ S. MU. jfa I or H.F., BK. jfy» i I for j^J i I ( z=jL£ U, ) 
rs ashes. * i.e., all sorts of powdered things. 

5 Pah. fift. polluted. e Pah . tf^ior lit, separated i.e., not polluted. 

, ch^ - Cf . Pah . ]m , - 8 ^ y pah _ • —, ■ ^^ h ^ p _ ^ 

BKo^T io ft y ji I : ^ w liLt _ connected _ n „ ^ ^ = ^ = separat ^ 

12 Cf. Pah. Vd. 7 § 35 comm. <)d<)V ^a, j ^ „ a ^ q^ by .^ . g ^ 

(if any nas& comes on it). 
Cf. Sis. II, § 37 :_ 

a/ 

#ooi -> 7^ »e) 7^ -J ft* 3)»»o- ,i ju^ i imnw i *&» (37) 

■ 

thrii-S , D r g " fUe1 ' aSh6S ' f ° Ur ' and 0thOT P° wdered t^gs are in themselves ay6-hartah (i.e., 
then: particles are connected one with the other and therefore if nasd comes on them, the whole 

™> ; . b "? th6y are ***?** i.e., separated from (*,., do not make impure) the grlmd 
Pavan mmdavam » napashman ayokartak » i.e. <■ Things connected with th el own substance" 



143 

MU. I, p. 129, 11. 17-19+p. 130, 11. 1-7 = H.F., f. 113 and f. 152. 

Kama Bohra and Eaus Kama : — Q. — There are stalks of corn and there is nasa 
there on it of one who dies. What is the decision (about it) ? 

£,, — If any piece of dead matter has been blown 1 on to it, then that on which 
the nasa reaches and that whereof there is any doubt is riman and some more portion 
round about (that on which there is nasa) should be removed. This which is taken 
away from round about should be placed in a place where it may be eaten by the 
ass, 2 and as much as has been taken away should be removed very closely from the 
ground because corn with husks (or, stalks) is ham-harja (i.e., connected one with 
the other, i.e., polluted, because nasa has fallen on it). 



are these that when nasd comes on them, the whole is riman. "Levatman damih javit-kartalch" 
(i.e., " Things separated from the ground " are these that when .nasd comes on them, they do no 
make the ground riman. (although they themselves are 1 polluted). uljJOHii .'.!.'•:■. •■<■■ i 

:i Cf. Pah. Vd. 6 § 4 comm. (p. 20611.5-11):— i] '■ l ..:<■■■..■'■ -d-t . v. ■■■■>■; i •■ 

Everything is said to be ayd-kartak (lit., connected) with the ground, when if any one dies 
on it, it makes the ground riman. But if it is javit-kartak (lit., separated), it does not make 
(the ground) riman. Bricks, dust and sand should be regarded (in this way). These, e.g., 
powdered ashes, powdered stone, powdered plaster, powdered dust and powdered flour are 
javit-kartak (lit., separated) as regards one another; but as regards themselves (i.e., taking one 
thing out of these by itself) they are ayokartak (i.e., riman if any nasd comes on them) ; and 
with regard to the earth, they are javit-kartak {i.e., they do not make the ground riman, if any 
nasd falls on them). 

Cf. Vend. 7 §§ 28-30. 

(28) Can the wood be purified ..... which has come in contact with the nasa of a dead 

dog or of a dead man ? 

- 

(29) ... It can be purified .... If the nasa has been eaten by the corpse-eating dogs 

or corpse-eating birds, then they should lay down on the ground.(as much portion of it extending) 
upto one span (as has come in contact with nasd), if it is dry ; but if it is green, then up to one 
frdrdthni (two spans ? ), they should lay it down on the ground. Then they should sprinkle it 
with water on all the four sides. Thus it shall be clean. 

or, better, 
(they should cut off or reject) a portion as long as a mtasti, i.e., a span (from wherethe nasd has 
come on them) and they should lay down (the rest) .... 

(30) If the nasa has not been eaten by corpse-eating dogs or corpse-eating birds, then they 
should lay down on the ground (as much portion of it extending) upto one frdrdthni (i.e., two 
spans ? ) (as has come in contact with nasd), if it is dry ; but if it is green, then upto one Frabazu 
(i.e., as much as the length of a forearm) they should lay down ..... 

or, better, 

They should reject a portion as long as a Frarathm and lay down (the rest) .... 

Cf. Pah. Vd. 7 § 35 comm. (pp. 263-264) :— 

When it is kneaded with water, it is not proper. 

Grass (or, husks) is not fit to be given within a year to the cattle without being exposed 
to the light of the sun. When it has been left for more than a year, it is. fit if .they do not keep 
it back (from use). When it has been thus washed (i.e., purified), then even it is never fit for 
the Yasna of Yazdan. ..... 

Grass in itself is ayokartak (i.e., if nasd reaches it, it is wholly impure). 

If the corn is hung up in sacks (or bag = J-ufflV Cf. Per. [>* or J 1 ^ wallet, bag), 

it is ayokartak. If a blanket is wound round it, then as much on which there is no impurity 
(ns/i) can be taken back and is javit-kartak (i.e., pure). . ,.- " , 

1 &i& or H.P., i'tfj^ from tyo^jj to blow. 2 Kama Bohra'a Rivayet leaves of 

some portion after tyjjfc j*- ^ (See p. 129 Kaus Kama). '.-'.,.. 



144 

When there is nasd 1 on it, as much portion as there is a doubt about should 
also be taken away 2 and rejected. The portion round about it should be taken 
away and placed where the ass may eat it. Corn which is winnowed 3 and whereon 
the nasd has not come is pure, because winnowed corn is jud-karde, i.e., separated 
(i.e., pure from that on Which there is nasd) and that which is with stalks is ham,' 
karde, i.e., connected (i.e., polluted, because nasd is on it) 4 . 

MU. I, p. 130, 11. 15-19 & p. 131, U. 1-2 : H.P., f . 102 and f. 145. 

Bricks, Earth or Mortar, Dung-Fuel, Ashes, &c, coming in contact 

with Nasa. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — If one dies on the surface of bricks or of 
earth or of mortar 5 and if the bare part of the nasd reaches it, then as much 
(dust, &c.) as is the length and breadth of (the body of) the dead (reaching) up 
to the ground should be taken up (and rejected), and the ground is not riman ; 
i.e. (as regards the ground), they are (to be taken as) one (or connected only in 
themselves). 6 But if naM or the bare limb of a menstruous woman strikes 

1 H.F., leaves a blank after *"•' 

2 H.F., leaves a blank after l3 

,.',;. n ■ '.hit: , i. ™ 

3 lit., made pure i.e., without chaff. 

4 Cf. Sis. II, §119:— 

■in-") -Hjjie^ i^J ^-"M if iS im afl» vjikj iPkbkw.j' f"«Jp na (119) 

(119) About corn they have been unanimous that as much space is polluted as the dead 
matter comes upon ; that which is wrapped up in mats (tCe)) 1 ) of is winnowed MieblpJQ 

and not RttlK'ei- 32 ^ in the text : Cf . u &y&& )f or as much portion as is scattered ( KHjeA 
over ( with nasa) — — about these they have been of different opinions. Soshyos said that as 
much space is riman as the dead matter has come upon ( and the rest is pure ) . Gogoshasp 
said : "the whole is riman ".. The stalks (of corn) or straw are all riman. 

* 1)"ejy Cf. ^i S — a mat, or J kj & <* leather, or ty = a hook or J kf*. a bag ? 

t Cf. Vd. 7 § 35 where £#1 JJ?AU>j» is translated ijeonr^B 

5 for J* 1 *-, Sis. which is quoted below gives Arf®y ( =jj^ ) mortar— which is 
correct. 

6 Kama Bohra »**fl (_$' LS$sj <lfi '£ '■ Kaus Kama (A*»' {J J& iJ : BK. &»*k I J& Jf 
This phrase read in connection with Sis. II, § 36 quoted below will give a clear idea. What 
is meant is that these things are connected ( Jt ,J-i ). in themselves, i.e., they are polluted as 
nasd has come on them ; but the ground is not polluted, &c, See Sis. II, § 36 :— 

:'Pf«W *$ fob i jv&iw 0m j m M ^oj* t f5 i0> ^j (3 6 ) 

.\ijn?x v? 8 ^ l| 3i w 1 t» asp nrtAv $*Jw «£ W .mk 1 ' 



145 

dung-fuel, or ashes or such things like them which are soft, then as such things 
are all connected together (i.e., as they are powdered things and their particles 
closely unite with one another), there is pollution for the whole. 

MU. I, p. 131, 11. 5-8: H.F., f. 84. 
in a Jar of Wine or of Oil, 



Kama Bohra :— This is also manifest that if there is wine in a jar and if nasa 
comes in contact with the jar from outside, then the jar is riman but the wine 
is pure. 

If (nasd) falls in the wine in such a way, that it does not come in contact with 
the jar, and they take it out from the jar in such a way that it does not come in 
contact with it, then the wine is riman, but the jar is pure. 

If there is oil (or ghee) (in a jar) and if nasd comes in contact with the jar from 
outside, then both the jar and oil are riman, for the oil percolates through the jar 
and even runs down again into it. 

4 

If there is nasd in wine and if it comes in contact with the jar, both the jar 
and wine are riman, but if (nasd) does not come in contact (with the jar), the jar 
is pure. 1 



(36) Brick, earth and mortar can be separated in themselves {i.e., made pure if nasd reaches 
them) ; but they are connected (i.e., impure) when (in contact) with the ground (if nasa reaches 
them). " Pavan mandum-i-napashman javit-lcartalc," i.e., " Separated from their own 
substance," ia that as much space as dead matter comes upon is riman, and " levatman damih 
ayolcartak," i.e., " connected with the ground," is that pollution (in that case) would descend 
to the water (below the ground which is also polluted). 

1 With this, of. Sis. II, §§30-32 :- 

... . 

jj-O" j> t$5 -0-" -Hiir? neiftfPJ ^t" 3 £D£* "a )i^J -> ■"'-"i T (30) 

any if eyjjp ^^ »»»•< •o* U^Jjfl" t£ '^ *f ' ( 31 ) ■'• ** J ^ '** 

ji^P tf| (32) £'l$ ^ ''$$* ' •$ -°-" Wmft A W^_j£)» ne) -^ 

^>¥> ffofflfrai nW> ^^ <sff iwi*i iJ W 3 ^ ^v JU - M > >hj $ 'W 5J. ^-^ 

eujjp i- *b'pM& c j*)Qf> i^ j> -»)V fferr^i VW 3 " iwi>«jo i^£j J v>i>*>G $ *& 

.'. w*oo "<& W) w 4tf ^-W ne) 

(30) When nasa remains behind from outside on the jar, in which there is wine, then the 
jar is riman but the wine is pure. (31) When inside the jar in which there is wine,' one dies 

even as much as a hair or a bit thereof ( $<) cf . Pers. Qj* ) does not remain behind the 
jar, then the wine is riman, but the jar is not riman. 

(32) If nasa remains behind on a jar, from outside, in which there is oil— and this is as 
though (the nasa) remains also inside, because the oil percolates outside and inside— then 
because the oil comes outside and goes back, outside, both the jar and oil are riman. They 

are entirely fit for the desert ( ^P>— i.e., they should be thrown away, or should be used 
for a' similar riman or impure purpose, e.g., for menstruous women) and they should not be 
used : of, Pah. Vd. VI § 5 comm. (p. 208, 11. 3-7) :- ^ 






146 

MU. I; p. 131 11. 10-11 : H.F., f. 215. 
Death occurring on the Sea. 

Kamdin Sliapur '■ — -If a person dies (on the sea) lie should be put on a bier 
(gdhd?i) and should be placed in a boat from the bank of the river in such a way 
that the clothing (wrapped) over the nasa may not touch the boat. People who 
carry the bier 1 should then sit in the boat (to watch the nasa). Clean persons 
(other than the carriers of the dead) should not be allowed to sit in that boat. 2 

MU. I, p. 131, 1. 12 : H.F., f. 382. 
.Bahman Punjya : — Dead bodies should not be carried in a boat by water 3 . 

Death of a juddin travelling in the same boat with Behdins. 
MU. I, p. 131. 11. 12-14 : H. F., f. 212. 

. Kamdin Shapur : — Many men 4 there are in a boat and there are Behdins in 
the boat, 5 and one of a foreign faith (anir) dies in it, but those of the good religion 
(sitting ■■in the boat) do not know of it. Thereafter they come to know of it. If 
they are going (on business connected with) the religion of Ormazd, they should sit 
in a clean place, and wash their heads and bodies with gomez and water 6 ; but if 
they travel for the sake of the riches of the world, 7 their bodies are riman, and 

they should wash their heads with the Bareshnum and they are pure. 

o 

How Sagdid is performed over a corpse buried underneath a debris of earth. 

MU. I, p. 131 11. 15-17 ; H. F. f. 211. 

Kamdin Shapur : — A man has been burnt in fire. If they do not perceive, on 
the face of the nasa, the debris of bricks and earth, they should perform the sagdid 
after reciting the vaj. The corpse should be wrapped up in the shroud (lit., clothes). 
Kusti should be tied on it and then it should be placed in the bier and carried to 
the Dakhrna. 

If (the nasa) is buried under (the debris of) bricks and earth, two persons should 
unite themselves with a paiwand, recite the vaj (of Sraosh), and take an iron-spoon 

If one dies in a jar of wine, the jar is useless and the wine is such as food within three steps 
(from nasa : i.e., it should be discarded). If one dies in wine, and if nothing (of the nasa) 
comes in contact with it, then the jar should be used for (the work of) a desert {i.e., for putting 
riman or impure things in, &c.) 

1 lii'ilf yJ*! lit., those who go beneath the cj&hdn, i.e., those who convey the gdhdn on 
their shoulders. 

2 When a dead body is carried in a boat, other persons wishing to go to some place in 
the same boat are not allowed. 

3 With this, cf. the preceding Eivayat of Kamdin Shapur. 

1 ^lia : better ^i«^ (cf. T. 31 which has gijlas -pp-Maa )=zan assemblage of men. 

5 H.F. has &xmU ^x&w (jb^j MU, om. ■ 

C The Itlioter Jtivayat says that, if he be a priest, he should purify himself with two Baresh» 
nnms in order, again, to qualify himself as a priest. (Q. 25). 

7 i.e., if they travel on business other than that pertaining to religion. 



147 

in their hands. The pebbles 1 and the earth should be entirely swept aside 
(with the iron-spoon) so that the body of the nasa may be seen. Then sagdid should 
be performed over it ; they should bring out the nasa and carry it to the dad-gah 
(i.e. the dakhma). 

Precautions to be observed by Behdins, when a juddin carries away a corpse, 

MU. I, p. 131 1. 19 & p. 132 11. 1-6,= [ML II, p. 467]. 

Shapur Bharuchi :— If a person goes forth, carrying a coffin and a Behdin asks 
him thus : " Whose corpse is this ?" and if the person (carrying the coffin) gives back 
the answer that the corpse is of such and such a person, then the questioner is un- 
doubtedly riman and the demon nasush (corruption) rising from the coffin contain- 
ing the corpse sits on the body of the questioned, but if the carrier of the nasa i.e., he 
who has taken it up, does not give him back the answer and remains silent, then 
(the questioner) does not become riman s , but a (simple) ceremonial ablution is 
proper for him (to be undergone)^ 

Q. A corpse has fallen on the way and if a darvand is ordered to take it up, 
and the darvand taking up the corpse goes forth and (the person ordering) goes him- 
self with the.darvand who asks him thus : " Where shall I leave this corpse ?" and 
that person answers: "Leave it in such and such a place;" if he speaks this 
much, he is riman ; hence he should make from the beginning a condition with the 
darvand thus : " I will not speak with you on the way. You also should not 
question me. To the places which I point out with the hand or the finger, you 
should silently leave it, and you should not speak a single word to me." If he 
acts thus, there is no fear (of his becoming riman) ; if not, he is undoubtedly 
riman. 

Bones of men or animals found in the folds of garments. 

i 
MU. I, p. 132 U. 8-12 &=H. F. f. 88. 

Kama Bohra :— Q. A man sits in a house or a place. He has wrapped 4 up the 
folds 5 of a garment. When three days pass by, he takes up the garment. When 
be looks at it, pieces of bones appear underneath (i.e. within the folds of) the gar- 
ment. When he inspects them, they are more like the bones of men than those of 
the four-footed ones, and there is such a doubt about it that sagdid has not been 
performed over it. He carries them to a jungle and throws them there. What is 
the decision 1 ' 



1 . i£«— Paz. -^3 -{-M from <_&*,— stones, or the word is <;,*£« (silclcin)=:kmie i.e., 
here it represents the ^t^. i.e. , the spoon. [The earth should be entirely removed by the knife i.e., 
(here) the spoon], or, - JjfiUsheavy, or weighty :— [The weighty earth, should be removed 
from the surface of the corpse.] 

2 i.e., the questioner is polluted; 

3 A riman should purify himself with the si-shui ceremony. 
t !j ; i«J * r - ej ,y^=to wrap up. 

5 MU., HP. j j j_jj— -better ^1=: folds. 






148 

A.— If (that person) is not in a place where there is any nasa and he is hi doubt 
about it but does not know for certain that it is nasa, it is proper if those garments 1 
and the persons coming in contact with them be regarded as clean ; but if the bones 
are (found) in a place full of nasa and if he knows for certain that they are nasa,. he 
is riman ; if not, he should not be regarded as riman. 

MU. I, p. 132 U. 14-18 & p. 133 11. 1-4= H. F. f. 157 & f. 118. 

Kaus Kama and Kama Bohra : — They (i.e. people) are not (seated) in a place 
(full) of nasa ; a but this is (the case) that a man is in a house or a secluded 3 place and 
there are strewn there some pieces of clothing. When three days pass by and the 
garments are picked up and looked at, pieces of bones appear beneath (i.e. within 
the folds of) the garments. Then they say that it is evident that these are bones of 
men. Again, some say that these resemble bones (of men or animals) and they are 
in doubt about it and without sagdid, 4 they carry them to a desert place in such 
doubt. What is the decision ? 

A. — If they do not sit in a place full of nasa, and they are in doubt about the 
bones which have appeared there, and it is not manifest for certain whether they are 
nasa or not, 5 then it is proper that those garments and the persons who have picked 
them up should be regarded as clean, because there is doubt about it whether it is 
nasa or not. 









Spines of a hedgehog found in the dung of animals. 
MU. I, p. 133 11. 6-16— HR f. 89. 
Kama Bohra : Q.^There are spines of a hedgehog 5 in T the dung of the kine, 
the cattle, the camel or the dog. This zuza (hedgehog) is called by several names : 
it is called haja (or, jaja), it is called khulcara 8 and it is caUed kharpusht. The 
drift of it is that when one sees spines of the hedgehog in the midst of these kinds 
of dung which I have mentioned and there are several such spines and one comes 
in contact with them, what is the decision ? 

A.— If there are several spines of the hedgehog (in the dung) whereto the skin 
or the fleshy part is not attached, then the body and the clothes (of one coming in 
contact with it) are not made riman. 

This is also said that there is a bone (of the hedgehog) but the skin, or piece 
of flesh or hair, or greasy matter is not attached thereto, and between you and that 
bone thereis a piece of wood or of stone or any other thing with which you come in 
contact, and that bone is mov ed with your force but in such a way that you do not 

l MIT., HF. ^taif-better ^l^l^yf 

3 l "-'> ts'^ _jl: here _,| = Pah. t| or } f = to 

3 y IfJL) lit. concealed. 

4 &1&<S M — better aa in Kama Bohra ,>jo.Ju£w 

5 i.e., whether they are the bonea of men or animals. 

6 l8 iJt3 Pah- ^|0 • (see note at the end of this Rivayat). 
' MTJ. jwf forHF. j$j - i 

s Cf. Per. K J} ±. (Khurika) a hedgehog (used in the dialect of 'Gilan) 
sub voce. 



■ 




■ 


■ 






■ 


' 




1 


. 






: 




)f Gilan) ;- 


-See 


Steingass— 



149 

come in 'contact with that bone and that it is moved with your force (only). If 
this is the case, the head and the clothes should be washed with padyab (bull's 
urine) and water. But if there is a hair, or a piece of its skin or a piece of flesh or 
any matter, on it wherewith . you come 1 in contact, then the clothes are useless, 
and the body is certainly riman. 

If he has a shovelin his hand and if it comes in contact with nasa and he has 
the handle of the shovel in his naked 2 hand in such a way that the sleeves or his. 
clothes or anything thereof do not come in contact with that spade, or the handle of 
the spade, then the body is not riman? and the clothes should be washed with padyab; 
and water. But at the time when the shovel comes in contact with the nasa, and! 
the handle of the shovel touches the clothes, the clothes are useless and the man 
riman. The explanation is this that there is (first) the connection of the shovel 
(with the nasa), secondly, there is the connection of the handle (with the shovel 
which is in contact with nasa), thirdly, there is the connection of iixe hand (with 
the handle) and fourthly, there is the connection of the clothes (with the hand).* 

MU. I, p. 133 11. 18-19 ; & p. 13411. 1-3=H.E f . 119 &L 158. 

Kama Bohra andKaus Kama :— Q — There are several separate spines of a 
hedgehog (jaja) 5 m the dung of the camel, the cow or the goat. (Men) come in con- 
tact with them in such a way that (the spines) come in contact with the bare 
parts of the body. Can they undergo Bareshnum or not ? 

A. When there are separate spines (in the dung) and if there is no matter 6 on 

them, then the body and the clothes are not made riman. 

1 MU., HF. ,yil A j l J for ^i'l /•>. jU 

2 ^ftj : better A^j> as in BK.= / ,i. f y (so glossed in HF.) See above p. 109 1. 15. 

3 MU., HF. &SU u+ij for y&U /> y+jj (See the Rivayat of Shapur Bharuchi 
just following) i.e.. MU I. p. 134 }1. 5-10. 

* The*;.; — Pah a5|*S:=hedgehog is thus mentioned in the Vendidad and Shayast 
la Shayast. In Pah. Vd. 5 § 34 commentary, it is said that 

.itftfW 4)» ireM w J ™ £w iiV-r^' 5 ^- also ' Sls - n - §59) . 

The commentary means that proper precautions should be observed in disposing of the. 
carcase of a hedgehog. In fact, the precautions observed in the case of a dead dog apply m, 
this case. The reason is not far to seek. It is one of the best creatures of Ormazd According 
to Bd. Ch. 19 § 28 and Sis. Ch. 10 § 31 and Ch. 12 § 20 it is a creature of Ormazd and when, 
it voids urine into an ant's nest, one thousand ants die. _ . . 

Of. Vd. 13 § 2 -.—Spdnen. slzdrem. urvlsarem. yim. Vamghaparem yim mashyaka avi 
duzvachangho. chizaka. nSma. aojaiti. 

Here duzaka is no doubt iSfi which is given in this Bivayat as -» (jaja) or ,.:&;=>. 
ijajah) or ^ or ^ (haja). 

The word Sizdra is given in Pah. as J«J-» • 

In Vd. 5 §§ 33-34 the dog *oft is |<$ > J)h (*» <$) is given in Spiegel aS! 
3|0 1 and in Darab as ■ &xh ) • This creature according to some is the hedgehog, of. the- 

Bivayat. 

5 a. or a ~. or is i . ', = Pah. £$ 
f $ J ' 

6 Jkij^ss: fleshy part. 



\ 



150 

Bareshnum purification to be undergone by one polluted with nasd. 

■ 

MU. I ; p. 134 U. 12-13=HK f. 114 & f . 151. 

Kama Bohra :— Q.— A man gives evidence thus : " Such and such a person 
has become riman by coming in contact with nasd and I have seen it." The other 
person says : " You tell a he. I regard myself aa clean undoubtedly." What is the 
decision ? 

A. — If they do not bear enmity towards each other, and if there is any doubt 
(in such a case), then Bareshnum (purification) is necessary, as doubt has arisen 
thereabout. 

MU. I, p. 134 11. 15-16=HF. f. 76. 

■ 

Kama Bohra : — Q. — How is it if a man comes in contact 1 with nasd ? 

A.— If a person comes in contact with nasd, his body is riman, and Bareshnum 
should be administered to him. The clothes which he has put on the body— e.g., 
the robe, the (sacred) shirt, 2 and the kusti— everything he has put on the body is 
riman : they should be disposed of (ceremonially). 

•■. 
MU. I, p. 134 1. 18=HF. f. 441. [MU. II, 459]. 

Eaus Mahydr : — It is proper that if a person has come in contact with nasd, he 
should undergo Bareshnum ; but if it appears that it is (the dead matter of) a gos- 
pend, he is clean. 

MU. I, p. 135 11. 1-7 & 11. 13-17. 

Skapur Bharuchi and Kaus Kamdin :— If any person becomes riman by coming 
in contact with nasd and although it is made known that he has undergone the 
si-shui 3 bath, (even) then he should keep himself aloof (from others) and till the 
time Bareshnum is administered, he should not go near water or fire and if without 
the administration of Bareshnum they go into water or near fire, it is a great sin 
and they (thereby) afflict Khordad and Ardibehesht Amshaspands*; therefore they 
should not be guilty of it. If they are guilty of that deed, it is a great sin so that 
there may be the fear of a Margarzan sin. It is incumbent on the Dasturs and 
Mobeds that they should make great endeavours in this affair (so that no one 
may commit such crime) : if not, they are responsible for it and they will have to 
answer for it in the spiritual world. 



l AjyX; = Pah. i w;j) ^ - 2 - Wr ^iJ 

3 LSJ-" LT* llt- ' 30 washin gs : a kind of puriaeation for the riman. If this kind of 
purification is administered now-a-days>, the man makes himself clean in this case by gomez, 
dust and water which he rubs over his body nearly 30 times and then makes himself pure by 
bathing. No Bareshnum, then, is administered in that case. It appears from the words {Si-Shui 
(=30 washings) that originally gomez must have been applied three times three, earth rubbed 
over three times three, and water applied three times three and lastly bathing with pure water 
three times. 

1 Angels presiding, respectively, over water and fire. 



151 

Again, if a person knows that his clothes are made riman by iiasd and if he puts- 
them on, then nasush (corruption) will not be away from his body. 1 And if he eats 
unclean food, nasush (corruption) 2 wiU not also be away from his body, and his soul 
will never be pure until he undergoes the Bareshnum purification. And if any per- 
son has his soul unclean on account of these things which I have stated, then let 
it be known that the strength (i.e., the; efficacy) of anything of the Avesta and 
Zand which that person recites will so to the demons. 3 

MU. I, p. 135, 11. 12-13. 

Kaus Kamdin :— Q. — A Behdin becomes riman by coming in contact with 
nasd . Should he undergo the Bareshnum ? 4 

A 5 . — When the ground (coming in contact with nasd) is scraped off and is made 
pure and (the refuse) is carried away, then they should sprinkle gomez of the cow 
over it at once (to make it pure) and then keep it apart 6 for a month : after a 
month, they should sprinkle water over it and it will be pure. 

MU. I, p. 135, 1. 19. 

Nariman Hoshang : — Q. — If a piece of wood is fixed below the ground and part 
of it moves (in such a way) that nasd comes in contact with it, (what is the decision ?) 

A. — The person coming in contact with it is riman. Let it be known that they 
should administer the Bareshnum to him. 7 

Difference between the nasd of a Behdin and of a Darvand. 

MU. I, p. 136, U. 1-4. [MU. II, p. 441.] 

Dastur Barzoji. — There is a Wide difference between the nasd of Behdins and 
of Darvands ; but if a Behdin comes in contact with the nasd of a darvand, he is 
riman ; he should undergo the Bareshnum. Whenever there has fallen the nasd of 
a darvand in a place where there is the fear of the water or fire (coining in contact 



1 i.e., he is riman. 

"J after ifiU' 

■ 



2 S.D.B. gives t>»J after \r» ' '" 



3 MU. I., p. 135, 11. 7-10.=MU. I, p. 127, 11. 10-13. 

4 This question does not fit in with the answer given just below. The answer proper to 
it is contained in thelines following (MU. p. 135s 11. 13-17) which are translated above (see MU. 
p. 135,11.1-4). ■ ■• •' 

5 This answer implies the question of ' how a piece of ground is made pure if a corpse is laid 
within a leash or enclosed space of an apartment, before carrying it to the Dakhma.' (Egg also 
gives the same Q. and A.) See MU. I., pp. 138-139. 

6 ijji for * J Jj = (E 60 ) 'LSJj^^ separation. The same technical term duri is used 
in Gujarati. • ,.'.„■ 

1 In all such cases, the greater part of the Bivayets tell us to administer Bareshnum purifi- 
cation which is always reserved for extreme cases ; but according to the Avesta, such an unclean 
man is not hamrit (coming in direct contact) but palrit (indirectly defiled) — therefore no Baresh- 
num is needed. He should only wash himself with pddyab (gomez) and water ; or, according 
to others, undergo the si-shui purification (see note above). 



152 

-with it) or if it lies on the routes of men so that men may come in contact with it,, 
it is 'necessary that two Behdins should dispose of the nasa and wash themselves, 
and then clothes, with padyab and water. i 

Contact with nasa. 

. ; ■ MIL I, p. 136,11. 6-7. [p. 130, 11. 9-10]. 

Nariman Hoshang :— Q.— There lies mown grass in a place and a man or a Hir- 
Tbad places his foot on that grass on which there is nasa, of the dead. 

A.— The Hirbad as well as Behdin (who place their foot on it) are riman. 

MU. I, p. 136, U. 7-9 [MU. II, p. 479]. , 

Suratya Adhyaru : — As regards a person who has a staff in his hand and who 
■crushes nasa therewith : that person must undergo the Bareshnum and the staff 
should be disposed of (ceremonially). 3 His clothes should be washed seven times 
with padyab (bull's urine) and water and should be left to the light of the sun and 
moon for sis months and thereafter they may be worn by menstruous women. 

Keeping light or a lamp near nasa : and the space of ground 
polluted by a nasa. 

MU. I, p. 136, 11. 11-19— p. 137, 1. 1 and p. 138, 11.3-4-HF. f . 98 ; f. 120. 

Kama Bohra : — Q. — There is a dead body (lying in a place) and it is night and 
there is fear of serpents or other noxious creatures (prowling there). Can one keep 
■a lamp near it so that (the nasa) may be protected against the noxious creatures or 
not? 

1 This passage says that there is a wide difference between the corpse of a Behdin and that 
of a. Darvand ; bat all the same the writer also says that coming in contact with the corpse of a 
■darvand {i.e., a juddin or one of a foreign faith) also makes one riman. So, practically, there 
is no difference. 

What the writer has in mind is Vend. V §§ 35-38 Where the terms dravdo and ashemaogha 
are used fqr.Zoroastrians as well as non-Zoroastrians, but later glossists take a darvand generally 
in the sense of a juddin, i.e., a man of another religion. In this connection it should be remem- 
bered that the Avesta term for a juddin (called darvand now-a-days) is not drvant but 
anyo-varena, or anyo-tkaesha (lit., man of a foreign faith). Vend. 5 §§ 35-38 : — 

(35) If he (i.e., a dead man) be a two-footed dravant (irreligious) murderer and also an un- 
righteous ashemaogha, how many of the creatures of Spenta Mainyu ere directly defiled and 
how many are indirectly defiled ? 

i(36) .... Just as a frog (pollutes one) who has been very much dried up and dead more 
than a year. Indeed, O, Spitama Zarathushtra ! whilst alive, a two-footed dravant murderer 
as wen as an ungodly ashemaogha defiles directly the creatures of Spenta Mainyu and whilst 
alive, he defiles them indirectly. . • , . , 

i (37) Whilst alive,. he. Bmites the water : whilstalive he, blows out the fire; whilst alive, he 
■carries off the cattle; whilst alive, he smites the righteous man a blow which makes him senseless 
and takes away his life : not so, when he is dead. 

(38) O Spitama Zarathushtra ! a two-footed dravant murderer and I also an unholy 
ashemaogha robs the holy man of his life, food, clothing, wood, felt and his metals : not so, when 
dead." ■ ■ ." ' - : .'i , ' 

This passage, then, simply refers to a wicked person [dravant), be he Zoroastrian or non- 
Zoroastrian, who does so much harm to the faithful, while living ; but when such a man is dead* 
there can be 'no such harm from him. 

1 i,e., it should be taken to a desert place, i.e., rejected. 



153 

A.— For taking care of the nasd, if they keep a lamp or fire beyond three steps 
of it, it is aUowable out of necessity. If the nasd be in a hollow (or, enclosed place 
or cavity), a fire cannot be kept in that hollow, because fire and -nasd should be kept 
apart from each other (in such a case). They should not be together. 

In the fifth fargard of the Vendidad, it is so said that if one dies and if there be a 
single hair on the surface of the bedding or in any other place thereof, then when 
the soul separates from the body, the clothes which are connected (one with the 
other) (with the nasd) are all riman and that piece of ground, as much as is the 
length and breadth of the nasd and the portion on a level with nasd is riman, and 
impurity goes down to the water (below it). 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama :— If a single hair or a hand or any bare limb 
(of the dead) reaches the ground, then as much space as is (occupied by) the length 
and breadth (of the nasd) is impure on that side of the ground upto the water (below) ; 
and from the side above (the nasd) to the highest space above, 1 all is riman and it 
is clean after a year. 2 

About the food cooked in a house where death occurs. 

MIL I, p. 137, 11. 3-4=H. F. f. 265. 

Kamclin Shapur :— Q.— When a man dies, is it proper to bring food from another 
house and eat it (hi the house where death has occurred) and can anything from 
the house (where death occurs) be carried to another house ? 

A.— It is proper to bring food from another house and eat it, and it is not proper 
to carry anything from that house to another house till the fourth day. 

MU. I, p. 137, U. 6-7 & 11. 12-14=H. F. f. 103 & f. 146. 
Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama :— In a secluded place {i.e. covered over with a 
roof, or, anything of a like nature), if a person dies, then the food prepared therein 
which is within three steps (of the nasd) is impure and that which is beyond three 
steps of it is pure. 3 

1 JijU — *~iji {. he.re.tiim : the highest i.e., the space above i.e. to the ceiling or the roof 
i.e. the andarvai, the air within. 

2 Cf. Sis. II § 12 :— 

(12) In the fifth fargard of the Vendidad of Medyomah, it is stated that at a place where 
one's life departs, when one dies upon a bedding and a hair or a limb remains upon the bed-place 

and the ground, then the ground is entirely polluted to the same extent ^ tyyf J (as that of 

the nasd) and the pollution goes down to the water below. 

Ct. Pah. Vd. 6 § 4 Comm: — (p. 205 11 10-11!) :— This is thfe account of that piece of ground 
on which life departs. If even a single hair is left on that ground, the earth as far as the 
water (below it) is riman, as much as the length and breadth (of the nasa) just in the same 
way as it lies (on the ground). 

3 MIL <^ l i — " HF. b&k ^H 



154 

MU. I, p. 137, 11. 9-11. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — If a person dies in a house, the (cooked) food which is in 
that house is useless, e.g., bread and other cooked eatables. Barley, wheat and 
things of a like kind 1 will be pure in winter after nine nights and will be pure ill 
summer after thirty nights. Clothes also are (to be treated) as these (foods). 

If one dies outside, then whatever is within three steps should be regulated (as 
above), (but whatever is beyond three steps may be used). 3 

After how long does the ground of a covered place become 

pure after death. 

MU. I, p. 138, U. 1-15=H. F. f . 99, f . 142, f . 103, f . 146. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — Q. — There is a hollow (or, a place covered 
over with a roof, &c.) and therein a man or a dog dies, what is the decision ? 

A. — If 3 the Rapithwin (i.e. period of summer) is underneath the ground (i.e. if 
it is winter), then (the place) will be pure if nine nights pass away, but if the Rapith- 
win (i.e. summer) is above the ground, then that place will be pure after the lapse of 
30 nights, and the empty space of that covered place, i.e. the atmosphere also, is 

impure for the same period and thereafter the ground is pure 4 Let it be 

known that the space where the nasa is laid in a place covered over should be (cere- 
monially) taken care of, until 30 nights pass away in summer and 9 nights pass away 
in winter. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — A place (or house) covered over (with a roof, 
&c.) where nasa has been placed and enclosed in a furrow should be washed (and 
purified) after 30 days if the Rapithwin (i.e. the period of summer) is above the 
earth, but if the Rapithwin is below the ground, it should be washed (and purified) 
after nine nights. Before this (time) which I have indicated, if one puts one's step 
on the kash (or enclosed space), one should wash one's head (i.e. the whole body) 
and clothes with padyab and water. 5 

MU. I, p. 138, 1. 17=H. P. f. 216. 

Kamdin Shapur : — The place where nasa is enclosed in a hash should be washed 
with gomez and water on the 11th day, if the Rapithwan is present. If it is not the 
period of Rapithwin, it should be washed after 30 days. 

MU. I, p. 138, 11. 18-19+p. 139, 11. 1-2 & U. 6-8=H. P. f. 199. 

Faridun Marzban and Kaus Kamdin : — If nasa is laid in a place or if it is en- 
closed in a kash, and if any exudation from the nasa goes clown on to the ground or 
if the bare limb of the nasa or any hair or nail comes in contact with the ground, 



2 MU. p. 137, 1. 19=MU. p. 121, 11. 7-S. 

3 HF. only j^ . * See MU. I. p. 136 11. 16-19 and p. 137 1. 1. 

6 For a similar injunction of the Vendidad : See MU. p. 121 notes (from Pah. Vd. 5 § 44 
and Sis. II). Again, see the two Rivayats just following where the number of days prescribed 
for the two periods of winter and summer is reversed, as is the practice now observed in India, 
on account of a wrong interpretation of the injuuction of the Vendidad, 



155 

then that space does not become pure for a year.* If any (matter) from these (nam) 
does not reach the ground, and if it is the period of Eapithwin, it becomes pure after 
9 nights, but if the Eapithwin is not present, it becomes pure after a month so that, 
it can be washed. 

If it is the period when the Eapithwin sets in, it can be washed after 9 nights 
in the Eapithwin. But if the Eapithwin departs, then let it be known that it can be 
washed after one month passes away. 

MU. I, p. 139, 1. 4. 

Shapur Bharuchi /—If one dies, then after carrying away the corpse, the space 
of ground (whereon it was enclosed in the kasha) should be purified after the lapse 
of 9 nights (in winter) and 30 nights (in summer). 

Temporary nasd-hhdna or ZadUmarg should be erected for corpses. 
MU. I, p. 139, 11. 10-14. 

Nariman Hoshang .-—Again, let Hoshang Eamyar know that we interrogated 
Nariman Hoshang and he said that in a house where a man dies, they do not bring 
out (the corpse and place it in the Zad-marg). Everything of the food prepared hi 
that house is entirely useless and it is not fit that Behdins should eat it. If they 
carry wafer to that place, it is a tanafur sin, and if they carry fire (there), the same (is 
the case), and if a man goes within three or four steps (of the place kept apart for the 
dead), it is a tanafur sin. The drift of it is that the leader (of the congregation) 
Hoshang [Eamyar] has given much information (thereabout), but it is very neces- 
sary that two houses must be built, one for women 3 (in menses or for child-birth) 
and one for the dead, and as soon as a person dies, he should be carried to that 
chamber 3 and should be put in a place enclosed by a hash, up to the time when it 
may be lifted up (and carried to the daJchma). Again, sagdid must be performed 
and it should be disposed of. Indeed, this should be done. If nOt, then to-morrow, 
in the assembly of the Judge Meher and Sarosh and Eashna, the souls of the pious 
shall have to answer for it. 

MU. I, p. 139, U. 15—19 and p. 140, U. 1-2.— H. P. ff. 440, 441. 

Kaus Mahyar .-—Again, let it be known that when the spirit flies away from the 
body, a patet should be recited and then the corpse should be taken up at once and 
carried to the zad-marg^ (or place temporarily reserved for the dead) and placed in 
a hash, and then it should be carried to the dad-gah. The drift of it is that when 
one dies at night, his corpse (as we have been informed by your Indian messenger) is 
left in the (same) house until morning. If this is the case, there is great retribu- 
tion therefor. 

Q.— They place the corpse in a hash of a house, and the nasasalars with the 
gahan (bier) go into the house (at the time of the gdh-sdrna). This appears much 

1 Cf. Vend. VII §§ 45-46 :— 

(45) In what length of time, will the land on which the corpse (sain) of a dead man is placed 
on the ground, clothed with sun-light and beholding the sun, become itself (i.e. pure). 

(46) After the length of a year ... the land on which the corpse becomes 

pure. 

2 MU, HP. nf) — BK. and S.D.B. c^.'j 

3 Called Zad-i Marg. 

4 Perhaps for Jyo (^ or J£j* &&* the place where the dead are laid : 

equivalent to nasd-hhdna. 






156 

offensive. It is necessary that in a secluded corner, 1 an enclosure may be set up 
and two or three chambers 3 may be erected and the nasa placed in a hash therein, 
and thereafter {i.e. when the corpse has been disposed of) the kasha should be 
washed according to the established rule. 3 The case in point is that a Zad-marg 
must be erected and there ought to be chambers and secluded places 4 for the nasa 
and (these chambers should be) separate 5 . Within that enclosed place, another 
chamber may be made so. that a fire may be burning there and there must be a hole 
in that chamber which may convey light (to the adjoining chamber where the corpse 
is put). The fire should burn there for three days and nights and then on the fourth 
day, it should be removed 8 and another fire must be brought there and let the fire 
of the Zad-marq extinguish. 

The pollution of the nasa just whera life separates from the body is the worst. 

MU. I, p. 140, 11. 3-13— H. F. f . 103, f . 146. 
Kama Bohra, Kaus Kama, Shapur BharucM : — The pollution (caused) by the 
nasa is worse at the time when the soul separates from the body, and he who comes 
in contact with the flesh, or skin, or hair or nail of that (dead) person is polluted 
(Iiam-garza or Jmm-karda). Soshyosh has said that until sagdid is performed, the 
nasa spreads pollution as at the beginning, (when the soul departed from the body). 
Then when the sagdid is performed, it causes less pollution. Kayad-Yarchit 7 has 
said that the pollution (of the corpse) is not worse at any time than when the soul 
goes out of the body. The decision of Kayad-Yarchit 7 is given that this is quite 
correct according to religion. 8 

1 After jLaa, (1 . 17)j the whoIe 18th line fa repeated by m j s t a ke. 

2 Aveste, Icata. For a note on these Tcatas, see below. 

3 i.e., after 9 nightB in winter and 30 nights in summer. 

* /-xij^ (H.F. *#»ja. and BK. /■ JC )^) — better ^a. lit., being forbidden : hence 
sanctuary or any secluded place, 

6 MXJ. jjfi*.: better HF., BK. g^ilc If jjjile is read, it means, in addition 
to this. 

6 &u.i.a.jj i.e., by two men with a paiwcmd. 

1 This is the name of a Pahlavi Commentator. It is here read indifferently. Of. 
IK^tJ DRJOIlor )]&ep llfOO^ (Kilshtan-bdjSt or, Kirydtan-bujet.) 

s Of. Vd. 7 §§ 1-2 :— 

(1) , . . . When does the druj-nasu run on dead men 1 

(2) . . . . Immediately after death. No sooner does consciousness go out (of the body) 
than the druj-nasu, rushes upon it. 

Cf, Vd. 7 § 3 •— 

(3) Until the dog sees (the corpse) or eats it or until the flesh-eating birds fly towards it; 
When thedog sees it, or eats it, or the flesh-eating birds fly towards it, then the druj-nasu 
rushes away ..... 

Cf. Sis, Ch. II § 1 :— 

voi^i-H irwj h* ($5 _j^A *3?^ iwi^i -wj ire v# \p§ i5 « ra w 
.'. toiiR)-^ it. -"owi -v." iraiiKM-" vf »ty uokjr* it 4$ ^wi <&*& 

(1) For in the 3rd fargard of Vendidad of Medyomah, it is declared that he who does not 
die a violent death {lit., he who gives up life without violence i.e., he who dies in sickness or a 
natural death), and at-the time when life goes out, when a dog is tied near his feet, even then the 
nasush rushes upon it, and afterwards when seen by it, it destroys the nasu. 



157 
The shroud (kafan) for the dead. 

MU. I, p. 140, 1. 15. 

Nariman Hoshang : Q. — In what way should the nasa be clothed i.e. en- 
shrouded ? 

A. — Cotton clothes consecrated with a damn, which have been worn out will 
do. Again, those (garments) which have been polluted by nasa should not be used 
for disposing of a corpse. 

MU. I, p. 140, 1. 17 & 1. 19. 

Dastur Barzu and Shapur EharucH .-—The shrouds of the dead made from 
woolen and cotton clothing. — whatever they may be — are allowable, but they 
should be old and worn out. 1 ... ■ 



l Of. Vd. VIII §§ 23-25 :— 

(23) If one shall throw clothes, woven or of leather, upon the dead, as much as (would cover 
the feet with) the stocking, what is his penalty ? . . . . 400 updzanas. 

(24) If one shall throw clothes, woven or of leather upon a dead body, as much as the 
trousers (covering) of both the legs, what is his penalty ? . . . 600 updzanas. 

(25) If one shall throw clothes, woven or of leather, on a dead body, as much as the clothing 
of a man, what is his penalty ?..... 1000 updzanas. 

Cf. Sis. Ch. 12 § 4 :— 

j 

£f niafW-" ikj-hjo w»^ WP W reA?i j ci- u ?T n ff W (4) 

no iS ns $,$ «w^ 3-S #£ iwojjj£ . ipWi e^ is koo -> ^i ne> sm\£ 

£j wi)5<xj iwjiH-oo no '&&?& iS net ••£■£ -u^o^ if *S ^\<\ iwi^-ou irentoo 

(TO-H3 42! wi)^ 5£)0 $•*=! no iwot* A$ nj no ^iw ES ^ ^1 -"P 5 HCl 

(4) One is this that when any one passes away it is proper to render as far as possible 
(hand-chand) the least- cloth a useless ; for it says in the Dad Nask (i.e., the Vendidad) that if 
even those Mazdayasnians leave on the dead as much as that which a spinster would leave in 
the measure of (a thread of) her spindle, b then the decree is this that a tandjur sin originates 
(for which) there is the hell ; in the Dad Nask it is said that the clothing of the charitable soul, 
the clothing which they will give (at death i.e., the kafan i.e., shroud), should be of (the clothes 
given as) alms » . 

a j$0 Some copies give #03 • mouth-veil. 

b ^l£j Pj (?) Cf. Pah. Vd. 5 § 61 $|> )\° avd dole— ijj* a spindle. In fact this 

Pah. word of the Sis. is a corruption of 'jf -")" ^ (=aOand eM/<0 : Dr. West's explanation 
See S.B.E. Vol. 5, p. 340) is not satisfactory. 

c ipJ-^-Hj lit., gifts. Cf. jj'li ^\ &eU. which is the Sidv (or consecrated clothes), 

given in alms to the worthy. It is said in the Rivayats that such clothes (when old and worn 
out) should form the kajan or shroud for the dead. 



158 

The legs of the dead should he bent before taking them to the dahhma. 
MU. I, p. 141, 1. 8.— H. P. f. 226. 
Kamdin Shapur : — The legs of those persons 1 who die should be bent ; they 
should not be stretched out 3 , because, (if so), their souls will undergo heavy 
punishment and a grievous sin will rise for the souls. 3 



l After j T31 gives- -j>^-»6 but HF. leaves a blank for it, 

3 H. P., MU. U dji *J l&J : _ BE. tsi *j A i ^ *J [ «3 

3 This custom seems to have arisen from a right or wrong interpretation of Vend 5 SS 
10-11:— Sb 

(10) In every house, in every street, three katas (apartments) should be provided for the 
■dead. 

(11) How large shall be those katas for the dead ? (As for the height, it should be such 
that) the head of a man standing may not strike (the oeiling above). ■ In length, it should be 
as much) as both the legs (of the corpse) may extend (or reach) and (in breadth) not broader 
than both the hands (of the corpse, extended or folded). 

The above passage is variously translated. Ervad Rabadi so translates it as to fit in with 
the sense of the Rivayat. But the conclusion drawn from the above passage is this that the 
less space occupied by the corpse when put in a kasha before its final disposal, the better it is* 
as in that case the spirit of the earth is propitiated for not defiling a large extent of ground. 

In this passage, it is enjoined that three katas (or, places reserved for the dead) of given 
areas should be made in every house or street. The katas should be as long as the length of 
the corpse stretched, on the ground and as broad as the space occupied by the corpse with its 
hands outstretched or folded, and so high that the ;head. of the nasasalars entering the house 
may not touch the ceiling above the katas. 

.'This injunction leads us to draw the conclusion that the less space polluted, the better: 
hence, the later injunction about the bending of the legs. 

The Iranians were strongly in favour of this custom as against the practice of keeping the 

legs of the dead stretched out, which is observed in India by a large portion of the community, 

Cf. the following passage from the Rivayat-letter of A.Y. 1138 (See MS. T. 30, pp. 55-78) :— 

«**-! &S C5 l rj-«« »*UUj A »1) W j! ^ A-5f [S U* Ijt&yo &*}*'■> *J '^ ^Uj'i j 

JUS. ^ "M^ i^lw (s l i'. ^ *i [ l u" U**>1 j4 j c^J Wjjij ilfj (jfl^l fig Uj fS 

jAaj U5i &U. • «l ,jJ_jA ^sic jy M Jl5 jsj j JlSto jyi /. &j| ^Iki J>&\b ,53 U^ *&k J£ 
AAJI_,i &J|'^£» fil jfjl £>^>b/ ,s eiawf Jx*.» §Jij> j ;. c»»| J^A »(£* ^j 

»j tt'^jj; Us i^u ^i^j j o.^.aj ajjU jj.*«j j jfw^H ik kHbty J"-i *j l ~ &j$ b j f 

The reason assigned for bending the legs of the dead here is that the dead have to make a 
journey to the next world. This is no ordinary journey as one undertakes in this world. In 
the latter case, for going from one place to another, the legs should necessarily be stretched and 
erect for the purpose hi hand: and this worldly journey having come to an end, the journey to 
the next world must be represented by crossing or, bending the legs once for all . The writer 
. further states that when Gayomars, the first man, died in Sarandib (Ceylon ?), God ordered Sarosh 
to bend the legs of Gayomart to show that he had turned away from the worldly journey. 

The Iranians having 'such a concept, they generally exhorted their Indian eo-religionists 
to act always in this way with regard to the dead : and in fact in former times, a controversy 
raged here on this point,, and again it. is found on close inspection of such manuscripts that with 
regard to such injunctions, these MSS. have been often tampered with. See, for instance, the 
Pazend Rivayat of Kamdin Shapur in the " Pazend Texts " published by Ervad E. K. Antia, 
p. 222, 1. 21 to p. 223, 1. 3, where the collations clearly indicate that the original MSS. have, been 
tampered with. MU. as translated here, gives the correct version in Persian as in the Pazend 
version j but Dastur E.S. Meherji Rana's MS., (P. S. M. of the Mehrji Raua Library of Navsari) 
gives quite the contrary version : i.e., for i>J the word jl) i i a substituted and vice versa. 



159 

How should the Nasasalari and Khandias act from the time when the 

nasi lies In Ae house epto the time when it is finally disposed of in the dakhma, 

MU. I, p. 141, 11. 10-18— H. F. f . 262. 

Kamdin Shapur .•— Q. — How should the nasasalars act in taking up the nasa 
(for carrying it to the dakhma) 1 

A.— At the time when death occurs, a dog should be broughti near the coirpse 
before it yet gets cold, and Sagdid 2 should be performed, and it should be brought 
out of the house. and placed in a leash (i.e. in the Zdd-marg, or nasa-khana) in a place 
which is away from water and the habitations of Behdins. Out of necessity, it 
should be 300 steps away and the fire which is kindled or the lamp that is lighted 
should, in case of helplessness, be 30 steps away (from the nasa). When they want 
to place the nasa in the kash 3 , they should recite the vaj of Sarosh up to Yatha- 

ahuvariyo. zaota 4 Three kaslms should be drawn 5 round the corpse and 

then kern-nti-mazda* up to ashahe-nemascM i should be recited, and (in so doing) two 
persons should hold the paiwand between them and recite the Vaj of Sarosh up to 
ashahe. nemascM^ and tie the knots (ceremoniously) of the corpse. Then the Vaj of 
Sarosh should be finished. 

If it happens that the corpse cannot be lifted up for one day or two days (on 
account of some natural cause), two other persons should take the Vaj and finish 
it off. 6 The object is that the corpse should not be left alone. 

The nasasaldrs should be two men of the good religion who are, reverential and 
(who know how to recite) correct Avesta. They should hold a paiwand between 
them, recite the vaj of Sarosh up to ashahe. nemascha,' 1 then a dog 8 should be shown 
to the corpse and it should be carried to the dakhma (astudan) with religious obser- 
vance and custom. The person under whose control is the bier should not give 
the food a in his possession to any other person. When they go to the dakhma, 
sagdid" 1 should be performed on the dakhma and nasa should be placed (therein^ 
and it is necessary that those who I are the assistant-carriers 10 should' not strike 
against those (chief -carriers or the nasasaldrs) 11 . 



1 MU. &i IjT *i ^ M — better HF. *J ly ^K-w 

2 This is written in Avesta characters in HF. 

3 MU. has a blank after cJ^ — HF., BK. leave no blank. 

4 This is written in Avesta characters in HF. 

5 On reciting three Yaihas. 

6 Watch should be kept alternately by at least two persons, so long as the corpse is in the 
house. " "< "- - ; '•:■ . . 

7 Written in Avesta characters in HF. .•'•'. ■ .'.-, 

8 IU. »i^« — better p. Q3.«-*> ( = ^"*) '■ - ':'' 

8 is^J.J^ The following Rivayat has W ^ (bread). There it is said that the piece of 
bread should be divided into four pieces and thrown to the (four) sides of- the corpse before 
performing the sagdid. 

10 siwl) ay. j.'^Ai Ut., those who have gone underneath (the bier) i.e., those who assist 
the nasdsdldrs in carrying the corpse to the dahhma. Cf. Hi'iS btfft 

ii The meaning is that the nasasalars only should carry the gdhdn or. bier within the 
dakhma and not the shib-ydhan i.e., the kMndide. 



160 

MU. I, p. 142, 11. 1-14. 

Jasa : — Infidels 1 should never be ordered to take up the corpses of Behdins, 
Two persons who are Behdins should be appointed for the work. They should take 
a long string and make a paiwand of it between themselves. Four hand-gloves 3 
should be sewn and put on each hand by both. The paiwand (of the string) should 
be firmly tied (on the wrists of the hands). (They should recite the following) :— 
[Here the Sarosh baj up to ashahe is given]. 3 

Then they should close their mouths 4 . One loaf of bread should be divided 
into 4 parts. Every piece should be thrown to the (four) sides of the corpse and 
sagdid should be performed. Then one should stand at one end 5 of the corpse. 
Each should look at the other 6 three times. Then the corpse should be properly 
put and tied with the bier. They should (then take up the bier and) bring it out (on 
the road) . Four 7 persons, in pairs of two and two, should tie the paiwand (of a string) 
firmly on (to the wrists of their hands). They should proceed and take up the corpse 
from the hands of the Nasasalars, each pair should bind firmly the paiwand and 
four {at a time) should shoulder the bier (with the corpse) and carry it just up to 
within 300 steps of the dakhma. Then those four persons (caUed Khandias) who had 
first taken the load (i.e. bier) from the Nasasalars should (now) give it away to the 
iVasasfflZars 8 sothatthe Nasasalars may put the corpse in the chamber (of the 
Dakhma) 9 . The Nasasalars may take up the corpse, carry it in the mterior of the 
Dakhma and place it in a place where it may not come in contact with another 
corpse. Then they should come out of the dakhma. They should go 300 steps away 
from the dakhma (and finish the Sarosh Vaj). 

[here the remaining part of the Sarosh Baj is given]. 

Then (the piece of string forming) the paiwand should be torn to pieces. The 
hand-glovesio should be torn to pieces and should be buried under the ground. The 
Nasasalars should carry away their clothes and put them aside in the house (called 
nasa-klidna). They should make all the members of their bodies wet with padyab 
(i.e. gomez), make them dry and bathe 11 , and the others (i.e. the Khandias) should 
wash their clothes with padyab and water and carry them home and wash them- 
selves with padyab and water. 

l^Jlf lit., infidel i.e., a mail of another religion. 

2 Aii or Oty a small bag which serves as gloves. 

3 The Gaha-sarna ceremony should necessarily be performed after the recitation of this 
Sarosh bdj. 

4 MU. CJ ^ M |*V- °" w $ — better BK., SDB. e>i l f J ^y. tfz ^ 

5 MU. t ~ 3 — better S.D.B., BK. '~J j™>. . i.e., at the top. BK. rightly adds o i '-^ i I 
U 3 w a3 l *J <-&lj and one should stand at the foot (i.e., the other end) of the corpse. 

6 MU.^***- t5 .J""- - better SDBi > BK -^* J - C^ i^-*"- 

7 MU. 1-W — better SDB., J l t^ or better still, as in BK. Jf^ *& lj . 4 *^j r 
i.e., as many (persons) as there may be, upto 40 persons (i.e., the carriers of the corpse). 

8 After ji'-« '~J as in BK.jKL* L*J ^wf 8*w 

8 The Nasasalars can only enter the Dakhma and not. the Khandias (or Shiv-gdMn). 
10 l t Uj_BK. thus explains the word :- ^ ***»% ^Wj^ U ^ U J 4 ^f* ^' J - 
U After utjSji— add, as in S.D.B., and BK. W^O^i 4r»T J a) *«/ <-&*& b ■*>&. 

? 7 j 

■ 



161 

The Gafe-Sairna or Yasht-i Gahan. 
MU. I, p. 142, 11. 16-18=H. F. f. 221. 
Kandin Shapur .-Two priests should recite the Yasht-i Gahan. If there are 
not (to be found) two priests, then one priest and one layman (will do). If even) a 
layman is not (met with), then a dog should be taken and (the priest) should make 
jJLtf with if. The Yasht-i-Gahan (should be thus recited) :-7« mano 
(28th Ha) upto-Ta-tfS—ta (31st ha) which should be recited only up to (where 
the words) tat-mi-vimyai (begin). The rest should not (for the time being) be 
recited. Then the corpse should be put on the bier (gahan) and should be taken out 
and the rest (of the Yasht-i-Gahan) should be recited (on the way to the Dakhma) 
up to Yci ShyaotMm (34th ha) which is to be completed and then the Vaj of 
Sarosh should be finished 1 . 

MU. I, p. 143 & p. 144 U. 1-6. 
Jasa .—About the Yasht-i Gahan (i.e. the Gah Sarna) which is recited over the 

dead 2 : 

It is necessary that the priests should put on new clothes. The bier should 
be carried (into the house) where there is the corpse and it should be placed near 
it One priest should make a paiwand (of a piece of cloth) with another priest. 
They should look at the bier (only) and not at the corpse (and then recite the follow- 
ing) :— 

[Here the Sarosh-Baj upto asMhe is given]. 

Then they should throw their glance on the bier and recite :— 

[Here the Gah-Sarna upto vanaema-drujem (Y. 31 § 4) is given]. 

They should recite upto this and stop (a while) so that the nasasalars may take 
up the bier (put it just close to the corpse)," put the corpse into it and take it 
up and when they come out, their glances should fall in front of the corpse* (and 
then the following Gah-sarna left over should be recited). [Here the remammg 
Gah-sama from tat-moi vichidyai (Y. 31 § 4) to end is given]. 

Seven Kardas i.e. the seven Has* of the Gathas should only be recited* as I 
have w^tenrWebaJ^^ Ya Shyaothana 

' 7. <-•„„ „f rpni+inp- half of the gah-sarna at home and the remaining half on the 

of the gdh-sdmd should be recited on the way to the dakhma (Q. 33). 

2 MU BK. ^ij.*— better S.D.B. l.Oj* 

3 After ijlijJ BK.adds &M*** « and perform the Sagdid." 



phrase thus 
after » U 



4 MU BK *»l i&% *&*•*? ^^/-One Rivayat of Shapur Bharuchi gives tins 
s6 Xs:-^ ,> £?% 4 tf tfJ * ^-S.B.B. (Ho. 235) adds-, J ^ 

^HetL is not *A. clear, but as in the Bivayat of Kamdin Shapur, what the -*™ 
..that after half the Lb-Sama is over, the corpse should be brought out and then the »namm 
Gah-Sarna finished on the way. . 

5 MU. «*« for ^-BK. bUa, for olj cS, an d S.D.B. ^«* 

8 ^J I i p., should be observed. 21 



162 

( Y. 34) upto the end— this much as has been mentioned should be recited. May 
it be in accordance with the will of God and the Amshaspands. 

Again about the question (as to the Dahlima) : A Dakhnia should be made of 
stone. Two nasasalars who are men of the good religion are essential. They should 
know how to recite Avesta correctly,! the Avesta of * Bui Shavin " i.e. the 
Sarosh Baj, 2 and five (smaller) gahs, the Avesta for tying the Kusti and the Khorshed 
Nyaish. If they know more, it is better. They should take' up the corpse, with 
the performance of Sagdid and with (the formation of) paiwand and with (the reci- 
tation of the Sarosh) baj. The (other) men who are to take up the bier 3 whatever 
their number may be— may form themselves in pairs of two and two. Pour at a 
time should shoulder the bier 3 . As many as there are may go (with the bier) as you 
have written and carry the corpse to the Dad-gah {i.e. dakhma). When they are 
300 steps away from the dakhma, the men who are shouldering ■ the bier 3 should 
entrust the corpse on the bier to the Nasasalars and the Nasasalars should carry the 
corpse into the dakhma and put it* (there). They should (then) come out of the 
dakhma and finish the baj of Sarosh and go home. They should wash then heads 
and (all) members of the body with pddydb (gomez) and water. The (other) men 
who had shouldered the bier (i.e. the Khandias) should wash then bodies and clothes 
with pddydb and water 5 . 

Precautions to be observed by the corpse-bearers. 

MU. I, p. 144 11. 8-17. (MU. II, p. 389-90). 
Nariman HosJiang .-—Again, it has been represented (to us) that the nasa of 
men, dogs and other nasas are ordered to be lifted up by infidels and juddins and 
they take them to the dad-gah. This is bad, odious and not good. There is greater 

1 A«ij& C£^- w j'=for this phrase, see Irani Patet. 

2 yijf& Lfjj Ut., " the face (left unwashed) at night." First gomez is applied to the face 
and then Sarosh baj is recited and then water is applied to the body. 

3 &r'jO °r (D'lfe" ***** are the carriers of the corpse other than the Nasasalars. 
They are called khandias. 

* lit., entrust it. 

s Cf . the following from Vd. 9 where it is said that the Gathas, bishdmrut, thrishdmrut and 
chathushdmrut, will drive away the druj-i nasush. 

Cf. Vd. IX §§ 45-46 :— 

f 45 ) How shall I here fight against the druj which rushes on the living from the 

dead J How shall I fight against the nasu which from the dead defiles the living? 

(46) ..... Recite the words of the Gathas which are to be said twice. Recite the words 
of the Gathas which are to be said thrice. Recite the words of the Gathas which are to be said 
four times. (Cf. fargard 10 also). 

Cf. Sis. Ch. X § 6:- 

$4 iw JJ5_>"J> e^j» woo J n ra« -o-^ no epp -owejitfjor -j \u j m> 

(6) " One is this that the recitation of the Gathas over those passed away should not be 
neglected (sutak), e.g., the three Has [(viz., Has, 43 to 45)] which are the beginning of the 
Aushfcuvat Gatha. Whenever it is not possible to reaite.'. there on the road, even if a man recites 
them in the house, it is (also) healing." A. MS. of the Bahman Yasht gives, at the end, the first 
three chapters oi the Ushtavaiti Gatha as the gah-sarna under the heading gasan madam 
mtartagan /caritund i.e., " the Gathas which they should recite over the dead." 



163 

crime therefor, because it is said in the religion of Ormazd and Zartosht that if 
they knowingly 1 order juddins to lift up these nasas, then if the juddin goes near 
■water and fire, that person who has issued orders is responsible for the sin. Lift- 
ing up a corpse is the work of Behdins. There should be two nasasalars united 
together by a paiwand. They should wrap up their hands in a piece of cloth, 2 per- 
form sagdid over the nasa and putting it in an iron-bier lift it up higher from the 
ground (and come out of the house), Two pairs 3 i.e. four men should go near them, 
united with a paiwand* and take up the bier with the nasa from the hands of the 
nasasalars, turn their face towards the dakhma and proceed. 

Again, men who are united with a paiwand should go after the corpse. When 
the four men who are carrying the bier 5 are out of breath, two other pairs united 
with a paiwand* should go (near them) and take up the bier from the hands of 
those four men, and in this way they should go as far as 300 steps from the dakhma 
and stop on this side (of the dakhma) 300 paces (away). They should give up the 
corpse to the two nasasalars and those other persons (who have joined the funeral 
procession) should stand on one side (of the dakhma) 300 paces (away from it) 6 
until the nasasalars carry the corpse to the dakhma and come out. They all together 
should recite patef there and go away. They should .wash their heads and bodies 
with padxjab and water and wash their clothes and thereafter go home, because it 
is so (mentioned) in the religion Of Ormazd. 

Again, let it be known that the pairs 8 (of the nasasalars and the assistants) 
who go together with a paiwand 9 should go after the nasa™ or take up the bier" 
in this way : going below the bier and coming out of it 12 should be done in such a 
way that no one should be cut off and separated from another 13 even a moment ; l4 if 
not, they are riman. Those who go on (lifting the corpse or walking after it) 
and become separated from the paiwand, 13 are riman and should undergo 
the Bareshnum. 



i M.TJ. i5 3 ^ isi for BE. tf> t+£ ^J 

2 i.e., ^ l? 1 -" 3 >i or hand-gloves 

3 i>aj [band). 



J 



£)[>,£.> (j'flj'j U t., in league with. 



5 AJjIi eJvlf j— lit., who are at the head of tho bier* 

The sentence up to here is om. in M.TJ. : B.K.. gives it thus :- 

1 MU. ^-^i — BK. '•^r! 

8 MU. &yt .& j bj» jil two men and two men: BK. gives only ^j x j& 
» MU. *, ; better BK. ojjaj p, 

10 i.e., when they are not assisting the others in lifting up the bier. 

11 ,jl (f i_/.A^i lit., beneath the bier. 

12 to help lift the bier and entrust it to other pairs after a time when they are fatigued. 

13 i.e., they should walk in pairs and the string forming the paiwand should not be broken, 
il MU. (Ju S;S— BK. iji ui.j 

15 MU. gdjj}— BK. t&)ji oijif 






164 

MTT. I, p. 144, 1. 19-145 11. 1-5— H. F. f. 127. 

Kama Bohra .-—The 75th chapter is this : It is necessary for those who carry 
the corpse to the ddd-gdh^ that they should set apart two suits of clothes for them- 
selves. These clothes should be put on (at the time of carrying the corpse) and a dog 
should be shown to the corpse twice ; first at the time when the soul separates from 
the body, and secondly, when they lift it up (to carry it to the dahhma). Both the 
persons should unite themselves 2 (with apaiwand) and they should tie one (end) of the 
string to their wrists, 3 and should observe silence and should not utter a word to any 
person. They should take up the corpse and carry it to the ddd-gdh. If (the dead 
person) be a pregnant woman, four persons should lift up (the corpse), for it is (really 
speaking) two corpses. 4 When (the nasasalars) come out (of the dakhma), they 
should take precautions about their clothes which should be torn up. They should 
wash their head 5 with pddydb (gomez) and water for the reason that no other person 
(of the family) may die soon after 6 (in that house). A dog should properly be shown 
(to the corpse), for if the corpse is lifted up without a dog being shown to it, then 
although the corpse be lifted up by 1000 persons, every one of those 1000 (persons) 
will be riman. It is said in the commentary of the Vendidad that the person who 
lifts up a corpse without showing it to the gaze of a dog is riman and margarjan and 
he can never be purified 7 and his soul is wicked. 8 

1 The dahhma is called ddd-gdh (lit. the proper place) : cf . Vd. 5 § 40 : — manayen. aha. yatha. 
nd ddityo. dditydi. bairyeitecha. khairyaeieeha, i.e., just as a (dead) man is carried to the dad 
gdh lawfully and is (there) devoured (by the birds). The same term ddd-gdh is also used for an 
abode of fire. 

2 &.U+ lit; connected with a band, i.e., with a piece of string, called paiwand. 

3 MU., LS« J aw— better HF. [£ m d &L j j the wrist. 
* taking into consideration the child in embryo. 

5 ..w lit., the head i.e., commencing with the head, the whole body should be purified 
with gomez (pddydb) and water : cf. the use of the word bareshnum in Avesta. 

What the writer means is that such persons are likely to spread contagion and therefore 
they should abide by the rules of sanitation as laid down in the Vendidad. 

7 Such men are called ayaozdya, i.e., they can never be purified. 

8 Cf . Sis. II §§ 65-66, and Sis. X § 33. 

ikj)£0' t&ny ivfjiv -"jj> tr l»e> ?$ filter A -fj^ -j -u^i (65) 



£)? Kf *5 -jnj iKM ±y") -> i-5 l (66) V itojkj ^i ^--coa nej dkhjo' i^ 



V,? 



irasro 



iwow-u ifo^a iH-ua \\a Ju^'n )( iwofa ts A 1 ^>o' (Chap. X § 33.) 

•Jf4 jjs° ^ «)» ^IIRW-" ■"" £j>4 -J -")-*=! $G iWfc-^t ^m^"j\ -m^=) 1) jjj^ 

(65) When a corpse not seen by a dog is moved by a thousand men, even then all persons 
are riman ; they should wash themselves with the Bareshnum ceremony (jnysi ))o 
i.e., with the navgireh). 

(66) Even though seen by a dog, if a corpse is moved by a single (■£)VKy) man 
so as to come in contact with it (ayohartaMhd), then he cannot be washed with the Bareshnum. 
[i.e., he is impure for ever.) (Ch. X § 33) : — One is this that when they attend to a corpse in 
the fittest manner M^^-uo ))Si ) then they should show the corpse to a dog more looking 
at it, because when even a thousand persons shall carry away a corpse which a dog has not 
seen, they are all polluted. 






165 

The consumption of a corpse by vultures, etc 

MU. I, p. 145, 11. 7-8. 
Dastur Barzoji : — When they carry the dead to the dakhma, the shroud enve- 
loping its breast should be torn to pieces. The signification of tearing off the 
shroud is this that the birds may eat the dead so that it is better that the corpse 
may be the sooner disposed of 1 and the soul of the dead become pleased. 2 

MU. I, p. 145, 11. 10-11. 
Shapur BMrucM :— When the body of one fit for heU is eaten by the vultures, 3 
torture and discomfort reach his soul, but when the body of one fit for heaven is 
eaten, the soul of it is in comfort. 

Those who have seen a corpse should purify themselves by a bath. 
MU. I, p. 145, 11. 11-13. 
Suratya Adhijaru.—Q.—As for the question that if men go side by side with a 
corpse, i.e., if they go in the funeral procession, then is it necessary that they should 
bathe when they go home ? 

A.— Every person who sees the corpse with his eyes should take a bath but if a 
person does not see the corpse, there is no need to bathe. 4 ...... 

For the first three days after death, fresh meat should not be cooked, nor eaten. 
MU. I, p. 146, U. 1-2— H. P. ff. 130-131. 
Kama Bohra :— (Ch. 86)— In a house whence a person departs from the world, 
it is necessary that for the (first) three days they should not bring fresh meat and 
cook it therein ; for the danger is that another person may foUow him. 5 
They should be contented with whey, cheese, fish, eggs and confection. The rela- 
tives (of the dead) should not eat meat for those three days. 6 

Cf. Vd. 3 § 14 comm. (p. 69, U. 3-5). 

If sagdid is not performed over a corpse and if (even) two men (with a paiwand) move it, 
both should wash their bodies with Bareshnum and their clothes with the six months' process. 

1 Asjj , * \l lit., separated and decomposed. 

2 Cf. Vd. 8 § 10 :— 

3 JjjU lit. animals. Cf. Saddar Bundahish Ch. 24 and Pah. Bivayat, Ch. 24. 

4 For MU. p. 145, U. 15-18, see MU. I, p. 71, 11. 15-18. • 

5 i.e., may die. -. ' • c , 

e Cf. Saddar Nasr. Ch. 78. Also, Cf. Vend. 8 § 22 :— ". The Mazdayasmans may, thereafter, 
U e after the disposal of the body from that house), prepare meals (myazda) with meat and 
wine in that house ; it will be pure but not unclean as before (when there was the dead body 
in the house). Cf. Pah. Vd. 8 § 22. Comm. (p. 318, 11. 9-11 and p. 319, 11. 3-4) :— 

During those three days, fresh meat should not be used. Parik said : Even the relatives 
who come to that place should not eat it . . Fresh meat should.not be used. 

Cf. Sis. ch. 17 §§ 1-2 :— 



166 

The form assumed by the soul for the first three days after death, and 
the places frequented by it during that period. 

MU. I, p. 147, II. 13-17. 

Skapur Bharuchi .-—When a person dies, the form (of his soul) on the first day- 
is such as that of a child born of its mother ; and the soul goes out of the body like 
wind and vapour ; hence it is that the form of that soul is like that of a child born 
of its mother. On the second day, its form is like that of a boy seven years old and 
on the third clay its form is like (that of a boy) fifteen years old. 

Again, when a person dies, his soul wanders for three days in this world so that 
it goes to three places: (1) in his own house; (2) at the place where the corpse 
is placed within the kasha (i.e. space enclosed by furrows), and (3) into the dalchma 
near his own corpse. It wanders about these three places. It also goes near the 
Chinvat Bridge, but except on the fourth day, it cannot cross the Chinvat Bridge. 
Every moment, it especially wanders in three places (for the first three days) : (1) 
In its own house ; (2) inthe nasd-khdnd (i.e. the place kept apart for the corpse), 
and (3) in the dakhma. 

The dignity of Sarosh Yazad. 

MU. I, p. 151, U. 15-19 & p. 152, 11. 3-4— H. F. f. 104, f . 115, f. 154. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama :— Q.— After the death of a person, without the 
consecration of the Yasna-service (in honour) of Srosh, why is it not permissible 
(to recite any Yasna) with any Khshnuman 1 other than the Khshnuman of Sarosh ? 

A.— When a person who is in this world has not propitiated the lord of this 
world, 3 how can he approach the Lord of the Spiritual world 3 ? Hence it is very 
necessary that first the lord of this world should be reverenced so that it may be 
"(thereafter) possible to reverence the Lord of the Spiritual world. 4 * 

Zartosht also asked Hormazd thus : " During which time it is when meat cannot be 
eaten." Ormazd answered : " If one dies in a house then until three nights pass away, nothing 
whatever of meat should be placed on the darun (for consecration) in the name of that (deceased). 
His relatives should eat nothing whatever of meat. 

Cf. Pahlavi Tests (by Dastur Jamaspji) : Part II pp. 126-27 : 

For translation : See Sir J. J. Madressa Jubilee Memorial Volume— article by Dastur K. J. 
Jamasp Asa. 

The reason why fresh meat is prohibited from being consumed for the first three days seems 
to be this. According to the Pahlavi Tests quoted above, the Nasrusht (the demon of decom- 
position) or the druj-i-Nasush i.e., the infectious germs lurk about the house for a time where 
death has occurred ; and there is the greater likelihood of these germs coming in contact with 
such articles as fresh meat, &c, being very susceptible of assimilating these germs : hence for 
greater precaution, this injunction is given. Or, as some say, meat is an article of luxury and, 
as such, can only be consumed on occasions of joy and merry-making, and therefore the relatives 
of the deceased who are in mourning are prohibited from using it. But this idea is not found 
even in the latest writings. According to Vd. 8 § 22, quoted above, just after the body is removed, 
and disposed of, one can prepare meals with meat, &c, in the house where death has occurred,' 
but it is not particularly stated there, after- what lapse of time this is to be done. It is the 
Pahlavi writings only which fix the period i.e., the first three days after death. 

1 i.e., why is the Yasna not recited in honour of any other Yazata than Sarosh. ? 

2 viz., Sarosh. 

3 viz., Ahura Mazda: Kama Bohra. <fy»j ej'yi*— better, Kaus Kama. ^«j 3,3 [yyvo 
* Cf. Dadistan Puresh 27 § 6 and 28, §§ 1-2. 

(Pnrsesh 27 § 6) :— Inasmuch as the function of Sarosh the righteous is, by order of the 
Creator, the defenceand protection of the people of the world and as he is one of the account-takers 
during the three nights aftendeath, Sarosh the righteous (gives) the soul, for three days and nights, 



167 

MU. I, p. 152, 1. 2=H. F. 104. 

Kama Bohra : — Ormazd is the Lord of the spiritual world and Sarosh has been 
appointed lord of this world. Hence the Khshnurnans of two lords have not been 
allowed (to be recited) at one time. 

MU. I, p. 152, 11. 6-7= H. F. f. 104, f. 115, f. f. 154. 

Kaus Kama : — (The Khshnurnans of) the Amshaspands with those of other 
Yazads are recited one with the other, but the Khshnuman of Sarosh is recited alone 
in the Yasna-service. I wish I may know (the cause) of it ? 

A. — [See above — Kama Bohra]. 

MU. I, p. 152, 11. 9-10— H. F. 86. 
Kama Bohra : — It is so manifest in the religion that before (the recitation of) 
the Khshnuman of Sarosh, one cannot recite the Khshnuman of Ormazd (alone) or, 
with it, for Ormazd has appointed Sarosh as the lord of this world. The Creator 
Ormazd has said to Zartoshtin the Avesta thus: "The Khshnurnans of us both 
cannot be recited at one and the same place." 

MU. I, p. 152, U. 12-13 (MU. II, p. 435). 

Dastur Barzu : — In connection with the Yasna (in honour) of Sarosh, Sraoshahe 

ashyehe should not be recited at the end of the Sarosh Yasht ; but at the 

time of uttering the Vdj, Sraoshahe ashyehe should be repeated twice as is written 
in all the manuscripts of the Yasna and the Vendidad 1 . 

Ceremonies In honour of the dead for the whole year. 

MU. I, p 152, 11. 15-19 to p. 155, 11. 1-9— H. F. f. 58. 

Kama Bohra : — Q. — When a person dies, what (ceremonies) should be perform- 
ed on the fourth day, on the tenth day, on the siruze (i.e. 30th day) and on the (pro- 
per) day of every month. What Yasna-services should be offered ? What food 
should be eaten ? 

the place of spiritual development. It is protected by the protection of Sarosh and the account 
(of its good deeds and sins) is made up by Srosh's taking the account. For., this reason, the 
performance of the Yasna of Sarosh for three days and nights is manifest. 

(Pursesh 28, §§ 1-2: — For what reason is it not allowable to perform the ceremony of Sarosh 
with other separate (ton*) Khshnurnans [i.e., with the Yasna-service offered to other Yazatas], 
and why do they perform the ceremonial (of Srosh) separately ? 

The reply is that the Omnipotent Creator is compassionate over His creatures and the 
precious work, viz., His own true service (offered by the creatures) has been delegated to Sarosh 
(i.e., all creatures should reverence Sarosh as the ambassador of God on this earth) ; for this 
reason, he should be reverenced separately and when his name is not frequently mentioned, 
even then one is not to reverence the names of the Amshaspands with him. 

Cf. Sis. Ch. XVII § 3 :— 

WW) *># j)W3u -o-v -«H ?£■ £?_/ t£ ) nsewj i£ji<? -^j -vr^ £r\_r iroooo 

Y3i£;e -ujj iw ^$ ^U__>" lie) ikjs^ s°#< l>e-o 

During the first three days (after death), the Yasna-service should be entirely offered to 
Sarosh, for this reason that for three days Sarosh is able to save the soul from the hands of the 
demons, and when at every period during the three days Sarosh is reverenced, it is as good as 
though the Hamak-Bin (lit., all religious rites) has been celebrated three times. 

i See Yasna ba Nirang, by Erwad T. D. Anklesaria, p. 192. 



168 

A. — When a person dies and passes on to the spiritual world of the truthful, 

then on the first day, one Yasna in honour of Sarosh should be performed and damn 

in honour of Sarosh should be consecrated. On the second day, one Yasna in honour 

of Sarosh should be offered and damn hi honour of Sarosh should be consecrated. 

On the third day, one Yasna in honour of Sarosh should be offered and damn in 

honour of Sarosh should be consecrated. On the third night, 1 in the Aiwisruthrem 

Gah, they should go to the house 3 of the dead and perform the patefi. During 

the Ooshahin gah, four damns should be consecrated : one with the Khshnuman 

of N&i-i-veh* ; one with the Khshnuman of Rashn-Astad ; one with the Khshnuman 

of Sarosh ; and one with the Kshnuman of Ashoan (i.e., Arda fravash). Near the 

damn of the Ashoan, new clothes clean washed should be put (for consecration). 

Fruits also should be placed near (this) damn and the Damn should be consecrated 

with the Khshnuman of Ashoan (i.e. Arda fravash). The gosho-da, 5 consisting of 

eggs of the fowl, should (also) be placed. Meat should not be eaten until the 4th day. 

On the fourth day when the sun appears from the mountain, 6 (the Afringan of) 

Dahman should be recited. After the Dahman (Afringan), the Khorshed and Mah 

Nyaishes should be offered. Thereafter (all) the men who are in the house and who 

have taken their seats therein 7 should partake of the cooked food, viz., the meat, 

bread and (other) eatables. On the fourth day, one Yasna in honour of Ashoan 

(i.e., Arda fravash) should be performed, and the Darun in honour of the Ashoan 

should be consecrated. On the 10th day also, one Yasna in honour of Ashoan should 

be performed and damn in honour of the Ashoan (Frohars) should be consecrated, 

and Dahman (Afringan) recited. On the 30th 8 day, the Siruze should be consecrated 

with the khshnuman of Siruze and the Khshnuman of the consecration of Siruze (is 

this) : — 

[Here the Khshnuman of Siruze is given.] 

Then the darun should be consecrated with the Khshnuman of Siruze. 
33 luvaks' J and 33 eggs of fowl should be placed with the darun. Fruits should be 

1 MIT. *j*» for lj&— HF. b-HJO ■ 

» " ... 

2 WO. (sJife*J — better BK.eA:> or HF. j£6 • JO • This wordis just below translated as M&-'.J$ 

3 The formula for the repentance of sins. This opinion shows that the Oothamna or the 
third day's proper ceremony in honour of the dead was performed by some in the Aiwisruthrem 
,g$h of the third day after death. Formerly there had arisen a controversy among the Parsis 
as to when and at what period of the third day the Oothamna was to be performed. Some hold, 
as in Na vsari and other towns that the period of the day for the performance of this ceremony 
is, Ooziran while some especially in Bombay are of opinion that the Avesta enjoins that this 
ceremony should be performed on the dawn of the 4th day, i.e., in the Ooshahin gah. In 
Bombay, it is a general practice that the Oothamna ceremony is performed at both these periods 
of the day. (See Dastur Noshervan Marzban's Testament below.) 

4 i.e., Vae-i Veh=The good Vayu, i.e., in honour of Bam Yazad. 

6 H.F. which gives .this whole Riyayat in Pazend.has Ji)ae)j)(u. The gosho#d should 
not consist of meat (See Noshervan Marzban's Testament below). 

6 Mount Alburz, i.e., when the sun rises. 

7 The text of MU. should be corrected after H.F. thus. 

8 MU. *jjj is™ JJJ J ■>— better HF. «j J J &■" is*« jjj j i (which is written in 
Avesta characters). 

b HF. <B^$= ^JJ J (Cf. Per. fi?Jt } any kind of flour, or toasted meal): They 
are round cakes made from any flour. ■.. 



169 

placed near the damn: "Daniii should be consecrated in the presence of fire*. The 
person who is the Raspi should consecrate the damn in honour of Sarosh (on the 
Siruze day) and 2 the Zoti should consecrate the Damn of Ashoan {i.e., of Arda 
fravash). One suit of (pure white) clothes should be placed (for consecration) near 
the damn of Ashoan and fruits should be placed near this damn and then the 
damn should be consecrated. On the proper day of the month/*- one Yasna of 
Ashoan should be performed and the damn in honour of the Ashoan should be con- 
secrated and the Afringan should be recited. Every month on the (proper) day, 
one Yasna in honour of Ashoan should be performed and the damn in honour of 
Ashoan should be consecrated, and the Afringan should be recited. Again, a man 
who is a Herbad should undergo the Bareshnum (purification) for the soul of the 
dead who has passed away, and Geti-hharid should be consecrated for the soul of 
that dead and three Vendidads with the Khshnuman of Sarosh should be consecrat- 
ed. At the end of the year, on the proper day of the month,* one Yasna of Siruze 
should be performed and the damn should be consecrated with the Khshnuman 
of Siruze. 33 luvalcs should be placed. (There should be) one lot of damns {i.e., sacred 
cakes with names) and the other lot of Farsast (cakes without names). One damn 
should have five corners like the sun, and one caUed the mdh-mi which is like the 
moon. 33 eggs of the fowl should be placed near the damn. Fruits should be 
placed near the damn and the damn should be consecrated in the presence of fire. 
He who is the Raspi should consecrate the damn in honour of Sarosh (on the day 
of Si-mze) and one Dahman Afringan should be recited. On the next day, 5 the Zoti 
should consecrate the damn of Ashoin (i.e., Ardafravash) and one suit of (pure 
white) clothes should be placed near the damn of Ashoan (for consecration), and one 
Afringan Dahman 6 should be recited 7 . 

l MU. O^f— better HF. iS^* £* 

a The description from here of the ceremony for the dead is not for the Siruze day, but for 
the day following, which is unnecessarily repeated here. As all copies have the same text aa 
here, and as the two ceremonies of the Siruze-daj and the next day are confounded, HF., while 
retaining the text, gives a note on margin thus :-*- 

i.e., on the 31st day, Yasna of Ashoan and Darun in honour of Ashoan must be consecrated 
by the Zoti and one suit of (pure white) garments must be placed near the Darun of Ashoan 
(for consecration). 

3 jjj jjj Ut., the day of the days, i.e., the, proper day of ths month on Which the person 
has died. 

* JJJ J1J ?•<$•» ^e 30th day, but see Pah. Vend. 8 § 22 comm.: properly speaking, the 
day preceding the proper day of the month on which death has occurred. 

5 i.e., the 31st day (See Pah. Vend. 8 § 22, Comm.) 

6 So T33 and others; but HF. erasing the word writes j*Vffi* (Ashoan). 

7 0£- Sis. Oh. XVII, § 5. 

ju^jj J ikjo 4^<\ _|£v .Mimtfi j «j 1j o ato-** oui | ■? ta<Sy -» ^ (5) 

22 



170 

MIL I, p. 155, II. 9-16=H. P. f. 377. 

Manech Ghanga : — Q. — If a man or a woman or a boy or a girl who has reached 
14 years and 3 months, together with the 9 months in the womb of the mother, 
i.e., who has attained 1 to 15 years in aU, and if he or she goes 3 to the spiritual world 
of the truthful, i.e., has been fit for heaven [i.e., he or she dies], what amount 
should be expended (for their ceremonies) and what duties should be performed for 
the souls of those persons ? 

A. — It is said in the religion that on the first day, a Yasna-service in honour 
of Sarosh 3 should be recited and on the second and third days, the same thing (i.e., 
the Yasna of Sarosh) should be recited. On the dawn of the fourth day, damns' 1 
in honour of Rashna-Astad, Nai-i-Veh, Sarosh and Ashoan should be consecrated. 
Again, on the fourth day, Yasna in honour of Ashoan should be performed. Se- 
condly, a Herbad should undergo the Bareshnum for that soul, 6 so that the soul 
may be purified : they should not desist from doing it, because it is incumbent on 
them. Doing this duty is highly commendable. On the 10th day, one Yasna of 
Ashoan should be performed, and on the Siruze-day, the Yasna of Siruze should be 
performed and on the proper day (of the month), 6 the Yasna of Ashoan should be 
performed and on the proper day of every month, the Yasna of Ashoan should be 
performed, and Geti-Kharid should be consecrated. Three Vendidads (in honour 
of Sarosh) should be performed for the sake of the pious soul. They should not 
desist from this affair. „ 

■ 

MU. I, p. 156, U. 7-10. 

Bahman Punji/a 7 Again it is necessary that a cow should be 

given to the Herbads or Dasturs for the sake of the dead, so that it may be a great 
merit. For it is said in the religion that, in the spiritual world, the souls experience 
great comfort and delight thereby, especially by the presentation of a cow and the 

(5) For the 4th day, a gospend is to be slaughtered, and on the 4th day, the Yasna of 
Ardafravart is to be performed and afterwards, the 10th day (ceremony) and the monthly and 
annual ceremonies (should be performed) : The first monthly ceremony is exactly on the 
30th day, and the annual ceremony on the proper day (of death). 

Cf.Sls. Ch. 17, §§ 3-4:— 

J-^teu -j ^y ^>H3 i it£j-*.5 .jjjj ins ^p ^fj^y ua iraa ?$■ (3) 

Klta -lu^i-" J-*>rcD 1 ^ei-Hj -> -mi '^rj i tow-" ito^ jay ii«>03 \\$$_y ^yuf 

(3) When the Hamalc-din (i.e., the whole ceremonial of Srosh) is consecrated three times 
(i.e., for 3 days), then after the third night at dawn, three damns should be consecrated, one 
of Kashna- Ashtad, second, of Vai the good (i.e., Bam Izad) and the third, of Ardafarvart. 

(4) Clothing (called Siav) is to be placed (for consecration) on the damn of Ardafarvart. 
1 MTJ. *A— HF. ^(j'»MU. Aj&j, _,— better HF. A&ij 

3 HF. adds JLj^*, (y&u^if j u^jj.." &JJ&J 

s MU. y&ji for HF. w !jj 

1 The ceremony for the dead described here (p. 155, 11. 18-19 to p. 156, II. 1-7) is the same 
as in the above Rivayets. 






171 

clothes to the pious. An explanation of this is given in the commentary of the 
Afringan (of Ya visadha) :— gaomata. zasta. vastravata. ashanasa. nemangha. 
Let it be manifest that they should know this well.* 

On the Jame-i Ash6»dad, i.e., sacred white garments consecrated in 
honour of the dead. 

MU. I, p. 156, it 17-18. 

Kaus Kamdin .-—It is manifest in the good religion that if the (pure white) 
clothes called Ashodad are not consecrated on the night of the Chaharum, (i.e., the 
dawn of the fourth day) and if the clothes are not given as Ashodad *— (giving) 
Ashodad is giving to the Dasturs— then the soul of that person will' be naked in 
the next world till the resurrection and future existence. 

MU. I, p. 156, 11. 18-19 + p. 157, 11. 1-3 [MU. II, p. 477.] 

Suratya Adhyarus .-—What you had a second time written about, (the reply) 
is sent (herewith) that if a person dies, then for the sake of his soul, the clothes called 
Ashodad are proper (to be consecrated) thrice (during the year). 

Once, on the 3rd night, i.e., the dawn of the 4th day, and secondly, after the siruze 
ceremony had been recited, the clothes called Ashodad should be first consecrated 
on the damn of Ardafarvard on the (proper) day of the month ; 3 and thirdly, at the 
end of the year, when the yearly ceremonies are performed and when the damn of 
Siruze and the damn of Sarosh had been consecrated, the clothes called Ashodad 
should be placed (and consecrated) with the damn of Ardafarvard (just the next day). 

Principal ceremonies in honour of the dead. 

MU. I, p. 157, U. 16-19 to p. 159 11. 1-13.— H. F. t 239. 
Kamdin Shapur :-If a person dies, then for the first three days, one Yasna of 
Sarosh and the damn ceremony of Sarosh should be performed each day. On the 
last day (of the three days) patet should be performed for him,* and an Afringan 
should be recited (during every night of the three days) :— 

(Here the Afringan is given in an abbreviated form) 5 

For one month, anything (from the Avesta) may be recited for his soul, but the' 
formula ahmai-raesheba should not be recited. At the Ooshahin gah of the 3rd 
night (i.e., on the dawn of the 4th day), four damns should be consecrated s- 
(Here the Khshnumans are given.) 
The (sacred) clothes and fruits, cheese and everything, should be placed 

with the damn of Ashoan (for consecration) In the damn of Ashoan (or, Arda-- 

fravash), avangMo fravasliayo and staomi should be recited. 

i See Noshervan Marzban's Testament below and of. Dr. Modi's " Beligious Ceremonies, 
and Customs of the Parsees", p. 442. 

s^^bi^U for oJysJ 0,1,1 yitj -S-el^ as in EBO. 

t'-\.j \ ,j lit., the day of the day, i.e., the proper monthly day (Mahigan) - t the day nest 

to the Siruze, day. 

<1 i.e., In the Oothamna Ceremony, the whole anjuman (congregation assembled) should?. 
recite -patet (penitential prayers) for his sake ( _, t I a U. j I ; ti^ lit:, path, way), 

s The 7th karda of the larger Sarosh Yasht ; called Y6. vanano. kayadhahe- 



172 

On the rising of the sun on the fourth day, one Dahman (Afringan) should be 
recited. On the 10th day, one Yasna with the Ehshnuman of Ardafarvard, i.e., of 
Ashoan and one Damn of Ashoan should be consecrated and one Dahman (Afrin- 
gan) recited. On the Simze-day, (i.e., 30th day) one Yasna of Siruze and one Damn 
of Siruze should be consecrated (by the Zoti). The Easpi should consecrate the Damn 
of Sarosh, and one Dahman (Afringan) should be recited on that day. On the 31st 
day, one Yasna of Ashoan and damn of Ashoan should be consecrated, and the 
Afringan should be recited. 

At the end of the year (just on the day before the proper day, i.e., the Siruze- 
day,) one Yasna of Siruze and one Darun of Siruze should be consecrated and one 
Dahman (Afringan) recited ; and the Raspi should consecrate the darun of Sarosh. 1 
On every anniversary day, a Yasna of Ashoan and a Damn (of Ashoan). should be 
consecrated and the Afringan recited. On the 10th day, on the siruze (i.e., 30th day 
of the first month) and the (proper) days (of all months) and every anniversary day,, 
Saturn should be recited (on the food prepared in honour of the dead). 2 

Sudab to be used in the third day's ceremony of the dead. 
MIL* I, p. 159, U. 15-16. 
Bahman Punjija .-—When a person passes out of this world, then on the third- 
day, it is necessary that one grain of Sudab should be prepared in garlic. (May the- 
Dasturs of India), excuse us for the impudence of us, the humble ones (i.e., the 
Dasturs of Iran). May your life and good fortune be on the increase. 3 

Afringan Dahman to he recited on the dawn of the fourth day after death., 
MU. I, p. 159, U. 18 (MU. II, p. 465). 
Shapur BharucH :— If a person, dies on the dawn of the fourth day, a Dahman 
Afringan 4 should be recited so that, the passage on the (Chinvat) Bridge may be- 
easy (for the soul). 

The three days' and other ceremonies after the death of a pereon, 

if left unperformed through any unavoidable circumstances, 

must needs he performed anyhow thereafter. 

MU. I, p. 160, 11. 1-5— H. F. f . 250. 

Eamdin Shapur .-—Details about the Yasna-serviee (of the dead) s which we 
have written : 

Let it be known that, if during the first 3 days (after death), 3 Yasnas of Sarosh 
are not practicable, then out of helplessness, one Yasna of Sarosh should be per- 
formed and darun (of Sarosh) should be consecrated and Patet (recited, as in the 

1 This sentence which is placed last is needed here. 

2 Of. with this and the. other similar accounts given above, Dt. Modi's " Religious Cere- 
monies and Customs of tho Parsees " — pp. 7S-86.. 

3 This is extracted from the letter brought by Bahman Asfandiar from Iran, wherein 
stress is. laid on Sudab to be kept ready for the 3rd day's Ceremony. MU. IT. pp. 162-63. (See 
this whole letter translated below.) Cf. also the paper on the use of Sidab by Dr. J. J.. Modi 
in the — No. of the Journal of the Anthropological Society. Cf. also MIL I. pp. 42S-29. 

* called generally Karda-i do-ddham. 

5 Here is the case of a person whose day of death is not known or although known, his 
relatives are unable to perform the ceremonial of Sarosh &c, at the right time, by any un- 
avoidable circumstances. 



173 

Ootharnna ceremony) and the Afringan Ceremony (should be performed). Just as 
the four damns on the 3rd night (i.e, the dawn of the 4th day) are consecrated at 
the proper time, (they should be consecrated). 

The next day (i.e., after the Cheharum ceremony is performed), the Yasna of 
Sarosh and Damn (ceremony in honour of Sarosh) — (as many as are left) — should 
be performed. 1 

If during these three days (the ceremony in honour of Sarosh) camiot be begun, 
then it should be begun within 15 days. 

On the 10th day after the ceremony had been begun, one Yasna of Ashoan 
should be performed, and the Siruze ceremony should be performed on the proper 
occasion (i.e., at the end of the month). If it is impracticable within one month, 2 
then it may be begun any day of the year and if the year (of the death) also passes 
away (and the ceremony left unperformed), then it should be begun the next 
year. 

The souls of the pious come down here on their rojgar ceremonies. 

MIL I, p. 160, 1. 7. 

Dastur Barzu : — Know that the souls of the pious come down (here) on the days 
of their rojgar ceremony. Wherever there is purity and (the performance of) the 
Yasna of God and of meritorious deeds, they come down but they remain in the 
air. 3 

Ceremonies of one dying during one of the Gatha days. 

MIL I, p. 160, 9-10— H. F. f . 215. 

Kamdin Shapur .'—If one dies on the day which is either Ahunvad, or Ushtavad, 
or Saf antomad or Vohukhshathra or Vahishtoyasht, then if four stars 4 may be (visi- 
ble), the period 5 (of his death) is Ooshahin. The (first) three days should be (thus) 

i Because only one Sarosh ceremony has been hitherto performed. 

2 i.e., If the day of one's death is not known and the ceremonies of his death have not been 
at all performed, or the impracticability arises through any other cause. 

3 Cf. Pah. Vd. 8 § 22 coram: (p. 321, 11. 2-9):— , , 

When do they come here ? On the 10th day (of the death), on the (proper) day of the 
month (mdhigan), on the (proper) day of the year (sdligchi), and the 10 days of Farvardegan. 
Some say : " They are here in the month Adar upto the end (of the month)." Some say : 
"Every Farvardin day, they come here and go back." Some say: "If on those 10 
(Farvardegan) days they do not (appear to our naked eyes to) come here, it is good 

/■"m for -HJJl) for us (to believe) that they come here : and this is made evident from the 

following (Avesta) passage : " Just like a winged fly, or just like an unwinged fly (they 
come here)." ■ ... 

4 MU. '•VW '- ^ /•** — better HF. Uj't-a. jjjU« Other MSS. e.g., BK. also give jliw 

for 13 /.^ ; The Pazend Rivayat of Kamdin Shapur and T33 and T31 give j^jd; -^ 
s For jKj (MU.) better BK. t (f or HF. 8 gj ! ' - 



174 

counted.i The Siruze (ceremony)^ should be (performed) just on that day (when 
the 30 days of the first month expire). The proper day for every month should be 
Farvardin (as he has died on one of the Gatha days.) 

In the panji-i-Veh {i.e., in the 5 Gatha days)— on the (particular) day he has 
died, anniversary-ceremonies should be performed. 

Invoking the name of a dead person whose name is unknown. 

MU. I, p. 160, 1. 11— H. F. 209. 

Kamdin Shapur :— Q.— If the name of a person who is dead is not known, what 
name should be recited (in his ceremonies) ? 

A. — " Vahman, son of Vahman " should be recited. 
Ceremonies on the death of a child newly born upto seven years of age. 

MU. I, p. 160, 11. 13-16. 

Kaus Kamdin :— Q.— If a child, one day old upto three years old dies, what 
(ceremonies) should be performed for it ? 

A.— It is evident in the good religion that if a child one day old up to 7 years 
old dies, two persons should go after that (dead), reciting the Avesta 3 (of the Gah- 
Sarna) (and stay) beyond 300 steps of the Dakhma. Again, one Yasna of Sarosh 
should be performed. The damn and clothes should be consecrated on the dawn 
of the 4th day. 

It is so manifest hi the good religion that the soul of a child upto 7 years old 
does not become separate from the souls of its parents. The Yasna of Sarosh is 
performed for it for the reason that if the souls of the parents have been sinful, then 
the soul of the child becomes separate from them and intercedes for the souls of 
the parents in heaven. 

1 ijji lit., pass on. 2 jjj^ for 8 jj; ^« 
B.K. has the first portion of this Bivayet thus :— 
^ ISJJJ-K V )J) \S M *Jji jjj fc$~j ii*& jl »lf *&k f* U jlf». j&*» iji*i 

|>.W U 

i.e., When one dies then (if he dies at night), the period is Ooshahim if there are- ' 

four stars (visible). The Siruze (ceremony) falls on the day just after the lapse of 30 days. 

That this is what is meant by the writer is apparent from the following passage of Sis.. 
14 §§ 4-6 : — 
.'•\ ■ ' 

JB) ^ -J* •'• ItOlH'OO <?g |K3))W3 lKJ3y! tf}W| "0*0 <?#> KM1P0 IKftC -">" (4) 

?p ks i^op -"-frnjii ?>£r* (5) .*. ^n5-oo -^ <? g fwtoi ^iw-" 1 J wo <\j>a \<sio^fr 
vi^ (6) /. m^w J <?p vm iKj-^-uflye, Jm> ^w -o^rki 311) i Ws» $ &■? 

(4) This is how it is when the period of the day is retained, and how it should be when one 
may relinquish it [referring to the transition of the Ushahina to the Havani Gab. at daybreak}.; 
that is, when even one of the stars created by Auharmazd is apparent, it is retained, and when 
not, it is relinquished. 

(5) It is Vand-Auharmazd who said that when, besides Tishtar, Vanand and Sataves, 
one of the zodiacal stars is apparent it is retained, and when not, it is relinquished. (61 There- 
have been some who said that when, besides one of those three, three zodiacal stars are apparent, 
it is retained, and when not it is relinquished [S. B. E. Vol. V. p. 371]. 

3 li.w_j (j lit., with the Avesta. 



175 

MU. I, p. 160, 11. 18-19. (MU. II. p. 444.) 
Dastur Bafzu .-—For a child born of its mother, who remains alive up to 7 
years and dies, one Sarosh ceremony should be recited for it on the third day, and 
the damn in honour of Sarosh should be consecrated and in the night at the Oosha- 
hin Gah, four Damns should be consecrated just as they are described for (the cere- 
monies of) the dead. Again, there is no need (to perform the ceremonies) of the 
10th or 30th day (i.e., of the Si-ruze) or of the year. 1 

Zinda-mvdn can be performed for those who are twelve years old, 
and not of those who are under that age. 

MU. I, p. 161, 11. 12-15. 
Shapur Bharuchi :— Q— A boy has reached 11 years and 3 months. That boy 
is alive. He has put on Surde and Kusti. Can the Sarosh ceremony of the Zinda- 
ravan be performed for him ? i.e., the boy is alive and in what time of his life is it 
proper or not to consecrate Sarosh Ceremony (of the Zinda-Ravan) ? 

A.— If the boy has reached 11 years and 3 months, and if he orders the Sarosh 
ceremony (of his Zinda-Ravan), it is proper, but if he be under 11 years, it should 
not be consecrated. The Sarosh consecrated (for the Zinda-Ravan) without under- 
going the Bareshnum is not proper. Let it be known that every merit done in ac- 
cordance with religion by such a child will reach its father and mother. 

The last testament of Dastur Noshirwan MarzbSn KermAni. 

MU. I, p. 161, 11. 18-19 to p. 163 U. 1-14. 
Bahman Punjya's Rivayet (in verse) .-—Dastur Noshervan Marzban's last test- 
ament : his advice to his son as to what he should do after his father's death : — 

(1) Patet should be recited on his death. 

(2) Ashem should be recited when death occurs. 

(3) Yasht-i-Gahan (i.e., the Gah-sarna) should be correctly recited. 

(4) The Vaj-i Nashrush, i.e., the Srosh-baj iipto ashahe should be recited. 

(5) When carried out of the house, they should recite Avesta after him. 

(6) No one should mourn for the dead. § 

(7) From the first to the fourth day, Yasna (of Sarosh) and other Avesta, 

e.g., the patet, should be recited. 

(8) Jame (Siav or pure white garments) to be consecrated on the 3rd night 

(se shab), i.e., on the dawn of the 4th day. 

(9) AsM-dad, i.e., the consecrated clothes should be given in charity to the 

worthy. 

(10) Nyaish and Patet to be recited and fire should be kindled for three 
,, days and Zand-Avesta recited. 

(11) Fat (,»iJ) of a gospend should be offered as zur ( jjj offering) to fire on 

the dawn of the fourth day so that Adar Khoreh and other Amshas- 
pands may come to the assistance of the soul. 



1 For MU. I, p. 161, 11. 2-3 see MU, I. p. 239, 11. 4-5. 



176 

(12) On the 10th day, Yasna of Araafravash (Yasht-i-Ashoan) and Dahman 

Afringan should ba recited. 

(13) On the Siruze, i.e., the 30th day, the Yasna of Siruze and Dahman Afrin- 

gan should be recited. 

(14) Every proper day of the month upto the end of the year, Yasna and 

Dahman Afringan should be recited. 

(15) Noxious creatures should be killed for the benefit of the soul. 

(16) Zinda-ravan, Geti-kharid, Myazd, and Afringan to be consecrated. 

Ceremonies to be performed for one year on the death of a person 
aged fifteen years and upwards. 

MU. I, p. 163, 11. 15-19 to p. 170, 11. 1-16. 

Bahman Punjya : (in verse). — The ceremonies to be performed on the death of 
a person 15 years old (i.e., 14 years and 3 months +9 months in the mother's 
womb) : — 

(1) The dead body should be enshrouded in old, pure and washed garments. 

(2) It is meritorious to go after the corpse to the dakhma, and in so doing 

Vaj of Sarosh upto ashahe should be recited. 

(3) Those who have attended the funeral should apply nirang (bull's urine) 

to the body, on their return home ; if not, the Nasrusht div {i.e., the 
druj-i-nasush) will overpower them. 

(4) Tasht-i Gahan should be recited, sagdid should be performed and bdj of 

Sarosh recited and the corpse carried to the dakhma. 

(5) There should be no unnecessary delay in carrying the corpse to the 

dakhma. 

(6) No one should weep for the dead. 

(7) The dead body should not be washed with water. When on the point 

of death, if possible, one should be bathed and the shroud put on, and 
then patet formula should be, as it were, thrust in his mouth. If he 
is unable to recite patet, the by-standers should recite it. If possible, 
one on the point of death should recite the Ashem, or, the Patet. 

(8) Those who go in the funeral procession should stand 300 steps away from 

the Dakhma. When the nasasalars put the dead body in the Dakhma 
all should finish the Sarosh baj and apply gomei, (dast-shu) to then* 
bodies, and bathe at home. 

(9) For the first three days, Avesta should be recited by the congregation 

assembled at the house of the dead. 

(10) As the soul separated from the body makes its abode in the Fire-temple, 
they should go and offer Nyaish to the Atash Behram (called here 
Iran-shah, or ShaMnshah). 






177 

(11) Fire should be kindled to frighten the daevas, at three places, when death 

occurs : (1) at the place where death occurs ; (2) the place where the 
dead is put in the kasha ; (3) 300 steps away from the dad-gah, i.e., 
Dakhma ; because these are the three places where the soul stays for 
the first three days after death. 

(12) Yasna, Damn and Afringan in honour of Sarosh to be recited for the 

first three days. If Zinda-Bavan has been performed in the life- 
time of the dead, Sarosh comes to the aid of that dead one at once 
without any invocation from any one. 

(13) Afringan of Sarosh to be recited on first three nights {J>ji />«). 

(14) Fresh meat should not be eaten for the first 3 days, nor should be 

consecrated as gosliada (j^) with the Damn. 

(15) On the third day, at the 4th gah (i.e., Aiwisruthrem gah), Patet should be 

recited, i.e., Oothanma ceremony performed. 

(16) In the Ooshahin Gah, Jcime called Ashoddd should be consecrated. 4 

Damns with the Jchshnuman of (1) Rashn-Astad (2), of Ndveh (i.e., 
Rg,m Yazad), (3) of Sarosh and (4) of Arda Frohar should be conse- 
crated ; and with the last Damn of Ardafrohar, the jdme or Ashodad, 
i.e., pure white garments should be consecrated. 

(17) On the dawn of the fourth day, before passing the Chinvat Bridge, the 

soul goes to the court of Behrain-Firuz-Shah (i.e., Atash Behram) 
therefore they should go to the dad-gdh of Iran-Shah and offer khushboi 
(sweet-scented fuel and frankincense) and perform Nyaish and 
patet. If the fat of a gospend is offered as zur to the Atash-Behram, the 
soul passes away thence happily, and Adar-Khoreh and other Amshas- 
pands assist him, and he goes to the different stations of heaven. 

(18) On the dawn of the 4th day, one Afringan Dahman should be recited, 

and Khorshed and Meher Nyaishes offered. Damn of Ashoan and 
Yasna of Ashoan and Damn in honour of Sarosh also should be 
consecrated. 

(19) On the 10th day, one Yasna and damn of Ashoan and Dahmcan Afringan 

should be recited. 

(20) On the Siraze, one Yasna of SiruEe should be recited and Damn of 

Siruze should be consecrated with 33 eggs and 33 luvags and all lands 
of fmit. One sun-shaped damn and one moon-shaped damn should 
be prepared. This damn of Siruze should be consecrated by the 
Zoti in the presence of fire and the damn of Sarosh should be con- 
secrated by the Baspi, and one Dahman Afringan recited. 

(21) When it is.the proper day of the month, one Yasna of Ashoan and Damn 

of Ashoan should be consecrated and three Afringans— of Dahman, 
Ashoan and Sarosh— should be recited. Lastly, Dahman Afrin should 
be recited. 



178 

(22) On every proper day of the month, up to the end of the year, the Damn, 

Yasna and Afringan of Ashoan should be consecrated. 

(23) Noh-Shaveh, i.e., Bareshnum should be undergone by a Herbad for that 

soul ; 3 Vendidads of Sarosh should be performed in honour of the 
dead ; Geti Kharid should be consecrated and a cow should be given 
in charity as asho-dad. 

(24) On the si-ruze of the anniversary, one Yasna of Siruze should be recited, 

damn of Siruze should be consecrated with 33 eggs and luvacjs. Daruns 
resembling the sun and moon should be prepared and consecrated in 
the presence of fire. The Raspi should consecrate the damn of Sarosh. 
Afringan of Dahman should also be recited. On the rojgdr day, (i.e., 
the day just following the Siruze day), one Yasna and darun of Ashoan 
consecrated with a new suit of clothes. Three Afringans of Dahman, 
Ardafravash and Sarosh — with the Dahman Afrin should be recited. 

(25) If the dead has no offspring, one satar (adoptive son) should be appoint- 

ed for him. 

Which parent is created superior to the other— the father or the mother? 

MU. I, p. 172 U. 11-15 (=MU. II, p. 359, 11. 4-19 to p. 360 11. 1-2). 

Nariman Hoshang :■ — The holy Zartosht asked Ormazd : " Why is the father 
regarded as superior 1 and the mother as inferior 2 ? " Ormazd replied : " The father 
is considered superior and the mother, inferior for this reason that first I created a 
pious man 3 and pronounced powerful blessings on him. (A child) first enters especial- 
ly the body of its father, remains for several days in the body of the father, and then 
enters the body of the mother. Again, food and all amenities 4 of life as well as 5 
industrial pursuits 8 , which are necessary are supplied by the father. The wicked 
Ahriman first seduced women from the right path. It behoves you to learn 
this that the love of fathers is much more perfect than that of mothers. I say 
unto you, Zartosht ! that if any one afflicts or torments 7 his parents or is of a 
mind different from them 8 and does not show repentance before his parents, then 
his soul will not be liberated from hell." 9 

i MU. AM^AJ—better ** ^ A j)— Paz., -e>"s -j<a •&& 

3 i.e., Gayomard: MU. *ij** 4 <H^— better T33 H$ only. 

4 ywjjja.j', for l^ji^ 3' 6 J l = Paz. > 6 igj^&ij** 

7 Paz. version adds -gitaj "6^-^s) ,{**>*• after **"^' 
s i.e., disobeys them. 

8 This piece is found among the Pazand portion of Nariman Hoshang's Bivayet (gee MU 
Vol. II p. 359). This Pazend is here done word for word into Persian. The idea expressed 
here is foreign to the whole Zoroastrian literature. Even in Pahlavi writings influenced by 
foreign ideas, such a statement is rarely found ; e.g., The Bundahishn, on the contrary, speaks 
of the seduction of both man and woman by Ahriman (Cli. 15 : on Mashya and Mashyoi), Here 
the author perhaps recalls the Biblical story of Eve being seduced by Satan. 



179 

Disobedient children should be deprived of their patrimony. 

MU. I, p. 173, 1. 13 & p. 188 1. 19. 

Shapur Blmruchi :— If the father is displeased with the son and if he does not 
give him wealth or property, then it is allowed in the religion that nothing should 
be given to hirn. God also is displeased with that (son). 

Ritual for one who dies aged 12 years and under, 

MU. I, p. 173, 1. 17— H. F. f . 206. 

Kamdin Sliapur :— If a child twelve years old dies, it should be carried on a 
(large) bieri (to, the Dakhma). The ceremony of Sedosh^ i.e., three Sraosh (for the 
first three days), should be performed ; and one (ceremony) on the 10th day and 
one on the 30th day should be performed (for it). 

A child ten years old or eleven years old should not be carried on a (large) bier 
(provided for adults) 3 . 

On Adoption. 

MU. I, p. 173, 1. 19. 

Shapur Blmruchi :— A star (i.e., an adoptive son) should be appointed for a per- 
son 14 years and 3 months old, (if he dies) 4 . If that star is older or younger by a 
year (than the deceased), it is allowable ; but let it be known that he should be ap- 
pointed from the near relatives and from amongst those who are devoutly religious. 

MU. I, p. 174 U. 2-8=H. P. f. 207, 211, 212, 264. 

Kamdin Shapur : Q. If a person has no offspring or relatives, then he should 
accept, as his son, the offspring of a man who is more related to him (as stated) in 
the religion. 

Q.— There are two sons. Both then parents are dead. They have no rela- 
tives. Then it is permitted in the religion that if (another) person is childless, he 
may accept one of the sons as his (adoptive) child. 

Q.— If one's (only) son is dead, one should adopt a son for oneself, and the pro- 
perty of the (dead) son should be given to the padshah-wile 5 . 

Q— If a man has no son, he should adopt a boy as his own child. If that boy 
dies, he should adopt another son. ' 



1 i.e., the bier used for adults is necessary for those 12 years old and upwards. 

2 Pah. -"OIKD *h e ^s* && ee day's ceremony of Sarosh, after the death of a person. 

BK. has JjJ for lA)^ 

3 The Ithoter Rivayat (i.e., the Rivayat of 72 questions and answers) says that a child 
from one day old upto seven years of age, should be carried, on death, to the dahhma wrapped 
up in a sheet of cloth and not on an iron bier, as such a child is not regarded as riman. (Q. 9). 

4 Because such a person has reached puberty. According to Avesta, narsh-panchadasangho 
i.e., a man 15 years old arrives at puberty. The Rivayets take into consideration the 9 months, 
in the womb of the mother. 

6 i.e., to his mother who is the pddshdh-zan. 






180 

■ Q- — If a man dies (on a certain day), and his son dies the next day, then he 
who is the high-priest and those who are his relatives should appoint one 1 as an 
adopted son for him (i.e., the father) (in consultation with one another). 

Q.— Can a Dastur {i.e., one of a priestly class) be adopted as a son by a Behdin 3 
and can the former be still regarded as a Dastur (i.e., a priest) ? 8 

A.— It is allowable to do so, but it is better if he (i.e., the priest) is related (to the 
Behdin). 

Q. — Can a Behdin 2 be adopted as a son by a Dastur (i.e., a priest) ? 
A.— If he (i.e., the Behdin) is related to him and is devout,* of good disposition 
and is observant 5 of the spiritual world, he will do. 

MU. I, p. 174, U. 10-12. 

Kaus Kamdin:— Q.— Can the child of a Herbad 6 be adopted as a son by a 
, Behdin, or not ? 

A.— It is proper if the son of a Hirbad 6 is adopted as a son by a Behdin 
and the former can even do his duties as a Hirbad. 

Q.— If a priest or a layman dies without offspring,? how old he should be 8 that 
it is proper to adopt a son for him ? 

A.— About appointing adoption, it is said in the religion, that if a man 15 years 
old dies, an adopted son should be appointed, but there is no need (to adopt one) 
if he is under 15 years. 

MU. I, p. 174, U. 14-15. 
Shapur BMrucH .-If, after the death of a father, his elder brother dies, then 
it is proper that his younger brother may be adopted as a son (for the father), and 
the soul of that person shall (in that case) be also able to cross the (GMnvat) Bridge. 

One adopted son can be (again) adopted as a son by forty persons, who can 
(in such a case) pass the (Chinvat) Bridge. This is proper according to religion. 

MU. I, p. 174, 11. 17-19 to p. 175 1. 1. 

Dastur Barzoji :— It is written in the religion that forty adopted-sonships may 
be acquired by one son/ but this is proper only when such persons have no near re- 
latives who can be adopted,as sons. And if there are near relatives who are accept- 
able in acc ^ncewitIi^ligo^ l ien one ad opted son is proper for each. 

l MU. t^y-J and HF. <^>wi ^Sj 

3 /.* I (cf. Pers. ^Ic ) i.e., common people, i.e., laymen. 

3 i.e., can he perform his priestly functions, if he is adopted by one of the laity ? 

'1 8 &»j3 cf . Pah. -wjni? and Per. j £«J 

6 j I i>.po and j I <ijj£j are synonyms. 

o iSJj,J; r ju+j i.e., a boy of priestly lineage. 

7 ijj »ij connection, kindred, relatives. 
s lit., after how many years. 

8 i.e., one and the same son or boy may be adopted by 40 different persons if tfiey are 
childless. 



181 

Q.— As regards the meritorious deeds of sons and daughters, it should be known 
that the meritorious deeds of a daughter accrue to her parents in proportion as she 
participates in their worldly property. 

Q— A son adopted for the dead, although he be younger or older (than the de- 
ceased) is proper, but one who is nearly allied and more friendly to the religion is 
suitable. 

MU. I, p. 175, U. 3-4=H.F. f. 395. 

Baliman Punjya :— It is enjoined in the religion, that if a person has not adopt- 
ed a son, they should adopt a son for him, and if the adopted son be older or more 
advanced in years (than the deceased), it is proper according to religion that the 
adopted son advanced in years be appointed for one who is younger. (Such an 
adoptive son) can be appointed. 

MU. I, p. 175, 11. 6-8. 

Kaus Kamdin :— Q. — One of the good religion dies childless and another per- 
son of the good religion who is appointed as a son for him.1 also dies : (What should 
be done with the property left ?) 

A.— When this first adopted son has not been able to conduct (his adopted- 
sonship) upto the end 2 , that is, if he dies, the property goes to the adopted son who 
is living. 

Q.-JIhere are two Behdin brothers, and both are childless. If the elder bro- 
ther dies, can the younger brother be adopted for him as a son or not ? 

A.— If (the elder brother) has never desired a wife from anywhere 3 , then the 
adopted-sonship of his younger brother is proper for him. 

MU. I, p. 175, 11. 10-12. 

Shapur Eharuchi : — Again, it is better if one has a male offspring for his (safe) 
passage of the (Chinvat) Bridge (after his death). If he has no male offspring, but 
has a daughter or a padsMh-wiie, he can pass the bridge (after his death), but the 
widow should re-marry and if she gives birth to a son, the latter should be adopted 
for the first husband ; but if the widow dies (without giving birth to a son), it is 
necessary that a son should be adopted. If (the widow) is alive, but does not re- 
marry, she is a sinner. It behoves the relatives to adopt a son (for the dead hus- 
band). Again, a fourth part of the merit of the good deeds done by a daughter 
reaches the souls of the parents from one lineage to another. 4 



1 For once, the word is here written jij jXw Stura and not Satar or Star. (See Ueber ein 
sasanidische Rechtsbuch (p. 24) by C. Bartholomae.) ■ I 

2 j | jj hjA^.y jl**,wj r= jl iS^ulj: p ah. -J-u^Kj-^ i.e., he who conducts 

or executes. 

3 i.e., has not espoused a wife. in his lifetime. . i 

* Or, A portion of the merit of the good deeds done by a daughter reaches the souls of 
her parents on the fourth (day after their death) from one lineage to another. Cf. Saddar Bd. 
Ch. 61 §§ 2-4 :— " If the children and the children's children do good deeds, they will all add 
to the merit of their parents." 



182 

MU. I, p. 173, 11. 14-16. 

Kaus Kamdin : — Q.— There are two brothers who die and are childless, and 
have no relations. (What about the adoption ?) 

A. — It is necessary to adopt a son for the elder brother, and it is also necessary 
to adopt a son for the younger brother if he has reached the age of 15 years. If 
there is a worthy person on the father's side who may be a near or distant (relative), 
he should be adopted, but if there is no such one, it is proper if one is appointed 
from the mother's side. 1 



l Cf . the following accounts about Adoption from Del : — 

Purseah 55— Ch. 56. 

?K)V Jfll -J ^w» I ny? -J fe^ji }v>eiVa ) ■«oo j oo-D[e> ) a -i -J|-*ien p^ -vi^ ,^w 
iS 3w-»sr $te»j>>» si (3) .". iwiira i^Wi i Mrjj -> ue-* iteo -tw ^a^ -oey 
£ 4^5, j iS ] icoWf -wei ■vey 4)te« i iKvontei} iron) ^kjo tW| $r3j?>, 

S-S ■H3 lj 0KS ^V (4) „'. ^Kuaip (K j )KJJ0 i)rej , )K } )K j-^ -Op^, ,2, j ii , )el ,£ , m ,^, 

-^ -"U^oio ,¥0£)) no ^-u>tV a^jj ew £?jj eiic ^oji W <jykt ai no -> -"jji pj> irjuto 
■V5-AJOJ iw-" iwonoa -v^io ^y W i iRj-^ev Dw^ (5) .-. icoWy ^w ^j> $4 wo 
?«xse)i noe^ -j -o-hj a5 no i«we) iwe^ a-"j_y ne^a?) <rf i dkWj 1 iw-"o» ^cp no i 
-j (fKK)> *W no (6) .'. -iu)"^ reo if iicto-" Wjitfn= -A *)»4 | n$eWp ite-uey 
s))fs> Mfiy ^ny i •ny a£jj 'W ) -v -j £«mj ^c ) ^su •" ^y i«y no if -ai^ei 
j i||i!»ej ^{y W A°]j W ->c ^ ^a-Lj" £|$eJei j o : ' j oxj ^y no (7) .?. VpaJ| 
3?y n? -Hjo-xxj-utefa -j ^o^> (8) .?.%-"cu -u£ j a5 w irWj w .% if^jai| 
no 3) 3?y Jisfy nonce JUFiei 3| juvV -j £jj i ^-«iv-^ no-" W »w)Ky t ^iTj ^ 
.\ ^y -> nj^ if Vw i iwV wnre Vi IP ^1 w^w ^j* twnw ^w 

I *W)Hy}j newote) 1 iwciwt^ hri-» ^ty^ 'Jl^jl^ iwtSyino-" iw-hxj ?p pi) ) ^a 



183 



. Ch. 57. 
MtBWO -^ i£ iw'oo -hjW lie) l£ KS W^lio -> ai ikm^o iw^lta £i/_r }-o 
ne^ s\S\a - 1 If-fij 'ouw^ -J i^msP iafisap -J j»#)8 -J -»\y vt *P \ro^a (2) 
<&*y iro^ ^aVa -hjW^ WvjIjW ®^ <w iwoo ijW net jpM* J j 
?* » .mwou 'cU 5k? IP e^-w^s" i ^)3 - 1 ii*»i i .". iRj-HJo -vW iw m» 
^nj ff |J»ii i (4) '.WW 4nji i .Mwou -^ isW iw mo_jW_jW mo 
iPte-MOW si ayiw-u ^0*" *ta mo a> lrAity okt i»^ ow W fflKjr tWo t 

Ch. 58. 

■M*WV I »^H 1 Wj W^ WW^ »W KJIIWJ $W _J» *£ -"J 8 IWJ^O (2) 
W3RW-" fiUUU HO if W^KT ->AMJ ■HX5 j O0-W0 -J ^0*1 MOt^ UK)-" ^ J W I (3) 

?!tV) }KT i5 1 1KJK)* 1 Wi ^ M»P JTO *»£ ^tiJ 1W ^ l^- 3 ' ^ "° ,,TO ^ " 0S V 1 " Q5 
n^-CV £ 1 $?oVa ^cenj 13)£ i fro-Va -" Aj TO-" ^?H J MW (4) .*. iww^ 
tf si ^1 i whjo 13 W mo J iTOii^a t^jsi j*Wf J W (5) .\ iwo* 
-i si , ^ jaS r #JJ ^ t3 ij oxs ^f treWv no J MP"? a I M- 32 - 5 ! iWsWy W 

-oip^iai,: D»«X3l5>j| 1WJJ" £ -» *5 I }«Wf - 1 i5 1 IKW1 ^ U^OW MO ST 13^ 

Ch. 59. 
ukjJ» -JKU-^)" ^12\ MO ts «J^||0 si .■. i«ja-"ei ) ire^HO ■fij»_J , _J" ^ (1) 

-us a^ n«Sj»^ ^-"ev \n> lirf iwi&i h if jn^P ?■? ** *P 'W"-" a (2) 
*b)f h iW" ^ s^T » (3) •"■ ^"Pio^ M«Wf w W -Haw-" iw)j) Urjj -j ^ku 

.;. VfJJOJ 13 W MO l^ liBHTJie 1^1 *"! -"H 

f 
Ch. 60. 

,' ir ( -o-di) )«ij)^y J t£ ?£! w-^ia -j as (l) 

\ WjVfS ^JJ )W£$W Mo <)*# iw>"F vf ■Hio^ieco |goajj is #(» 1TOj-"o (2) 
mjj (3) A ^^ KJWfP ^VO ITOM^O t W( I ^tjOl ^ SaJ'" '"W MOP ^* -HJ^ 



184 



■Ha^ll 1WW-" yejipo 'o'iicd no ^iscd -j-kw ■■coxr sit^£ ^«in -J j o^k» "Ok? & 
■H3£l^ -HJ^ R)^* -^J '*IRU t IKJKXJiev JJ]j ^RWJJ>" ) H©|IR)-§ -JJJj J OH$M I ow 

i'i iWr)^> ?av ■« irei^-a jyj -o-mi fp |£ -> (P»As*£ i hokj- 33 w jJ 

Ch. 61. 

■HjJ^ejp 5 i J^-uew i£ i-> rcwo i to^-^p j oop> va j>p» iPCD-ua (2) .*. iwiipo r£ 
.■(jj?.ap> jj , hk1jj£p •« -hj^oj J oi(f si any ^q^ sS ^oop 5 ■») i nw^o 

|# I (K5-HX3 Myysa 1)0 |«? (3) .". ■"OJ-KJKS ^f 1 *')«« 5-^OJ -J URttfO 1 HKM- 33 

Ch. 62. 









no t^w-HM po£ ito-hs^j J* ne-^na y ii .'. ii»(5j-"ei n^no £i i iX> (1) 

« -")» iKJMe (2) .". lWW- 13 W-"* -WO IKJSy ICOOD' tWWJ= jkSSt- 1feA<s ^RM-up» 

en-Hi no -"P no ^ **4 ws^ iwn<s°£e n^-" ^ev ^lev ■hv-^ku-up' i)«i 5««-Dp 
?»jo> ^=) -HiKy iwn-^i ^-"P" tewiei irj-'OjSiv^-" jnj J'Jfj ?vo ^i vg -^j ikjif-^? 
Aj i frjj pn ^ -JJlJ ^k»jj>» K>v w £p£ pc i i^P> ^ (3) .'. iwn^l -^ 

ji jjjjpj jooitr iwry« |£p£ wpv no J oi© 1 ^y (4) .*. tow -to i_r J ^if-^ 

■HX3 "OOJJIO'a i^O^l I 3IPC , W ■»)$ -»ui A i -id ^-^yj ?)5 •* -Hih? ^ /.woe 
j jj)^ no oic % $x\ j> ■*>)$ no »<? i5_j^jj -j <3y|gOJ) .". iP 1 ^ i)Hy j» 
ii ) (5) o ? . ^exyn J-^j iKDii 1 -j iS 5)s v 5ip > _j) ^ey ^j 1 -")^ -hjojc ityo^-" ^^ 

1^1 f W ilPOJTO-JJ OK? J^ )P^-f f Ota J/ f^ 1 DUSy If IIPO ■HjJ-HJKJ » J OJ J (3K3 £)/ )$ 
^]y J-^KJJ) f) |f Bl 1 | ITO^O-" OKX I)" 0)C ^1V)& -• ^(W OfC ^O 1 ■SJOJU' Uw-u 

,^ t _i ip j Jj(3^rki-"P 5 h £ ma i ^upo t^Ho'a i«j^o i -v^ej ) ■hjJ-hjks ^ewo lPj»s* 
^nj j ojm) -^ fi i -"jj* ^-5 to 1 i (6) .'. ifi i ijp ) iejJo no^ ijjho'b iiw-" *?w) jwi-*r> \G 
»)«i'ji>^ i«)-"ey J-tina ^vy 5iw j oo -^ -hs'-^ks no jjej| iwSy- 1 ^ oi ^ !©> hojj ^oji any 



i 



185 



Ch. 54. Pursesh 53. 

J io^o fafv -> l>"W 1 ipVw * *& ( 2 ) •'■ '^jl^ 5 J '-^ &l ^ '*^ ^ '* 
w flcof P >S (3) .". wn«o irets^j .w* ^ W 1 i ^ ^-"J" l*«Jfe l_j£v£ 

,«,j> M «k w -ooAURs my* $iiw ^gy ^«a-"r iw*'£ W* i V^jj ^i (5) 

.*. •& any )\?$o iw^o 1 *-»taj3 -Jiroo i^-" H®f» •"» . -"jy ** ,woo> 

» j' -»ji '..« ^"«W Iff W JiJ J iwv {£ W Wf *? -"I" v*"* ( 6 ) 
w -2y» aw \ ^)& i#oji wow wo ^w w.|j> -«y -W"t>*H -y Si ^j'a'jfpiOi 

4 i 

-o^ra wcta treV lew pa* -jitoo^is' ho Sie^ ^r iwc^ iiw'c lW-^ey inu 3 o »# 15 Jj o» 
Keraeii -> tS <f -okh -tw-^o ^ iwyo *fj iw-^o- ^ *wW^ uewei iwa\ iwe^i -» 

A •hwjjwo r_i^o ^y ■S5 1 ls j er t£ #eoi "01% !.'* ' 

? Vyc *J«i» ^ J ^sec nv« ^ <^w^ i^J j ^' V '«# *o<» j *5»r ?«*! 

.*. n^ ^P 1 j^o* ik»-">" wnel i'^i*) - ^ ' ws \ "^ 

f i (10) .mkjkj^ iwirey ^ jj o>o W najsiwa ' ^ 5 U^ »«»»* * ' '^^ 
, *J«» ^ ^no^ei <^i gJiwi w 3i ii-^sd #o^i •W-e ' iw»V i 5^-^)" J Jj 
^ ,w, ,*nola wo Wewi W no J^ai^ too i MWikp ^ ^ J mtyei 
,(©■ ^ ^ Is rViewi (11) A m»^ij * *»* -^^J ^^ H»w ^ 1 "^^ 
S^r i^vj Jijy >5 -> * Jj o» JJ» -^ «kw w^ J ^^ J 0TO ,tH)00,0, * t*^ JJ JJ I ^ 






186 

eyreV nm*P J, £ i i^ nj^ ^ J )tHy f yrobv ^ «, jl| j ^ w « , re ty 
»W -J -uIjik)^ no -w irVrrj j s5 1 (12-13) .•..^wi ?ii» ipWi ->iw^-*> 1 

jjjj. s-S Li jo^Wjlp #$ ^ -ra V] $ ^ sS , ^ A Jre £^j _, , w „ w r i r , 

■ 

Ch. 56. Pursesh 55. 

(1) . . . . What is adopted-sonship (storih) and (what is) guardianship of the family? 
How can it be (i.e., come into force) ? How should these be appointed ? Whence is it neces- 
sary to provide food and clothing for them ? How should they be (i.e., how should the adopted 
son and guardian behave) ? 

(2) . . . . Adoption takes place when a man of the good religion, nobly born, the servant 
of the emperor, who has no patalchsha wife nor child, nor one appointed (as an adopted son in 
his life-time) nor a brother who (was) a partner, nor an adopted sbn>tor) provided, leaves pro- 
perty producing an income of 60 stirs and dies. 

(3) The chief of the religion (khuiE-dinak) should provide for the management (vinarak) 
of the property of the deceased. 

or ■ 

The controlling (Khutainag) of the property of the deceased and its management should 
be provided. 

or 

The chief of the religion should declare (petdk-Icimishn) one of the family ( 5j>y gohar) 
of the deceased for (the management of) that property : 

and this is called adopted-sonship. Such (a person) should be appointed for it and one who 
is the nearest of the same family who may conduct the namganlhl (of the deceased) and 
may keep up the lineage and property. (4) The guardianship of a family is that when a man's 
wife, or daughter, or infant son is not fit for his or her own guardianship, a guardian of the 
family is to be appointed. 

(5) It is necessary that the adopted-sonship and family guardianship should be appointed 
when they (i.e., those who are entrusted with these functions) are worthy and should be appointed 
at the proper time when the man passes away as is written above. They should be. appointed 
for the places which I have written of ; and to neglect it even a moment (damanak) later than 
the length of a year is not proper.3 

(6) Fit for adoption is a grown-up sister, who is not adopted in another family, then a 
brother's daughter, then a brother's son, and then other nearest relatives. 



l lit., taking and preserving the name (of the deceased) Of. nctma. aghairyat (Farvardin 
Yt. §. 5ft.)- , , ,. ; 

, .Vyo i.e.,, for. the place vacated by the decease of the person; or, , -O-"0 .time i.e.: 
at the proper period after one's death. 

8 i.e., an adopted son or a family guardian should be appointed within the period of a year, 



187 



(7-8) Fit for the family guardianship is first the father who is able.i then a brother, then 
a daughter, and then the other near relatives. Among brothers he who is the eldest is the fittest ; 
(8) and a 'patakhsha who is mistress of the family and an ayok-ayln (i.e., an ayokan woman), 
who are alive, may be adopted (stor-aet). As long as there is an infant son (living),- till he 
grows up, or a daughter of the family, till she goes out (from the family) with her master («** 
till she espouses a husband), so long the guardianship of the family is necessary2: their food 
and clothes (should be provided) out of the property of the family. 

(9) Customarily, the lapfuls and armfuls 3 (i.e., the proper remuneration) of a family 
guardian are 4 Mr,, every month, which is equal to 1G puis. Out of the income or out of the 
capital of the property which remains in the family, food, clothing, medicine and shelter should 
be provided (<mSaMfl«) for any woman if she is capable (of performing the guardianship), 
or,, any house-mistress or any one so that want of nourishment or nakedness (i.e., want of 
garments) or any impropriety rday not overcome them. 

OH. 57. 

(1.) Who is fit for adoption and who is not fit ? 
' (2) An adult who is diligent, intelligent, servant of the king (i.e., one who obeys 

the king), one who expects offspring (i.e.,. not impotent), and who is not a margarzan is fit for 
adoption . . Even if he has accepted one adoption or many adoptions, he is then still fit for another 
adoption. (3) A grown-up woman or even a child is fit for one adoption, and if adopted in one 
family, (the woman or the child) is not fit for another adoption ; but a man is fit (for many 
adoptions). (4) A woman who is a slave or a bondmaid, or non-Aryan, or an mfidel or a 
margarzan is. unfit for adoption; even so are daeva -worshippers, a concubine, or a courtesan, 
and she who is unfit for offering prayers*. 

Ch. 58. . 
(1) How many kinds of family guardianships and adoptions are there ? 

, m IB is said that there are 3 kinds: (1) the existent (butak), (2) the provided 

(kartak) and (3) the appointed (giimdrtak). 

(3) The adopted persons who are existent are such as are his privileged wife or his only 
daughter (ayoh-dym) : they are the adopted persons (stdr) by virtue of their own status (m the 
family), such as happens when there is no wife, or a daughter who has not espoused a husband 
i.e., none has been provided but one such who remains so by virtue of her posvtaon in the 
family. 

(4) An adopted person who is provided is such as has been acknowledged and accepted by 
one oneself (in one's life-time), there being no necessity, therefore, for appointing one (after 
one's death). 

m An adopted pereon who is appointed is he who- is fit for adoption from amongst relatives' 
who are nearest to one for whom the adopted person is to be appointed. The leaders of the 
rel igion should appoint him. The existent family guradian is the son (of the deceased). He 
who is provided with the family guardianship is on. who has been entrusted with the work 
If guardianship (by the deceased) and he who is appointed™ one who has-been appointed front 
persons who are amongst the nearest relativ es (of the deceased). ^ ^ 

x cHr ; i.e., one who can manage the household duties to a fit manner. West -.-Chagar 
i.e., the father of the Chagar-wife. 

2 lit should be brought into operation. 

3 Sinak masai, baza masai : (so translated rightly by Dr. West) i.e., as much as can be 
sufficient to make both ends meet : Of. Vd. 6 § 20 : bam stavaghemva sraom-masanghem va. 

i Yasht an-safiki.e., a woman who is continually m her menses: of. ££l*3 ^ ' I 3 



188; 



Ch. 59* 
(1). For how much property fa it necessary to appoint an adopted son ? 

(2) * . . When the property left by him for -whom it is necessary to appoint an adopted 
son is as much as can produce, 60 stirs of income, it is necessary to- appoint an adopted son for 
him. 

(3) Even if it is less, he who can conduct and accept the adoption for him for whom it is. 
necessary to appoint an adopted son should be appointed, similarly, for adoption. If (the- 
adoption) is not (made) from amongst the relatives (of the deceased), then he who is fittest for- 
adoption (should be appointed). 

Ch.. 60. 
(1 ) "What is. the sin owing to not appointing- fan adoption) ? 

(2). .... It is allowable if he gives up all his- property in righteous gift, and if he- has no, 
property (aer), noadoption should be provided for him, and (the deceased) as well as his. relatives: 
are innocent as regards, it. 

(3) If one takes upon oneself the responsibility of appointing an adopted sonship of the- 
deceased or that one has accepted the position of the adopted -sonship (of the deceased)!, and. 
has taken money for that adopted-sonship, and if the storgar^ i.e., the person who has accepted 
the responsibility of appointing an adopted sonship for the. deceased does not conduct the.adopted 
sonship but destroys the stock of that household and throws away the ndmg&niM and destroys- 
the property and breaks the adopted-sonship,. then, on account of that disobedience {a-bandih). 
one is said to be a. margarjan for every jujmi (i.e., dirham), but it is not said that it. is a sin worthy 
of capital punishment. 

Ch. 61. 

(1) What is the- propriety and impropriety, the merit and demerit of family guardianship ?.' 

(2) .... . . The merit fa the appointment of one who. is more worthy and the acceptance 

(of that function by him) and there is the more merit in bringing it to- peri ection. The demerit, 
is the appointment of one unworthy or of one who has no worthiness ; there is the greater- 
demerit in averting and ruining a fit adoption or family guardianship. 

' 

(3) Who is fit for adoption and who is not I A. grown up person of the good religion, 
industrious, and who is the nearest of the relatives of the ancestors should be appointed as a. 
family guardian. Minute details thereof (are), in the five fargards of the Husparam,. their- 
criticism (giraft) is in many Nasks and the controversies thereabout are in many Dadistan- 
Nameh [or vichir-nameK] i.e.,, books of religious decisions.. 

Ch. 62:. 

(1 ) How stand the- shares in the- inheritance of property among those- of the good religion, 
and how should they abide by it (i.e.,. by the decision about the division). 

(2) .... In one's ownership, one's wealth reaches the- higher and lower (of his kindred) 1 
just as water which runs down the. stream except when the downward passage shall be 
closed and it goes back up the stream* and therefore it cannot flow on to- the end. 



1 i..e., he has himself consented to. become his. adopted son. 

2 The administrator of the household affairs. 

3 i.e., if he does not appoint any one as an adoptive son-,, whose name may he taken, with 
the deceased as his father, in. all ceremonies and in all other transactions. 



* UOK* for yei^ei jreli-ap. or from A v. .»ei^«ij"j»a' 






189 



(3) If the testament or any other thing {i.e., any written declaration), is not in. the midst, 
the property goes to these Uveal, the wife who is alive, the daughter and son. If (the deceased) 
gives anything by will (to some one), then there will not arise a variety (of claims) 
about it. 

U) If shares have not been apportioned {i.e., if the will is not. made), then for one son, 
there is one equal portion and for the patakhsha wife, tiwce as much as the sonsS. For a wife, 
or a son who is blind in both eyes, or crippled in both feet, or maimed (avgdr) m both hands, 
it is necessary that his or her share be twice as much as one who is sound. 

(5) If that (deceased), who had the guardianship as. that of a pater jamilias, leaves (after 
him) a father or a mother who is decrepit or able {Mr) or who has been deprived of maintenance 
without him (because he is dead) and has been deprived of a guardian, or if he has an mfant 
brother or sister [or, father]* who has been deprived of maintenance without him and has 
been deprived of a guardian, then a man who is capably equipped with guardianship and shelter 
and nourishment should be indispensably (appointed) so that from the inheritors of hrm who 
has accumulated the wealth, he may be bound by duty* (parizvanik), as much as is indispensably 
necessary. 

(6) If that (deceased) person has no son but a daughter or wife and apart from that persons, 
if these women are unfit for guardianship, then it is necessary to appoint a. family guardian. 
But if he has no wife or daughter, it is necessary to appoint an adopted son. This, w„ 
when it is necessary to appoint a family guardian and who is the fittest, and when it is 
necessary to appoint an adopted son and who is the fittest, is written in the chapters on the- 
question. 



Ch. 53. 



(1) A man has a wife and many daughters, sisters and relations; he has much wealth and 
that master becomes sick. During the sickness he gives the wealth he has amassed to one- 
daughter (2) His sisters and other daughters are not unanimous about it. They say : "Tins, 
wealth ought to have been given in sound state and copiousness, not in sickness, and now 
it is not allowables give anything whatever to anyone during sickness, because, whatever 
thing it may be, the whole wealth comes, back for division amongst us. ' (3) Would 
■ it be allowable to give anything whatever of that wealth to any one, during sickness, 
or not ? 

(4) Out of that wealth, how much should go to each of the wife, daughter and sister I Is. 
it necessary to appoint an adopted son or not ? 



l 3 TOp« {Se-ganak) : or, ab-o-shui 6*. the father or husband, i.e., the living wife, 
daughter and son of the father and husband should get the property. 









2 •KXW Per. ^ijf way, mode. 

3 i.e., the son gets one portion and the mother, two. 

4 This is redundant, as it occurs above. 

5 So. to execute the duties of guardianship. 

■ 

6 f (?) or, for that person. 



190 

(5) Are the wife, daughters and sisters who shall take their shares of the wealth responsible 
for all religious rites. Is it necessary for them to order the rojgdi-l- ceremony and the yearly 
(salvar) ' ceremonies ? 

(6) When there is nothing on account of which I (may form an opinion) otherwise, then 
I deem so that the man who is in sickness upto his passing away, it is not allowed to give any- 
thing, because he has incurred debts or that he has a wife, child or father who is in his guardian- 
ship, and whom it is indispensably necessary to maintain, or because as much as is indispensably 
(avadhirashnilc) necessary for the redemption of debt or for the food, maintenance and protection 
of those that I have written about (should be set apart) ; then if he has given something 
during his own consciousness exoept (blran) to those for whom it is written (above), it i» 
allowable. 

(7) In other sickness, not leading to his death, whatever he himself gives during conscious- 
ness is allowable, but if he is not conscious, it is not allowable. (8) One should not rely on 
what he utters during unconsciousness and it is not reliable ; during consciousness what that 
man ordered (something) to be given to the daughter when he was ill, should be put into force 
if it is given (only) in his senses : if given by him during unconsciousness, it is just as though he- 
had died intestate (an-andarj), and his wealth left without will. 

(9) (From the property left without will), one share is necessary for each daughter who 
•has not espoused a husband and two shares for a pataJchsha wife ; so long as the wife is living, 
as she is the house-mistress of the family, it is not necessary to appoint an adopted son, for the 
duty of the adopted son remains with her and from amongst the relatives, a man nearly allied 
should be found out who conducts the family guardianship. 

(10) Out of the income of the property, it is his duty to provide food and maintenance 
of the wife and daughters until they marry and they should be under the guardianship of 
and maintained by, that man. The ceremonies and good works which are the duties of him 
who is appointed over the family should be made progressive by him and he himself should take 
what is necesary2 for himself from the income (of the property). 

(11) If the sisters of that man— except that the man has made a will otherwise— have 
not espoused husbands, they should be under the guardianship of that man on account of their 
having no property ; or if anything else is contrariwise to it, nothing whatever of the property 
of that man is needful for them3. If it is necessary to maintain them, they should be under 
the guardianship of that man ; in no other way, can they have (a share of) the property ; their 
food and maintenance are needful to be from the income of the property. (12) If the daughters 
have not espoused husbands as they ought to espouse with the permission of the family guardian 
or with the concurrence of the house-mistress and if no child, therefore, is born to them and 
if a daughter dies thus without being provided with a husband, then another daughter who is 
not provided with a husband is (called) aevak-ae (i.e., yukan) and she should be kept subject 
to the house-mistress by that man (i.e., by the guardian). That (daughter), ought to perform 
the function of an adopted son for him (i.e., for the deceased father). If she espouses a husband 
in this state of her adopted-sonship, then only the wealth (of the father) comes over into her 
possession. When the house-mistress of the family dies, the daughters who are provided with 
husbands should appoint her (i.e., an unmarried daughter) for -the adopted-sonship (of the 
father or of the house-mistress). 



l ^^(D^ei for pa(van) rujgdr. The ceremony to be performed' on the proper day 
of the month on which death has occurred. 

3 Sinak masai baza masai : lapfuls and armfuls. (See note above). 
3 i.e., they cannot be under the guardianship of that man. 



191 



cf. Sis. XII § 14 :— 

no p ^-5 -j jJ iwi)"jS -^ey 5i>S)a , Joi5 ne j j^ iwoi£ ikxj^i e; £v jxy (14) 
-i^K^-Hm no i iJTO^iv Wo ^ R>^ -J^w -^i i£ -J -5-5 i ar mwitf -»Jj -"O^a 
ii^ iwou -^ lie^i 1 ©^ if^ij \ ne-tjo -oio ®.^ £jj ' .£» isoo-u^ i^jiw^ ftae^ 
.'. iw-u vn^-f -hji^j no ^s^ SrSiej lf^K! S/J-^t 1 •*> *\xx \m\'4 ^ MP 

(14) One (subject) is this : Those who have wedded a chagar wife, if an offspring is born 
of her, shall better accept all the males as sons, but those who are females are of no advantage ; 
because an adopted son is required ; and in the 14th (fargard) of the Husparam (Mask), the 
Dasturs have taught thus : " My son is suitable also as thy son, but my daughter is not suitable 
also for thy daughter." There are many who do not appoint an adopted son with (this) idea-. 
" We have accepted a c/jogar-child as an (adopted) son." ■• . 

Sis. X § 21 :— 

■Cm^Sy no ^ mWt ire^i \\r\ktf ^©y -> ^\a no ^ fa jk; (21) 

-^ (OT <S^ tO 1 ) 1 ^1 lW^'OO fu 9$* 'ftj t «£ KOU-^Sy ]PjW*> 4Y-»0*T -j }■»! 

•• .' w , 

(21) One is this that one should be careful in accepting the child of a chagar -woman ; for' 
in the 14th (fargard) of the Husparum Nask the Dasturs have taught thus : My son is suita'ble 
also as thy son, but my daughter is not suitable also as thy daughter, i 

Cf. Sis. 10 § 22 :— 

-ud -Hjar)* ^at$ ^o^o oio' -wotr-^ Si^io no iw^jw J'o* tn fa W (22) . 
iiw-" \r notitri 6u -> ^o^ i ^j va. isoo-"^ ip^jiw^ ■fiteKvi f*i no tf 
^ a f js ^«)o nwge no .'. jd£>» <?)j $om -j^ no -wf noe^ nenm 

°» tWn«>o -hj^oi ») j^» -> \jwP$ 

(22) One is this that one should exert oneself in the begetting of children, or for the acquisi- 
tion of abundance of good, works, because in the Nahadum Nask, the high -priests have taught 
that the duty and good works which a son performs are such as though the father does them 
by his own hands. In the Damdad Nask it is manifest thus : " The mother, too, appropriates 
the merit in the same proportion as the father." 

In India, , if a man dies childless, it is the general practice to appoint an adopted son for 
him. This is regarded as highly meritorious, inasmuch as it is believed by the common people 
that the adopted son is instrumental in making the deceased cross the Chinvat Bridge at the 
dawn of the fourth day. (See Saddar Nasr, Ch. 18 and Saddar Bundehesh, Ch. 62). Cf. pp. 
82-83 of " The Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees " by Dr. J. J. Modi. See also, 
the Introduction. 



i i.e., the son of a chagar-viiie by her first husband may be adopted by her second husband, 
but not her daughter by her first husband. 



192 

The age of betrothal and marriage. 

MU. I, p. 177, U. 4-5= H. F. f. 263 and f. 221. 

Kamdin Shapur : — Q. — How old should a girl be to be fit for betrothal \ 

A. — It is not proper that she may be betrothed before she is 9 years old, as it 
is so enjoined, in the religion. 

It is said in the religion that a girl 9 years old should be betrothed and then 
(when she is) 13 years old, she should be espoused to a husband. (This period) may 
be greater but not less. If it is less, then every time (that this is done) the parents 
commit a farman sin. 

MU. I, p. 177, 11. 7-8. 

Bahman Punjya :— Again it is (so) represented (to us i.e., to the congregation 
of Persia) that a young girl two or three years old is espoused to a husband. This is 
not good. The injunction of the religion is such that when a girl or a boy arrives at 
puberty i.e. when they are 14 years old and not less than 12 years old, it is proper 
that they should be married. 

MU. I, p. 177, 11. 10-11. 

Shapur Bharuchi :• — A girl who is 9 years old should be betrothed, and then she 
should be espoused to a husband when she is 13 years old. (This period) may be 
greater* but not less. If it is less, then every time (this is done), the parents com- 
mit a farman sin. 

MU. I, p. 177, U. 11-12. 

Suratya Adhyarus : — Q. — Can a girl be betrothed to a husband and married 
before she approaches her menstruous state, or after she is (for the first time) in 
menses ? 

A.— A girl 9 years old should be betrothed and a boy 14 years old should be. 
married. 2 After (her first) menstruous period, a girl should be married, 

MU. I, p. 177, U. 1449. 
I 
Shapur Bharuchi /—Again, a girl from 9 to 12 years old should be s betrothed 

i.e. joined in Wedlock. When the girl advances in years and says : " This husband 
is not worthy of me and I am not pleased with him," she is margarjan and if she is 
betrothed i.e., joined in wedlock, and if her husband dies, that daughter is a chagar 
girl and the marriage ceremony of a chagar Wife should be performed 4 on her (if she 
remarries). 

It is so manifest in the religion that any woman who espouses a husband should 
say to him : " Make me participate in the meritorious deeds you do." She should 
serve her husband and under any circumstances should please him but should not 
displease him. 

1 MU. *t 1 "' S&X — better ^M J&ki (See MU. p. 177 h 5). 

2 AiJ*i lo^- AS — \&a. &$ jss a bridegroom ; a married man. 

3 *Jjf A for »;>!/ M i S.D.B. (No. 235) *f.lj*r — MU. om. 



193 

If there is a girl who has reached a marriageable age 1 but if she does not espouse 
a husband, then every time that she is in menses, it is a sin of one tandfur and she is 
margarjan at 15 tanafurs' (worth of sin). If the father does not give her away (in 
marriage), the father is a sinner ; and if the mother does not marry her to a husband, 
the mother is a sinner. (In such a state), at the 15th monthly course, they (i.e. 
the parents as well as the daughter) become margarjan. 

On negotiating marriage-contract. 

MU. I, p. 179, 1. 2. 

Dastur Barzu : — Women cannot give away (their) daughters (in marriage) to 
the husbands. If the daughter is fatherless, she should marry with the permission* 
of the uncle, or, on consultation with a person who is nearly allied to her in lineage 
and descent. 

MU. I, p. 179, 11. 4-13= H. P. f. 96 & f. 125. 
Kama Bohra : — Q. — A man sends a message to another man and asks his daugh- 
ter in marriage. The father of the girl says : " Let me think over it." After the 
lapse of a short time, the father of the girl sends a person after the messenger to say 
thus : " If my daughter receives 2000 dirams in dowry, I will give her to him." 
The messenger goes away and communicates (his message) to the man who wishes 
to espouse a wife. The latter says : " Those 2000 dirams which he speaks of, I will 
give as a dowry to his daughter." The messenger returns and says to the father 
of the girl : " (All is) well 3 ." The messenger further asks him whether he will then 
give his daughter to him. The father of the girl says : " Had I not consented to 
give my daughter to him, I would not have asked for the dowry 4 ." When several 
other days pass by, the father of the girl becomes penitent and wishes to give his- 
daughter to another man. What is the decision about it ? 

A. If this man 5 has committed 6 any crime which involves his soul into it, 
or, if he has spoken 7 (to any one) about a certain crime which he had committed,, 
then that daughter should never be taken from him. 8 Otherwise, if it happens 
that that daughter is taken back from him, and given away (in marriage) tc 
another, or that the person who asks her (in marriage) and the person who gives 
her (in marriage), or that the person who- intercedes 9 for them, or the person 
who gives them permission (to contract the marriage) , or the person who marries 
them or the person who is agreeable (to such marriage) — all these are margarjan 
from year to yearK>. If any contract is made (by a person) thus : " I will give such 

1 lit., who shall be given away in marriage to a person. 

2 d)4jJ lit., (with the words uttered) by the tongue. 

3 i.e., the terms are settled. 

4 After ^+^^=.5 better add, as in H.F., BK. ,^+i.w l_>=J ^Jjlf ^ jj\ b\Z. In thsr 
words the would-be father-in-law wants to fulfil his contract. 

5 i.e., the father of the girl. 8 MU., H.F. &J& f or ^j.£j ?_ ^liw for l5 .jii«,_ 

8 i.e., if it is found that the father of the girl is a criminal, then the contract is null and 
void, i.e., no one should espouse his daughter. 
8 Who speaks on their behalf, is a go-between. 
1° \j Jl.w = JL« j i= for ever ; from year to year : 



19-1 

and such daughter to such and such a person," and the person who asks her (in mar- 
riage) and the person who has (the guardianship of) the daughter says that he will 
give her (in marriage) and, thereafter, if either of the two become penitent, then 
those who become penitent are margarjan 1 and he who assists in this affair is 
margarjan except that a great crime (in the meanwhile) is committed by the girl or 
the man, which brings on repentance. 

MU. I, p. 179, U. 14-19 to p. 180, 11. 1-4— H. F. f. 140. 

Kaus Kama : — Q. — A man asks the daughter of another man in marriage. The 
father of the girl says that he will give her (in marriage) and does not say that he 
will not give her (in marriage). When 2 some time passes by, (the father of the girl) 
goes to the messenger and says to this person : " I will give my daughter to him, if 
he gives 2000 dirams to her in dowry." The messenger goes away and communi- 
cates (the message) to the person. That person replies : " I will give 2000 dirams 
in dowry." The messenger returns and says this to the father of the girl and asks 
him whether he will give his daughter to that person. The father says : "Had I 
not consented to give my daughter to him, I would not have asked for the dowry." 
The messenger goes away and informs that person of it. (Thereafter) the father of 
the girl repents of what he has said and says : " I will not give my daughter to him, 
but to another person." What is the decision about it ? 

A.— You say that the daughter is the (would-be) spouse of the person you 
speak of {i.e. of him who has already made the contract with his father-in-law). 
Therefore it is not permissible to offer her to another 3 (in marriage), but the father 
of the girl should go and ask what fault is committed by that man, and should lis- 
ten to what he has to say (thereanent). If it is (the case) that the latter has gone 
beyond the injunction of the religion and the father of the girl is not informed of it, 
he should make enquiries about it 4 ; for if one has espoused 5 a wife, 'then if the hus- 
band is out of (the pale of) the religion, the wife also is out of its pale. If (the man) 
has not committed a crime, or, if he has committed it but is absolved therefrom by 
repentance, then that daughter is the wife of the person 6 mentioned by you T , just 
as you have spoken of it. (Thereafter) if any one takes exception (to such a match) 
or she is given away to another (in marriage) or if any (other) person wants her (in 
marriage) or one who intercedes so that she is given away to another person (in 
marriage), or if even the daughter is agreeable to it, or the person who ratifies such 
marriage, — all these become margarjan from year to year, and anything given by 
the parents out of the property they possess 8 is not meritorious 9 . 

1 HF. adds i>* tD^jj'S after <Jj»» y'*^, 

2 MU. ^j^— better HF. mfa ^ 
8 MU. ^Sj-H.F. Jn y^U 

* o.-wyA.o yiiu ___,->, j Cf . y *•!(.») ^.'ii.w. ^.j to understand ; to be intelligent or 
<__,**>? w &«ji to begin a speech. 
5 lit., is sitting with a wife. 

o'-'MU. ^vo— better H.F. it < 

■ ■ ■ 

1 i.e., the person to whom 2000 dirams are to be given in dowry. 



MU. (jij^-i. } / JL»jji — better H.F. y£.j^ &.»U* 






8 alii_j.il lit., gift" given to the righteous. 



195 
Five kinds of marriage. 



i 



MU. I, p. 180, 11. 9-19 to p. 182 11. 1-13-H. F. f. 139, 1. 199. 

Kaus Karm, Maneck Changa and Kaus K<mdin>:-Q. -There are 5 kinds of 
wives described in the religion : 

(1) The Padshah.***, (2) Ayuk or Ztowife; (3) &«ife; (4) «.-wife; 
.(5) Khudash-rai-vrile. 

A -A Padshah (lit., ruling or privileged) wife is this :-When she -goes to her 
husband's house, she belongs to her husband in this world and the next world, and 
Iry notorious deed done by the children she give, birth to is such as though rt 
had Len done by the father with his own hands and everythmg belongs to hini 
(i.e. the father). 

A Yukan (i.e. only) wife is this :-A father has an only daughter and, further ' 
he has no son. This girl should be given as the ^ta-wife to a person for the 
release of his (soul)* but he should be so married after (her father s) death The 
parents of this woman who brings forth children have a share m this meritoriou 
act, but this (married ayukan) girl should be given one share out of W from her 
father's patrimony, and (the rest of) the property belongs to her children. 

A SaW-wife is this : A man 15 years old dies ; he is not married. It is incum- 
bent « on his relations that they should sympathise with his soul. They should give 
money to a girl and should marry her to a person in the »-ship (of that dead man) 
so that in the other world he may have* this wife and (a share in) her chrkhen. As 
for the children born to the person who marries her, one share belongs to that (dead) 
person in whose aotor-ship * she may be and one share belongs to the (living ) per- 
son 8 to whom she is married as the satar of that (dead person). 

A Chalcar-wiie is this : If a woman Is married and her husband dies, and if this 
woman is remarried, then she must be remarried as the ctekat (servant ?) , ol her 
former husband, and this woman belongs to the former husband m that world, who 
has a share in her children (by the second husband). 

A Khudash-rai-riie is this : There is a girl. She is betrothed to a man by her 
father, and the girl says : « I do not want (to marry) him, but I shall be the wife of 
such and such a person." But the father does not consent to this. Thenat is neces- 
sary that the Dasturs may marry her to that person whom that girl has spoken of 
as a Khudash-rai-zan. . ( 

1 B. 60 which gives Kaus Kamdin>s Bivayet in extenso, does not give this. 

2 MU. ^aj-H-F- (A* ' ■ . 

3 uJ or" as in Maneck Changa or Kaus Kamdin JU„j The Gujrati translator 
(Darab^Hormazdyar) so translates this obscure word. Perhaps, i^J^J as m BK 

4 MTJ.&H.F. ' astf^ ( so Kaus Kama and KaUS Kamdin); bett6r aS m MaMCk " 
Changa g^jtf /«*i 

5 MU", HF.. o-wj-T33 u**te.lj 

6 ix ., can claim. ■ ' 

7 LSJJ^ P * Abstract). 

8 i.e., her husband in this world. 



196 

A Khudash-rdi (woman) is one who marries of her own accord ; but she is not 
honoured before God. The offspring bom of her, if it be a son, should give his 
mother as a ^MA-wife to his fatheri and (all) the children bom of her will be 
regarded as ^MA-children *; but let it be known that this Khudsardi (wife) gets 
nothing of the patrimony of her parents. 

The marriage-ceremony and the dowry. 

MU. I, p. 182, 11. 15-19 to p. 183 1. 1— H. P. f . 264. 

Kamdin Shapur .-Q.-Make known how the marriage ceremony is performed t 
In what way should it be done 1 

A.-When a girl attains to puberty, one should go to her father, if he is alive 
If she has not, one should go to her brother who may have been (alive). If even 
sue has no brother, one should go to the person whom her father has appointed as 
ner guardian If (a guardian) has not been appointed, one should go to her near 
elatives and ask (the girl in marriage). When the marriage ceremony is to be per- 
formed three married men (kad-khudd) should go and first ask the consent of the 

Sr^T * h !r iSei f ° f the GMei «* *» *™0 *»** beasked,4andthe (right) 
hand (of the father-in-law) should be put into the (right) hand of the son-in-L. 
The pnest should put them questions (about the marriage) and give them advice 
and admonitions and ask them to appoint one of the (seven) Amshaspands (for 
guidance) They should be asked to appoint a Dastur as their religious head, and 
,ney should accept a wise man as guiding them to wisdom. Then they should per- 
xormPatet. The rest of the explanation is written in the Avesta.s 

MU. I, p. 183, 11. 3-4. 

Kaus Kamdm :-Q.-About tying the marriage knot. Who should tie it ? 

rt. n "T^ . P6rf0rming &e marria S e e ™ony no person will do other than a wor- 
thy Dastur („ priest) who has been initiated a Navar (i.e. qualified as a priest)" 
who has himself been married, and who has been the master of a family.* 

MU. I, p. 183, 11. 6-10. 

Nariman Hoshang :-Q.-Another announcement is this : a question had been 
asked whether the tnahr (i.e. the marriage gift settled upon the wife) is (declared) 
in the good religion of the Mazdayasnans. 



b^£2ffiK3? b6 «"* marriSd *° ** h " B* **. *«*> as a Sm ., an 
2 i.e., children born of a Padshah-zcm or Shah-zan. 
SHB.MU.^Oi BK.aadV33.X03 (^"'to)^ nearer in descent 

MU. V^flS^^^**^ FW thB mar " age C6rem0ny aS Perf0rmed * ^ See 

6 /WjjjU also means, 'who has performed the greater Khub Ceremony. 

7 l*L tf (ka d-khud a ). fc Nowsad and S6veral other plaees; . t . s st . u th0 ^^ 

ulmls SSlltt ^ P6rf ° rm marHage Cer6m ° nieS - * ^ tWM » ke ft??"* ^s 



197 

A.— In this quarter (i.e. in Persia) the mahr is (thus) announced : do hazar 
diram sim sapid vizah to do dinar zar-i surkh sara Nishapuri 1 i.e. 2000 dirams of 
white and pure silver and two dinars of red gold of the Nishapur currency. This is 
so given in the aqd-nameh (i.e. the marriage contract). Let it be known that it 
should be recited thus. 

Q.— Is the mahr (marriage gift settled upon the wife) to be pronounced accord- 
ing to the religion, 2 and do those who pronounce it as do hazar diram, &c, hand 
it over to the son-in-law along with the daughter ? 3 

A.— The case is other than this that it (should be given) along with the wife 
(to the son-in-law). It is proper that what one likes, and what one can afford, 4 
and can acquiesce in may be given. 5 

MU, I, p. 183, 11. 10-11 [MU. II, p. 479]. 

Suratya Adhyarus .-—The mahr (marriage-gift) or the dowry 6 or the marriage 
portion which the husband has consented (to settle) on the wife, but which the wife 
gives away to the husband and bestows it on him, is allowable. 

■ 

The Status of the five kinds of wives under different circumstances. 

MU. I, p. 183, U. 13-15— H. F. t 76 & f. 77. 

Kama Bohra ; — Q. — Who is a padshah-wife ? 

A.— There is a man who has both sons and daughters. 7 If he has a son, then 
the daughter (when married, with the consent of her father) is the pddshah-wiie (of 
her husband). 

Q.— A man has a padshah-wiie. The man turns a Musalman 8 . If the wife 
marries another person, what is (her status) ? 

A.— She is (to be regarded as) a padshah-wtie. She cannot be a cliagar- 

wife. 

MU. I, p. 183, 11. 16-19. 
Slvapur Bharuchi :— If a person turns a Musulman, his wife should not re-marry 
for one year. If, within the year, (the husband) becomes repentent and is convert- 
ed back to the religion, she should be constant to him, but if he does not revert to 
the religion after the lapse of a year, he becomes margmjan and thereafter if the 
wife re-marries, the marriage blessings of a Shdh-zan s hould be pronounced on her . 

1 This stereotyped phrase is also recited in all marriage benedictions in India. 

2 i.e., is it mentioned in the marriage ceremony ? 

3 for eJi't 3 better MU. II p. 385 e^i i.e., whether the nwriage portion should be 
given by the wife to the husband or by the husband to the wife. 

4 jj-y-wi within one's power. 

5 *5jT (£*> f^ *<&i lit., may be accomplished. 



6 J.'*-' dowry. 

i'Jabt =j^-boHiBnd^ = to him (This Rivayat was originally in Avesta 
characters) see H.P- . 

8 H.F. gives this word in Avesta characters. 



198 

Q.— If, by chance, a Behdin turns away from his religion;, and turns W, an d 
is admitted into, another religion, (what is the decision^? '■ 

A.— When he is quit 2 of the religion, his wife' is quit 3 (of his company) in this 
vorld and the next. Any Behdin can 4 marry her and she is a padshah-wi£e: 

MU. I, p. 184, 11. 2-3. 

Bdhman Punjya :— A daughter whose father is living' is (regarded as) a pad- 
shah-wife, if married. 

She whose husband is dead is a Ghagar-mie (if re-married). 

She who has no father or brother is ayuls-mio (if married). She (who marries) 
Without the consent of her parents is Khud-saUr-zari* wi& she is.called ' jeh '« in reli 
gion. 

MU, I, p. 184, 11. 5-10— H. F. f. I77UM 
Kama Bohra.— Q.— Who is an Ayuk-zan ? r > ..,„.„.■.•> 

A.— If a man has no son ,b,ut has- a daughter, then that daughter is ayuk-zan 
The property and wealth of] the father and the whole patrimony go to that ayuk 
daughter. If (the father) has many daughters, but has no son, then one daughter 
who is a great friend of the soul,- well-behaved? and mare W>d in religion should be 
given m marriage as an Ayuk-zan, and the whole patrimony will go to. that daughter. 
Again, if an Ayuk daughter marries and if God gives her .a son, then when that 
son attains to 15 years, his mother « may be given in marriage (again) to the father 
as a paffaMA-wife, 9 and that 'son should be (regarded)' as the son of the (maternal 
grandfather and (grand) mother and the property and patrimony of the (maternal) 
grand-father and grand-mother should go to him. He should be the " mtar ' (or, 
adopted son) of his maternal grand-father and grand-mother. 

But, if the (ayuk) daughter does not give birth to a son but gives birth to dau°h- 
ters, then one .daughter should be married as the ■ ayuk.- (grand-daughter) of the 
(maternal) grand-father and grand-mother and another daughter should be married 
as the ayuk (daughter) of her own father, and one (more) daughter (should be ap- 
pointed) as the satar (or, adopted child) of her own father. 

MU. I, p. 184,11. 12-17, , s ,| :, ; . 

Shapur Bhamchi :-A person has two male children, and has one daughter. 

This daughter has been married to a husband. When that person (i.e. the father) 

dies, (it is known that) one son has turned Mussalman and - another son who had 

gone on a journey had died there. The (living) daughter beco mes ayuk™: If she 

1 S.D.B. (No. 235) has j only for t j*j ~" ~~ 

2MU. (jLh for uS. •"— S-D.B. (No. 235) A&& for "yJJ 
3 S.D.B. on. JjfH 1 MU. ftJ&fUg . and S.D.B. ^U &X \j^ .. 
5 lit., a woman who is her own guardian. 

« <* lit., is a courtezan : here an opprobrious epithet for a woman who disobeys her parents, 

7 J"V better , .. ■ ■ 

8 i.e., the ayuk- daughter. 

of hi h ^T th i ^T 6 Wl J en -^ r ^^fi 15 y*">. W" mother is to be the pddsMh-wile 
01 her husband, and not aw/S/c-wife. - 

onher.'' 6 " S Sh6 ^ maiTi6d t0 a P61 ' SOn ' th6 06remon y o£ an oyuk-wiie should be pronounced' 



199 

(marries and) gives birth to a son, he> should be appointed as the satar (or, the adopt- 
ed son) of her father. If. this is not done, she is margarjan. If she appoints (her 
son as a satar), then she is (regarded) as the sMh-zan of her husband. 

If there is a daughter who is not betrothed and her parents are dead, then the 
marriage ceremony of a ayuk-za® should be pronounced on that daughter (if she 
marries). If any one pronounces the marriage-blessings of a Shah-am on her, 
he is a margarjan. 

MU. T, p. 184, 1. 19 to p. 185, 11.— 1-5— H. P. £ 91 & f . 76. 

; . . . ■. , . : .I,''. 

Kama Bohra :— Q.— There is a man who has been married to a woman who 
is a satar (or, adopted child) of another person. 1 She has been endowed with wealth 
on account of her being, the, Sfflfcwwoman (of the dead person). Can the. husband 
of this woman spend anything from' the (wife's), patrimony, : whether forBehdinsor 
for juddins ? What is the decision I ■ '. amU ,nu> ; o:! nJ 

A. — If he lays out the capital sum and spends the income on his children, or 
on the^Behdins, or: in doing duties and good works, and preserves the patrimony, it 
is allowable. J s<< ' ' •••' ' '• 

Q. — A man takes to wife the daughter of a person. He asks her of her father 
but has no witness thereof. He has not taken her (as yet) to his house. The man 
(i.e. the would-be husband) dies'. What is the decision about' the daughter ? 

A. — When he has asked for the' daughter from' the father, then if there be a 

witness or not, that daughter w.chagar* when' the man goes to the spiritual world 

i.e. dies. " i •- u 

I ,■■ • ■• " ' hi ■ . ■" 

MU. I, p. 185, 11. 7-8. 

Shapur Bhamchi .-—A daughter. has been betrothed (to a person). The (would- 
be) husband dies before being : married. When that . daughter marries (another 
person), the mahr should be pronounced as in the case of a cliagar-zan, i.e. the mar-, 
riage blessings should.be pronounced as in the case of a chagar-zan. 

■ ■•■'.' 

MU. I, p. 185, 11. 10-12. 

I ' 

Kaus Kamdin 3 (not Kaus Kama):— Q— When a Behdin dies, then. after what, 
time should his wife remarry ? 

A —A woman whose husband dies should remarry after 4 months and 10 days, 
if she has no children ; but if she has a suckling child it is proper that she should" 
remarry aftef'18 months. - If she has no hopes of the procreation of children, it is., 
evident in the religion that it is not proper for her to remarry.. 



1 and in consequence she has inherited the patrimony of him whose satar she is. 

2 i.e., the marriage ceremony of a chagar-zan and not a padshah-zan should be pronounced 
onher. ,,,.,. 

3 So E60. • • ■ . ' " 



200 

MU. I, p. 185, 11. 14-19 to p. 186 1.1— H. F. f. 97, f. 126. 

Kama Bohra:— Who should be the guardian of a chagar-zan ?i 

A.— A chagair-zan may appoint her own guardian. (Such a person appointed 
by her) should be her guardian. 

If even a daughter, when her father or brother wants to give her (in marriage) 
to a person, does not wish (to wed) such a person, they should not give her (in mar- 
riage to that person). 

If a daughter wants to marry a person, and if her father and brother do not 
consent to it, she can marry that person but she cannot be married as a pddsMh-zan. 
She can be married as a Khudash-rai-zan. Khud-ba-rai i.e. ( a woman) married to a 
person of her own accord 3 . She cannot have anything of her parent's patrimony. 
If they give her (any patrimony of their own accord), it is allowable. If it so hap- 
pens that a daughter is married to a person as a Khud-ba-rai (i.e. of her own accord), 
and if she gives birth to a son, then when the son attains to 15 years, his mother 
should be given in marriage to his father as a pddshdh-wiie. 

Q.— There is a chagar-woman (i.e. her husband is dead). Some persons ask her 
in marriage, but she does not wed any husband. What is the decision ? 

A.— If a person asks her (in marriage) in the proper way and if she does not 
marry him, that woman is a margarzan. But if she marries, then the margarzan sin 
does not arise. If no one wants her, then that is another matter. 






MU. I, p. 186, 11. 3-5— H. F. f . 141. 

Kaus Kama :— Q.— Can the guardian of a chdgar-woman be the brother of that 
woman, or, can one be appointed from the family of her husband ? 

A.— There should be no guardian of a cMgrar-woman. What can a brother do 3 
in this matter. 

Q.— If a clidgar- woman sits in seclusion 4 and a man comes and wants her (in 
marriage), and she does not wed him, what is the decision ? 

A.— If she does not marry, she is a margarjan. Even the father who has a 
daughter arrived at puberty, and who is not given in marriage by him although she 
is 50 years old, is margarjan. 

MU. I, p. 186, 11. 7-8— H. F. f. 76. 
Kama Bohra .'—Who is a chagar (woman) ? 

A.— There are a husband and his wife. That wife is a padshdh-wiie. Then 
if the husband dies, and the woman remarries, she is chagar-wile. 

1 i.e., when a woman wanta to remarry as the chagar-wiie of another, then who should 
hand he» over to the husband ? Does she require the permission of any person in her house so 
that she may be re-married. 

2 C*£J saying; opinion. 

3*. Hi., be i.e., a chagar-zan has no need to appoint a guardian. She can, of her own 
accord, remarry another person. 

J *" veil: l - iL > aits putting on a veil. The practice in India waB that a woman who 
had lost her husband kept herself secluded for nearly a year. 



201 

MU. I, p. 186, 11. 8-9— H. F. f. 200. 
Manech Changa .-—If a person marries a chagar-woram as a padshah-vriie, 
then all those who are concerned in this matter shall have been margarjan, after a 
year. All are margarjan except when she is given (in marriage) as a ckagar (wife) 
before another year.i 

MU. I, p. 186, 11. 11-13— H. F. f . 264. 
Kamdin Slmpur :— Q.— If the husband of a woman dies, can the woman remarry 

or not ? 

A.— It is proper for every person that he should exert himself and give assistance 
(in such a case) so that she may remarry. Perhaps there may arise procreation of 
children, and the continuation of the pedigree and when there is the procreation of 
children, and if righteousness is practised in that family, the person who has exerted 
himself (in this matter) has a share therein. 

MU. I, p.. 186, U. 15-17— H. F. f. 395. 
Bahman Punjya :— If a woman's husband dies, and if she can be given in mar- 
riage to another, she is (called) a cMgar-wiie upto the time when she procreates a 
(male) child. (That male child), should be the satar (i.e. the adopted son) of her 
first husband. 2 If the wife of a person dies, and if that man weds a cMgar-wiie, 
then it is aUowable if the woman be old in years and the man young in years. If 
that man weds a wife who is more advanced in years (than he), it is allowable. 
MU. I, p. 186, 1. 19 to p. 187 11. 1-3. (MU. II, p. 444.] 
Dastur Barzu .—It is allowable to wed a chagar-vtomm. Although she be older 
or younger than the husband, it is allowable. 

A.— If the wives of those who have absented themselves (for a long time) and 
have returned at last 3 have, contracted remarriage (with others), it is necessary that 
if they have children by the chagar husbands, 4 they should at once leave them with 
the cJiagar-i&thers and the first husband should tie the marriage knot 
anew of a shah-zan, with his own wife and should have his own wife in his control. 
But if that woman has become pregnant by the cltagar-hMsb&n.d, the first husband 
should not consort with her. No sooner does she give birth to a child than it should 
be entrusted to the chagar.kasba,nd and thereafter the first husband should tie the 

marriage-knot afresh with his wife and have he r in his possession. ___ 

l i.e., the mahr of a chagar-mie should be pronounced on her, and not of a padshah-wiie. 

E\orMU.,HF. (jpH &' b - J&t J U BK. has &»&** *$jH l5 JU 
a J, | ,*j lit., first father. 

3 J'sJI lit-, now ; at present. 

4 i.e., the second husband. 

s The question to this Answer ib given only in BK., (pp. 286-87) thus : — 
JU Aia.j o.ij Jj.i u*A*J A«.!i! ij*- j,tS> 15k 3 " J'-Ji is*?*?- <■ &»*£ 
yj^J o«»l tiy jl 4 ^A ? 15^ 4JH8 5 •#* **r J 1 ''**) -» **J* J 1 *{ °-*^ \S-3J* 

yi&ii oM ti/J^i is;* 4H idyj m t&l ^) yS] w '^ &j w->" <- ,u 1 °*** i *■*** 

26 



202 

MU. I, p. 187, 11. 5-9. 

Shapur Bhxruclii :—A woman's husband dies, If she has no son, and if she 
remarries, she is (regarded as) a ckigar-wile. When she. brings forth a son, he goes 
to the first husband.i The second husband should be given a satar (another adopt- 
ed son), because (the son brought forth by the cW-wife) is the satar of her first 
(husband). 

Another statement about a chagar-wile :-The first husband has a share in her 
children whenever she gives birth to them (by her second husband). 

Statement about three shares of the. whole (batch of children) : One share is 
for the first husband ; one share for him who has maintained her, and one share is 
for the second husband. If the woman gives birth to a daughter, then that daughter 
should be made an Ayuk-mte, i.e. the marriage ceremony of an Ayuk should be re- 
cited for her and if (that daughter) has a son, that son goes to the first husband,* 
and the second husband of the woman should be given another satar. 

D 

Patrimony to be divided among the survivors. 

MU. I, p. 187, 1. 13; 

Shapur Bharuchi .-^-Statement about the shares of the children of a sMh-zan ; 
Her son should have two shares and her daughter, one share. If there are children' 
by a, ckagar-wile, then one share (should be given to them) and two shares to the 
children 3 of a Shdh-zan. 

MU. I, p. 187, 11. 15-19 to p. 188, U. 1-8— H. F. f . 77, f. 96, f. 125. 

Kama Bohra ;— Q. -There is a man. His. wife is a padsMh-wiie. He has 
brothers, kinsmen and relatives. The man dies without leaving any children. 
To whom should the property, wealth and patrimony of the man who has left no 
children, go ? 

A.— If the man dies without leaving any children, but has left a padshah-wtte, 
the property, wealth and patrimony of that man goes to the padshali-wite and 
nothing of it goes to his, brothers or kinsmen. If (the woman) remarries, she is 
called a chagar-wile. 

Q.— A man dies. Jlehastwo daughters, but has no son and has not adopted 
one (as a son) after him.4 Even the padshah-wiie is not alive.* He leaves no bro- 
ther as his associate, but he leaves property. How should that property be divided, 
and how should a satar be appointed ? ' 

A.— If he leaves property, they should appoint a satar for him and entrust him 
that much property as is the rule. The remainin g « -property should be divided into 

1 i.e., he is the satar, or adopted son, of the first husband. 

a i.e., he is the satar, or adopted son, of the maternal grandfather 

3 MU. \jgj& _ better BK. ^j£& ^j ■ ' 

1 or /liy^ ^j = ^ a ^ e *,o=*doi»tedsm( ? iteAv. ; pHftw) 

5 ■>J , * J (j'^J ut., is not in the place. 






' 



203 

three shares, one whereof should be offered to the fire (Behram), and of what is 
left, half should be given to one daughter, and half to another daughter ; and the 
daughter who marries first should marry with the permission of that (daughter) who 
is left in the house. The second who marries after should be married as an ayulcan 
(-wife) to her husband and the safar-ship (or, adopted-sonship) should be entrusted 
to her husband. 1 

MU. I, p. 188, 11. 8-17-H. F. f. 165, f. 58. 

Kama Bohra : — Q. — There are three brothers. No one has a wife of child. 
Such an occasion arises that all three. die all at once. What is the decision 
about their satar ? 

A. — A satar should be appointed for the elder brother so that he may also serve 
as the satar of the two younger brothers. 

Q. — How should the property, wealth and patrimony of the parents be divided 
among the children ? How much should go to each son and daughter ? 

A.— As to the children of the padsMJi-vriie, viz., the sons and daughters, when 
their parents have gone to the spiritual world (i.e. died), one share should be for the 
son; the daughters should have half a share each. If a son is blind or paralytic 
or has any (bodily) defect and who can maintain himself with difficulty, 
then two shares go to him. If the mother is alive, one share must go to the 
mother. 

Kama Bohra : — The decision is this that if property has been left after the death 
(of a person), it is necessary that debts incurred should first be paid off. The 
marriage-portion of the wife should be given away to the wife if they like, 
and that which is left should be disposed of in accordance with the testament 
made. 

If he has made no will, the wife gets the property Which she has brought from 
her father's house, and of what is left, three shares 2 should be made : the son should 
have two shares and the daughter, one share. The share of the padshah- wife should 
also be like this. 3 Nothing more than her marriage-portion should go to the ayokan- 
wife ; (because) the property (of the dead) belongs to his children. If the chakar- 
wife has (her. own) property or any presents 4 which have been accepted by her 
(during the life time of her husband), then she must have them 5 . 

1 i.e., the husband of this second daughter should act as the adopted son of his father-in- 
law. :.. ;']'■. ) ' [a ';'.":■:■■■' , . •■ ■ , i . ,i ' ■ '. . 

' 3' Here it is not clearly stated whether she is to have two shares or one share ; but see 
Pah. Dadistan quoted above. 

5 BK. adds at the end: — <y£lj .-.j ^fjl ^«tj ^ihS fS ^ijjK \j>j : jA*< j i-e. The 
<S'ata}'-wife should have the marriage portion promised to her- 
ForMU. I p. 189, 11. 1-7 see MU. I p. 59, 11. 9-15. 



204 

On Divorce. 

MU. I, p. ik 11. 8-9-H. P. 206, f. 215. 

Kamdin Shapur. — If a man is impotent, 1 his wife should not be wedded to 
another. 

. 

A man has contracted marriage with his fiancee and thereafter if the man is in- 
volved in the misfortune of impotency and is destitute of the power (of sexual in- 
tercourse) with his wife, it is not allowable to give that woman over to another hus- 
band. Until the husband is alive, it is not proper to give her to another husband. 

MU. I, p. 189 11. 11. 

Bahman Punjya : — The wife espoused by a man should not be given over to 
another, until the former is alive. 

MU. I, p. 189, 11. 13-14. 

Kama Bohra : — If a person wants to wed a wife and ratifies the agreement by 
the hand-contract 3 , then it is not proper that he should break the contract, for (if 
he breaks the contract and) if every time the woman leaves a sigh in her heart 
therefor, it is a sin, the retribution whereof will reach the soul (of that person) who 

is called Meher-drui. 

* 

MU. I, p. 189, 11. 16-17. (MU. II, 387). 

Nariman Hoshang : — Q. — Again, if a Behdin gives divorce to his wife and 
says : " I will not have her, but I will wed another wife," then is such divorce allowed 
or not ? 

A. — The wife who has been accepted (by the tying of the marriage-knot) should 
not be divorced. But if that wife does not bring forth children, (her husband) may 
wed another, but the (first)wife should not be divorced. 

Consorting with one's wife. 

MU. I, p. 190, 11. 4-9— H. F. f . 207, f . 218. 

Kamdin Skapur :— A person should not consort with his wife for 80 days, if 
she is delivered of a child. Thereafter, when he goes near her, and a child is 
born, that child must be entrusted to a wet-nurse who should be a woman of the 
good religion, so that she may suckle it. If the mother, who has given birth to 
the child, suckles the child and the child dies within 4 years the father and mother 
are margarjan. 

If a yourig wife has a son or a daughter two 3 years old if she is (still) not in 
menses, then (her husband) may consort with her. When one consorts with one's 
wife and a child is born, then for 4 months and 10 days, 4 one should not go near her. 

1 o.«~w (j iijx Ut. t there is impotency (in a man). 

2 Cf. Av. zasta.marshta. 

V T3TJ- t. I <■ ,m TTT* 

S BK. has t&j]j£, for MU., HF. j,j 
4 MU. _) j j_ better HF. jjj » i. 






205 

If one has nocturnal pollution and one does not wash oneself, one should no* 
consort with one's wife, because it is said that the father of Salman had nocturnal 
pollution, and he consorted with his wife, and Salman* was conceived * m the womb, 
of his mother. 

MU. I, p. 190 11. 18-19. 

, ■•..( i 

Sluzpur BtorucM:-When, after menstruation, a woman purifies herself and 
washes her head, (the husband) should not go near her for 3 days more. 

Again, if a woman has given birth to a child, (the husband) should not consort 
with her for 4 months and 10 days. '""',' 

MU. I, p. 190, 1. 19 to p. 191, 1. 1. (MU. II, p. 479). 
Suratya Adhydrus .—As regards the man who has sexual intercourse with his 
wife, if the woman has not bathed (after intercourse) and is in menses, she ought 
to wash herself as in the case of her other periods. . . , . , . 

MU. I, p. 191, 1. 3. (MU. II, p. 385). 
Norman Hoshang .--When a husband consorts with his wife, they must. wash 
their bodies altogether and then (only) they are clean. 

MU. I, p. 191, 1. 5-H. F. fl 272. (MU. II, 453). 
Kaus Mahy&r ;— Q.— How is it if they wash their head with water boiled in a 
pot ? 

A ._(By washing the body) with hot water, the druj^msush will not be des- 
troyed, especially that which a menstruous woman has. 

... •• ■ '• ' ; ■■• 

MU. I,, p. 191, 11- 7-10. (MU. II, p. 387). 

Nariman Hoshmg .-*Q.--Can one consort with his wife every day, or how 
many times a month should one consort with his wife % 

A —It is proper to consort with one's wife, three times a month, and when this 
is proper for 10 days^ and she becomes pregnant, then according to the good reli- 
gion (consorting with her again) is not allowed at all* . for in the religion, three 
kind's of sin have been spoken of, which have been noted down (here) in short 

Again one should not consorts wit h her for the time that the child is being 
suckled and if she becomes pregnant a second time, then if the weak suckling* is 
not given to a wet-nurse and the suckling dies and if the parents of the children 
know this and are careless about it, both are margarjan. \ ■ . _ ■ . d 



i 



1 Salman-i Farsi, otherwise called Dastur Dinyar. . , . .. ' J u 

2 MU. **.* iej' : Paz - tfVffl. , '^ J " *' e -' went in " 

3 ».e.,When such interoourBe is held ten times. * i(rf.lj for J(*Ij . , ; 

5 for iSittf ^d ^i>. ■ , 6 *ijjt» *bS 



206 
.MU. I, p. 191, 11. 12-19 to p. 192, 11. 1-8.-H. E. f . 209. 

Eamdin Shapur:— Every time 1 that one goes near one's wife, the husband and 
the wife should first of aU recite 9 Yatha. Then they should consort, and when they 
become separated, they should recite 3 Ashem, 2 Humatanam. 3 hukhshathrotemai,' 
4 Yatha.... ahunem. vairim. yazamaide. ..... to end. Then the wife should 

Jiot utter anything, but the husband should recite aat-aoshiti Ashem [Here 

the formula is given: see Vd. 18 §§ 51-52]. < Then both husband and wife should 
wash their heads. ' . " ' ■ - ' "«*• , . 

Every time there is nocturnal pollution,! 'and if one recites the Avesta' thereof 
then for every one time, Ormazd gives a son 15 years old, at the resurrection and 
future existence to one Who has performed a Yasht^ ; but if the Avesta is not re- 
cited, such a son is not given and (moreover), it will be a sin of one tanafur, which 

is equal to 1200 dirams in weight. 3 

■••■■'■ ■ " .•:.•■•■,.•.■• ■ ■ 

- MU. I, p. 192, 11. 10-11. 

Shapur Bharuchi:— At the time of consorting with a newly-married woman, 
both husband and wife shouldrecite first 11 Yathg-ahuvairyo's and then they should 
consort. When they separate, they should finish off the Vaj, just as is written (in 



the Avesta). 



( . .■ ■■■•.:, 



1 •' ' '■'-•''.'' 7 ". ! 



Nocturnal pollution. 

MU. I, p. 192, 11. 11-19 top. 193 1. 1. (MU. II, pp. 475-77). 

, Suratya Adhyarus :—Q.— When men have been polluted in a dream, should 
they observe ceremonial precautions 4 before bathing or after bathing ? 

.A,— It. is necessary that the ceremonial precautions 4 should be observed before 
bathing, and then they should recite the Avesta 5 and thereafter bathe. 

Q.— A person is polluted in sleep, but he forgets it and recites (at once) the 
Avesta, and eats something. Thereafter he comes to know of it and bathes. (What 

is the decision ?).,.,' 

• • - ' no Jl ■-.;>'. ........ 

A.— If this is (done) unknowingly, he is not riman : but whenever he' knows of 

it (and acts, in this way), it is not proper. 

. ; ' ' M - ■-:' . ■ i ■. ,■ . .; , . ; ,. • ■, A 

'Q.--In trustworthy books,. it Is enjoined: that if a man has been polluted in 
sleep, or if a' woman has menstrual discharge, then the clothes so soiled should be first 
washed with the gomez of the bull, i When men get up from bed, they should' in. 
thesame way 6 wash the cloth soiled by nocturnal poUution and then wash it entirely 
with water. But, at the present day, in the regime of the darvands 1 (i.e. foreigners) 
this should not be made' manifest.' 'Will it do' if water (only) is used for this ? 
~ ' ' | ; ■ — : — - — ■ i 1 ! ! i. 

i z£Ij »«S*& ,y(jj ^i j_>i tf musf , be omitted as . inthg Paz _ Riv< of Kamdin Shapur _ 

2 i.e., who is a priest (or, has been initiated a Ndvar.) 

3 HF. adds. *w W |J »fj ,jl. * |.."- -:i . ■. > ; 

^y-xA .-. ; ....... ., . 

5 After A,\jpj! A jj± .issfrj ,.i s . an interpolation (See MU. II, p. 475 11. 18-19) 
See line 14, just following. ' i ■■ . ' 

6 i.e., with gomez. v, • ' ._ . 7 »u., the Mussalmans. 



207 

A.— Without (first washing the clothes with) the gomez of the bull, it will not 
do. y 

Q —It is incumbent on a woman in menses and on the man who is polluted in 
sleep to use the gomez of the bull (for. purifying the clothes soiled), but in these times, 
owing to the dread of -the darvands, we cannot openly make manifest the use (of the 
gomez), and to put this (injunction) into practice becomes difficult. (What is. the 
decisionabout.it;?) . • \y , -, < , S-5.il '■'' ,(i ' U 

A.— It is not proper without (using) the gomez of the bull, but otit of helpless- 
ness, ab-i tamtume will do, i.e. the juice of plants or of the leaves of the trees will do* 
If we can help it, we must exert ourselves about it ; if we cannot help it, we musfe 

rest contented. 

.: : .• I.H- ■-.!;.:: oJ 0.1 A . ■:■ 

! MU. I, p: 193; 11. 3-5. (MU. II, p. 467.) . 

Sliapur Bharuchi:—li a man is affected with nocturnal pollution, and if he- 
does not recite the Avesta ad. aoshiti (Vd. 18 §§ 51-52),' then one dev becomes preg- 
nant, but if he recites ad. aoshiti, then the Creator Ormazd bestows on that man a 
male offspring, and if he recites" it 'the whole of his life, male progeny to the extent 
bf 150 has been ordered in the religion. If he recites it 20 times, 30 times, or as 

many times, then he will get so many offspring (in the next world). 

■•••■,. : •' ' . ■ ■■ ■ ■ • ■ ' '■' >' 

MU. I, p. 193,- 11. 5-7, (MU. II, p. 476)1 . r. 
Suartya Adhyarus :— Q.— When' the seminal fluid separates from the body, is 

n . ' ■# i ■■'• ■ '* ■■■■,■■. 

bathing necessary, whenever this happens ? 

A,— Every time this happens,. bathing is necessary. ■ 

..MU. I, p. 193, 11. 11-19 to p. 195, 11, 1-2. (MU. II, p. 464). 

Shapur Bharuchi .-—Again, casting the seminal fluid, on a piece of arable land 
is not allowable. ■ ■ , ■, . .;••..'.. ■ . 

' ' ■ ■ ' ' ' ' ■ ' : 

This is the formula {nirang) recited for observing precautions about nocturnal 

pollution. If the nirang is recited, 1 Ormazd gives him a son 15 years old in the 

spiritual world. 

If a person is affected with nocturnal pollution during sleep, then when he gets 
up, he should recite the vaj with the Khshnuman of Asfandarmad and recite the fol- 
lowing nirang. He should show the seminal fluid to the earth 2 i.e. he should first 
wash the piece of cloth on which the seminal fluid separated from the body has fallen, 
and then he should recite the following nirang, so that the earth Spendarmad 
may convey to him a son in the spiritual world. 

Here follows the nirang? 



1 for ^b^ S.D.B. *h- 
« SeeVd. 18 §§ 51-03, 



■' . ■ 


■ ■ ■ . 


■■■' ■ 


' 


.' )flj ■ 


. ", 


■ . 


' ' ' ' ' 1 




• 


. . - ■ ' 


' t 




. , ■ ' . . . 



208 

On Suckling a child. 

MU. I, p. 195, 11. 17-19 : MU. I, p. 254, 11. 3-5 : H. F. 119, 158. 

''..-. i '■';. 
Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — It is said in the religion that a woman 1 who 

Weans a child (unseasonably) 2 and the husband 3 who consents to it are to be regard- 
ed as committing (the sin of) dashtan-marz*. 

MU. I, p. 196, 11. 1-2— H. F. f. 207. (MU. I, p. 254 1. 1). 

Kamdin Shapur : — A boy and a girl up to 17 and 15 months old respectively, 
should be suckled. . ■., ,■. . 

On Adultery. 

MU. I, p. 196, 1. 19 to p. 197, 11. 1-2— H.F. f. 93. 
Kama Bohra : — If a man sees another man with his wife for an illicit deed, or 
if he has heard of this corroboratively from another person, then if the woman re. 
pents of it and desists from doing, such misdeed, can she be regarded as his wife (by 
the husband) or not ? 

A. — If the regulation of the world, i.e. the sovereignty is not in the hands of 
the Behdins, 5 then this is possible, for the reason that she should not commit an- 
other misdeed, and if she has repented and desists from the desire 6 of committing 
. (further) crime, it is even better that a watch is kept over her in the house. 

MU. I, p. 197, 11. 4-14— H. F. f. 123, f. 162. 

Kama Bohra (and not Nariman Hoshang) and Kaus Kama : — If a man sees an- 
other man with his wife for an illicit deed or if he has heard of it from a person cor- 
roboratively, what is the decision 1 

A, — If the sovereignty is in the hands of the Zoroastrians, 7 she should be quickly 
put to death, because God has commanded thus : " Every woman who gives her 
body unlawfully (to another man) four times is regarded as a jeh 8 ; and whatever 

1 HF. in one place has \jfii u)j ' ■ 

2 ij I (V5j fit., lets go the milk in the breasts. See below (Kamdin Shapur) where it is said 
that the male child should be suckled for 17 months and a female child for 15 months. Then if 
a woman weans her child before this time and her husband consents to it they must both 
undergo the penalty of dashtan-marz. 

3 H. F. in one place has *■> &y" 

* lit., the sin of cohabiting with a woman in menses. 

6 As said in the next Rivayat, if the Behdins have the power, she should be at onee put to 

1 &lfi' as opposed to tg'ji>' ^ (foreigners), 

8 /.a. — f or /.a. Av. •'©'■"{t' a whore. This word is everywhere read c/iers" what " 
by Dr. West in Saddar Nasr. Cf . Saddar Nasr Ch. 67 § 2 and Ch. 59 § 5. The amended 

translation of Ch. 67 § 2 (Saddar Nasr) Would be better thus Every woman who has 

lain with a strange man should be called jeh (i.e., whore) and th e retribution of her crime 
[?*&&> (^Lte : Dr. West has jl.~*> Lr*— "why is the explanation ....(?)] is this that 
she is of one nature with all wizards arid sinners. Cf. also Ch. 69 § 6 (Saddar Nasr) : 
a&l_j*; ^jjl />J\ which Dr. West translates " What da they eall her J "—better, "She is 
called a jeh (prostitute). 



209 

she looks at, decreases. If she talks with a pious man, the glory of that man departs 
and every creature and creation of God suffers loss on account of her. 

Hence, for any person who acts thus, the more quickly she is killed the better 
it would be. If the sovereignty is in the hands of non-Iranians she should be forced 
to repent of it, and that she may desist from doing such misdeed, (the husband) 
should keep her under his control* so that she cannot persistingly 2 do further 
misdeed.3 

MU. I, p. 197 11. 16-19 to p. 198 11. 1-2 (MIL II, p. 387). 

Nariman Hoshang .--Q.-If a Behdin commits adultery with the. wife of a 
Behdin, what should be done to both ? 

A.— Both man and woman are sinners and there is punishment of the Bridge 
for both. It thus appears from the good religion* that (as a result of the infliction 
of the proper punishment, care should be taken that) the woman or the man may 
not turn darvand 5 and if the husband can assent to it, the wife may contract a new 
marriage (with another)« ; if not, the woman should not be left without a lord*. 
Again 8 , let it be known, there are several customs which, in these times, cannot 
be observed in their entirety ; but the husband of the woman can contract (a new) 
marriage. 

Q.— If a Behdin or a Hirbad commits adultery with a juddin woman, what 
about that Behdin or Hirbad ? 

A— The sin (committed) through juddin women is very grievous. There are 
three ways in which the sin will settle (upon the sinner) : One is this that there is 
the fear of innumerable margarjans. The second is that there is only one mar- 
garjan and the third is that this grievous sin is more degrading 9 to the Herbad, and 
he is not fit for the profession of a Herbad with regard to any Behdins. 

MU. I, p. 198, 11. 4-5. 

Sliapur Bharuchi :— Q.— It is said that a man and a woman have consorted 
together (in an iUicit intercourse). Will it do if that woman performs patet (i.e. 
repents of her sin), or, can the woman be given in marriage (to another) or not ? 

A.— A padshdh-vriie must remain a padshah-wiie ; and if she does not commit 
the crime a second time, it is allowable that she may repent (of her former misdeed), 
but this is not allowable in the case of an ayukan-wiie or chalcar.™ 



1 Or they should keep her tinder the control of a relative (khvesh). 

« Kama Bohra and HF. (^-better Kaus Kama and B.D.B. flj^-Per. r ^ = 
Persisting, persevering in. 

3 For an account of such a woman, See Vend. 18. 
* Or, those of the good religion declare that .... 

5 i.e., adopt another faith, chiefly Islamism. 

6 Or, the husband may marry her again. 

7 i.e., a master or chief who may watch her movements. 

8 j>>j — better j*i& 

9 -,£&.*» (sabaktar). 

10 i.e., a chakar or chagar-v/iie : See above. 27 



210 

MU. I, p. 198, 11. 7-16— H. F. f. 95, f. 124, f. 137. 
Kama Bohra :— Q.— If a man consorts with a juddin woman, four times, what 
is the decision ? 

A.— If the woman does not become pregnant then (the*sin) is the same as that 
of dashtan-marz (i.e. cohabiting with a woman in menses), but if the woman becomes 
pregnant and gives birth to a child and if it is brought upi with the juddins, 2 then 
every crime which is committed by its progeny after progeny 3 is just like : this that 
the person does it with his own hands. This sin is very grievous and (fruitful) of 
many margarjans. ' ' ' 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama :— Q— A man consorts with other men's wives 
four times. What is the decision ? ■ ' 

A. — If the woman does not become pregnant, it is a sin of dashtan-marz (i.e., 
cohabiting with a woman in menses), but if she becomes pregnant , then no estimate 
can be made of that sin 4 because it is possible that many children and grand-chil- 
dren will (thereafter) be born, and so many sins relating to dashtan (i.e. menstrua- 
tion) and margarjans will spring up from them that it is the same as if that person 
has committed them himself. 5 ... , 

The hamemal sin, or sin affecting the accusers- 

MU. I, p. 202, U. 2-5— H. F. 90. 

Kama Bohra : — Q. — If a person commits a sin of Hamemal (i.e. a sin affect- 
ing one's adversary or accuser) and (in compensation for that) orders Yashts arid 
Yasnas (to be celebrated) and orders Khavidyodath 6 to be performed and carries 
fuel (i.e. sandal- wood,-&c.) to fire-places, can that sin be extirpated 7 or not ? 

A.— Nowhere is it manifest in the Avesta that the. sin affecting the accusers 
can be uprooted by 7 (the performance of) any meritorious deed except that the 
antagonist is satisfied but there is no good deed (which can compensate for it), or 
there is no other remedy (which will uproot the sin). Just as a person is responsi- 
ble 8 for one diram to another person and orders Yashts and Yasna-services worth a 
thousand dinars for that one diram and performs various kinds of duties and good 
works, still the sin is not uprooted. About the ceremonial recital of the Avesta, it 
is declared in the revelation that it will not remove the sin of margarzan or the 
sin affecting the accusers, but the performance of Khvedyodath 9 (only) can remove 
the margarzan sin. 10 



1 lit., remains with. " 

2 MU. eJ^i&=C_ HF. ^JUJAa. 

3 ii) = offspring ; child-birth. 

* Because the sin is very grievous. ! 

5 lit., by his own ; hands. . ' 

6 HF. adds *J l *jJ i^j^^i. j (referring to marriage among relations). 

7 ^j.m*j ^j y.jjl f or .jyiii uJ yj ^| (^J =: origin (so in many places). 

s ij\i &&j* J<i lit., has on his neck : i.e., who has contracted a loan of one diram, and 
has not returned it ; or who has stolen one diram. 
9 i.e., marriage among relatives. 
10 Cf. Sis. VIII § 1.:— 

i.e., The sin of hamemdl i.e., the sin affecting the accusers can be atoned for among the 
accusers ; that relating to the soul can be atoned for among the rad or high priests. 



211 

MU. I, p/202, 11. 6-16-H. F. f. 119; I, 158- 

by and which not 5 

A -(The performance of) Khvedyodath will not uproot the sin £***»£ 
accusers and the Yasna-services will not extirpate* the sin of ™~ , > - 
inTany Pl-s it is manifest from the religion that if a person ,s ^^"^ 
m uid,xi.y jj i ... j, deoart from his neck, althougn ne 

dimm to another, then m ^J^^^^J, KM yo^ or orders 

xnay perform ^W-^^f^J^ he Lisnes the antagonist. There 
Yasna-servrces ( o be perf med ^ <&J ^ h& aWd satiafy Ms 

S ^ma^rthataUn commits adultery with another,^, K^e- 
dyodath will remove* the s in of Margarzan, neither more nor less , but a Yasna 
service will not remove 4 the margarzan sin. 

„,„„ ,„,! th* Davazda-Homast ceremoney performed 
About menstruous women and the uav<«aa nu 

for the expiation of sins committed by them. 

MU. I. p. 205 11. 18-19 to 207 11. 1-3 -H. F. 248. 

Karndin Stepur .-Q-In what way should a woman in her periods act I 

A -When a woman is in doubt that she is in menses, she should strip her clothes 

* ,t Wv and watch herself. If menstruation occurs, she should wear the gar- 

2£2S --truation and should sit in a place wMc^ J^jg 

m fetation and from a holy man (as xs sa ld m tbe At . aat^mr^. 

Barsom spread holily, and ^^^^^ Jf^ placl and if 

Yasna Gah) as far as 1000 steps, she causes pollution. 

At the time of taking meals, the food should be put in a (metallic) dish and 

tact with her. That woman should take up the n mmg^^^^ 

1 6>« tfcTj 1 for &j¥. &l j ] (so in many places). 

, ^ •SljJB ^ (Kama Bonra)-Kaus Kama ^ *^ for ^ ^ 

3 HF ^ ^jH - hotter MU. iji *> ^ or Kans Kama ^ wO ^ 

I MU HF.^ tfi> (Kama Bohra)_MU,HlMKau S Kama) *jt *# for M ^ 

a ,** generally «- ——J*-? ^^^^V^Z. 

for all the implements and sacred things used m the nigfcer uwrg 
and Epistles of Manuslichehr.) 

6 Kissa~a. bag : here the dastvana. 

7 J$i* lit-, place. 



212 

her hands and face with the nirang. She should take up the gloves in such a way 
that they may not touch her clothes. She should put them on. She should hold 
the endt of the spoon (at the time of eating) in such a way that the gloves may not 
come in contact with the water or bread. When she has finished her meal, the (me- 
talhc) dish should be put in a large bag and the two* hand-gloves should thereafter 
be placed over it and this should be laid (aside) in such a place that as long as the 
hands are again not washed (with gomez, at the time of another meal), there should 
be no contact with it. Again, when she wishes to eat her meals, some one should 
pour a little pure nirang* in a cup (and place it near her) in such a way that the 
person should not come in contact with the menstruous woman or her clothes. If 
that person comes in contact with the menstruous woman or the clothes of the menstru- 
ous woman, that person should wash himself and his clothes with nirang* and water. 
If the (metallic) dish or the hand-gloves touch the garments of the menstruous 
woman or comes in contact with any member of the body of the menstruous woman 
or with any other thing (pertaining to her), they are impure, and before she clean- 
ses herself (of the impurity) of menstruation, another person should denude herself 
so that she may wash that dish or the garments (made impure), with nirang 
and water and thereafter she should wash herself with nirang and water in order 
that she may be cleansed. When the menstruous woman perceives herself clean, it 
is necessary for her to stay for another day, and should wash herself the next day 
(Washing) should not be effected before this period; if she washes her head (before 
the stated period), and if water reaches any member of her body or her clothes, 
then for every drop of rain or^ water there is a sin of one tanavir, and if she drenches 
her body with water, it is (a sin of) 15 tanavirs, which is a margarzan sin. She 
should most assuredly abstain from (applying) water to the body or the clothes 
defiled with dashtan {i.e. menses). If she does not abstain herself (from doing this) 
she is margarzan and fit for hell. When a menstruous woman (finding herself free 
from menses) washes her head, she should be given nirang (to be applied to her 
body) at two places* and then some distance away from this (place), she should 
bathe and wash herself thoroughly weU in such a way that (at the place) where 
she had rubbed nirang (on her body), the water may not pass on there. If the 
garments or any impure thing of a menstruous woman have been taken in the mouth 
or (bitten with) the teeth by that menstruous woman, then when she perceives her- 
self clean, she should not wash her head (at once to purify herself) and should not 
go to her house ; but when she is free from menses, she should (first) wash herself 
and her clothes with nirang and should not apply any water (to her body). She 
should necessarily undergo the Bareshnum purification. 5 



1 V->.S lit, the tail 



_ 1 1 Technically used for gomez or urine of the bull or cow, so called because the wrong* din 
ue., the sacred formulas of the religion, i.e., the Vendidad Ceremony is performed in the orena 
ration thereof . ' r»" 

3 'j for h 

* As in the administration of Bareshnum, on stones reserved for this process. 

« as by taking the impure things belonging to her in her mouth, she has become riman 
who is always purified with the lesser purificatory process called si-shui (lit., 30 washingTor 
■according to some Rwayets, with the greater purification called Bareshnum. * ' 



213 

MU. I, p. 207, 11. 3-19 to p. 209, 11. 1-18-HF. f. 379. 






[Bahman Punjya]:— Propitiation of Ormazd, the radiant and glorious and of 
the Amshaspands and of all the spiritual angels and terrestrial angels. 






Q. About Dashtan (i.e., a woman in menses). 

Datar ! yat. ahmya. nmane. yat. Mazdayasnoish. nairika. chithravaiti. dalchshta- 
vaiti. vohunavaiti nishidhdt (Vd. 16). 

May the priests, warriors, husbandmen and the artizans, and the Mobeds 
and Dasturs and Hirbads and the leaders (of the congregations) of Hindustan, viz. 
those of the religion of Ormazd and Zartosht— condescend to accept the salutations 
and supplications of these humble ones (of Persia) sincerely attached to them by 
way of petition and may their precious visit (here) be consummated with goodness 
and excellence. After the indication of our good pleasure, some words about a 
woman in menses, i.e., about the ceremonial impurity of womeni are written : 

The holy Zartosht asked of Ormazd : " Creator of the material world. Thou 
holy one ! If there is a woman in her period, then first of all a dashtanistan* should 
be prepared, i.e., a place should be prepared for the women in menses, 30 
steps away from water, 30 steps away from fire, 30 steps away from Barsam 
and the Yazashna-gah, and 3 steps away from a pious man, i.e. (away from) 
the place frequented by men. If suspicion arises in the mind of a woman 
as regards her period and if she is (at that time) engaged in any work, e.g., if 
she makes her bread, or cooks her food, she should leave off that work, come out 
of the house, go to the dashtanistan*, strip off her clothes, put them far off and 
watch herself. If she is in menses, she should wear her old garments (reserved 
for this purpose) and with these (clothes) on go to the dashtanistan, should not talk 
with any pious man, should not throw her gaze on fire, and should not look at the 
sun. 4 When food is carried to her, (it should be given to her in) a metallic vessel, 
viz., a tray of brass and a spoon of brass or of copper and another vessel for water 
and a solid linen fabric should be made into two folds and three bags sewn therefrom; 
two thereof 5 should be put on, one on the right hand and one on the left hand and 
one 6 should be (reserved) as a receptacle for the metallic trays (i.e., vessels for eating). 
When the menstruous woman is on the point of eating her food, she should take 
the urine of the bull and wash her hands three times with it and wash her face three 
times with the urine of the bull ; then she should place both her hands in the bags 
(i.e., hand-gloves) and take up her food in such a way that the gloves may not come 
in contact with the food. If the food comes in contact with the gloves, it becomes 
impure and should not be eaten. The metallic tray also becomes unclean and the 

l -Ui ^j ceremonial impurity in women disqualifying them from engaging in 
prayers — Steingass. 

2 dashtdn used for dashtanistan. 

3 ^IL-jlUi for ^UiUAi 

* lit., should look less at the sun. 
two bags in the form of hand-gloves called ^Lw,} (dattv&na). 

« which should be a larger one than the two preceding. 



214 

food should be thrown to the dog. Some (other) person should denude herself ,' 
make the tray (clean) dried 8 , apply the urine of the bull and wash it therewith and 
cleanse it with dust and (then) wash it with running water. 3 If the hands and the 
hand-gloves are so applied to the food that it does' not become impure, she may 
(with due precaution) take up the. food and place, (the dish or tray) on the palm of 
the left hand and eat it (with the spoon). Again, she should so eat it that the spoon 
may not strike the nose; if the spoon strikes the nose, it becomes unclean, and she 
should take up another spoon and the (unclean) spoon should be purified with the 
bull's urine and dried clean and washed with water so that it may be pure. Again, 
the gloves worn on both the hands should be so kept that they may not come in 
contact with garments worn on the body: , . 

When she has finished eating the food, the tray in which bread is eaten and the 
vessel in which water is drunk should be inserted and put in the larger bag. It 
should be (then) so placed in a neat place that any dog or creature may not thrust 
its snout into it, 4 and the two' gloves of the hands should (also) be placed in the 
larger bag. : •, rolHrrtO O " hxnu '■ I [, . •• 

Again Kusti and the garment underneath the Kusti, i.e., the Sadra should be 

worn and every day and night, (the Kusti) should be performed 7 times. If, during 

the first night, she sees herself clean, then so long as, three nights have not passed, 

she should not bathe, 5 but when three days and nights pass away and if she is clean, 

she should sleep one night more in that state of cleanliness. 6 Again, during (the 

period of) 9 nights, if she finds herself clean (from the 3rd night) onwards, (i.e., if 

she finds that she is free from the pollution of menstruation on the 3rd or the 4th 

or the 5th or the 6th or the 7th or the 8th day), she should sleep for one night 

more in that state of cleanliness and then bathe herself. ' If 9 nights are passed 

(in menses), then she should bathe at the very moment she becomes free from it. 

When she washes herself, she becomes free from impurity and pollution. She 

should go to a place far away from the daslitanistan* ; bull's urine should be taken 

there and she should apply, and wash herself with, bull's urine three times, and 

every time she should make herself clean dry ; every three times she should make 

her body wet with bull's urine and the hair of the head should be so drenched that 

when it is squeezed, (the drops of) the bull's urine may trickle through it. Every 

time she should dry her body arid then the gloves put on the hand and the tray in 

which food is eaten should be washed three times with ' bull's urine and when 

they are clean dried with dust, there should be no moisture thereon. The gloves 

should be placed aside and she should sit on another stone. 8 Three 9 vessels of water 



.--■''.,. [ . _ r . . , . , 

1 necessarily a woman. • ■ ■ 

2 i.e., take out the remainder of the food therefrom. 

3 i.e., pure water. 

4 aa£3 j* J lit., may not blow it with its breath. 






6 i.e., the least period for a menstruous woman to confine herself in that state is three days.. 

6 and then wash and purify herself with water. 

7 yjli^jliwi for t yl.» (i ,ll.£,i 

s i.e., the stone or th'e : seat kept apart for bathing with pure water. 



-j.,w for 



215 

should be placed near that woman so that she may bathe and purify herself and 
put on clean garments and when she purines the vessel of water, the bag, if it has 
become dry, should also be washed with water and should be placed (apart) in a 
place until they may be taken (and used) the next time during menstruation. 

The Avesta (recited before purification with gomez and water is :— 

(here the Srosh-baj, upto ashahe is given). (When she has purified herself with 
gomez and water in the manner indicated above); she should finish off the vaj [i.e. 
nemaschd. yd. armaitish. izhacha. &c.) twice and then she should put on the Kusti 
anew and the Avesta (for tying on the Kusti) should be again repeated. 

When a woman is in her period for three times, the garments she puts on during 
menses should be so drenched with bull's urine (at the 3rd time) that no portion 
thereof remains dry: and so that when they are squeezed, the urine of the bull trickles 
down (through them) ; then they should be strewn (in a place) until they become dry . 
She should take-up water, be away from the (other) pure water (for bathing) and 
wash those clothes and strew them so that 'they may be dried and then they should 
be taken up and placed in a neat spot in such a way that they do not touch any 
other thing, until the period of menses again commence, (when they should be 
taken into use). • ■ ■■ ■ , 

■ ,- ; , , , ■■ J W) . 

Again, when there are (many) women in menses, if two, or three, or four, as many 
as there may be, they should not come in contact with one another,! i.e. they should 
not strike their hands or feet one with the other ; and if they do so, they are riman and 
they should undergo the Bareshnum purification. If the garments worn by a 
woman in menses are moistened with (the contact with) the teeth, or with the saliva 
of the month, then the woman becomes riman, and she should undergo the Baresh- 
num. If any part of her body comes in contact with her teeth or become wet with 
saliva, she becomes riman. If a woman in menses talks with a man, then for every 
word (she utters), there is a farman sin. If a menstruous woman throws her gaze on 
fire, it is a tanavir sin.- If a menstruous woman goes near the fire in such a way that 
the heat 2 of the fire reaches her, she is margarzan. If water is poured on a mens-, 
truous woman, for every drop, she becomes margarzan, i.e. it is necessary to kill 
her. 3 When it rains and she knows that it is raining and goes out when it is. raining 
then for every drop which falls oh the menstruous woman, sheas margarzan. A 
menstruous woman should not pass over a bridge or throw her gaze on the running 
water. Again when women are in menses, it does not behove them to place any 
member of their bodies, i.e., either (bare) hands or feet, on the ground, and if they 
lay their bare members on the ground, it is a tanavir sin. ' If they walk with bare' 
feet, it is a margarzan.'. It is necessary that every woman, when she. cleanses, her- 
self by washing should kill 200 corn-carrying ants. It is necessary that every 
woman should cause 33 Vendidads to be consecrated with the Khshnumans (i.e. 



1 lit., strike their bodies one with another.- ...;■>.:. . . 

2 '■s.jo t .'.'■' ... 

3 margarjdn is thus literally explained. 



216 

the dedicatory formulas) of the 33 Amshaspands 1 and when she perceives herself 
free from menses and washes her head, she should perform patet for the expiation of 
her sins. 2 



1 i. e., all the Aushaspands and Yazads ; referring to the consecration of the Hamayasht 

Thi'oughout this Rivayat, the words gomez-i gav are written in Avesto characters. For the 
reason thereof see MTJ. I. p. 192 11. 17-19. 

Cf. the following passages : from Sis. and Pah. Vend: — 

Sis. Ch. Ill:— 

(1) If a menstruous woman takes new clothes for her use, they are riman {i.e., polluted), 
but those which are (already) in use are not riman. 

(i e the garments kept apart for use by a woman when she is in menses do not further 
become polluted, when so used at the different periods. But if new clothes are provided for a 
menstruous woman, they are polluted and therefore should be kept once for all for a similar use 
and they should not be worn ordinarily, although they maybe washed with gomez and water). 

(4) No sooner does she know that she is menstruous, than at the place where she is occupied 
in work first the necklace, then the ear-rings, and then the head-fillet (chambar) and then the 
garment's should be put off. (5) When she is in a place where she is occupied m work, even 
though she may have been a long time occupied in that work (without her bemg aware that she 
is in menses and if thereafter she comes to know of it) yet, then, the garments (she wears) are 
clean (but must be put off at once). (W ^ 4M*« 1 *** ^rhaps <^4 is for 
JW the word which explains ■tfrtfi'O fo dakhtavaiti in Vd. 16 § 2. If this interpre- 
tation be correct, then the meaning of this last clause may be : There is nothing the matter 
(Kar mi) with the menses (tagak) and the privy parts (sharm-ga^-See § 14 for jw 
W fi JjiJ ) (6) When she knows for certain that it is menstruation, then she should change 
all- her garments and should sit in the place for menstruation (i.e., in dashtanistan). 

(10) Hands put over ceremonial apparatus (padyavih) used jointly (am-bajitak Cf. ^Uil 
iMnt romnanv partnership) (hi the Yasna-Gah or other liturgical serivce) when a menstruous 
llnTeeHhem become P) uLlean ; and if she sees the Zoti (,,, the officiating pnest only) 
2SS* not see the Barsom (and other ceremonial apparatus), it is the same N the ceremony 
is vitiated.) 

(11) In a house where a menstruous woman is on the upper (floor) and the Barsom (i.e- 
the ceremonies conducted with the Barsom) ceremony is going on right below (on the ground 
floor) if even (it is conducted) full 15 steps (right) below, even then the Barsom (ceremony) 
is vitiated, but if not right (below), 15 steps are plenty, (i.e., the ceremony is not vitiated;. 

(12) Pood which is cooked within three steps of a menstruous woman is impure and food 
which she leaves off (eating) from her morning meal is not fit for the evening meal, nor that 
which she leaves off (eating) from her evening meal, for the morning meal. 

(13) If any one touches the clothes and garments (of a menstruous woman), Soshyos said 
that so much space should be washed with gomez and water ; her bedding which touches the 
bedding of any one does (not) make it riman. 

(14) A menstruous woman who becomes clean in. three nights should not wash herself till 
the 5th day (i.e., she should wait for one night more to be quite certain whether she is clean or 
not) • from the 5th day onwards to the 9th day, whenever she becomes clean, she should wait 
for one day for cleanliness lest tagak (i.e., menses) (should issue again) and she should wash 
herself after 9 nights when tagak does not matter (i.e., she should at once bathe after 9 nights 
passed in menstruation). 



217 



(16) If a menstruous woman has sat for one month in dashtanistdn and if she becomes clean 
on the 30th day and when at the time she perceives herself clean, she again becomes mensfcruous, 
then her tagdk (i.e., period of the flow of menses) should (be counted) from the beginning and 
washing is not allowable till the 5'6h clay. 

(17) When she has Washed herself of (the impurity of) menstruation and has sat for 3 days 
in cleanliness and becomes again menstruous, then she should wait for 4 days from the beginning 
(of the second period), and she should wash herself on the 5th day. 

(18) When, for her being (free) from the second menstruous period, nine days and nights 
are not (required) (i.e., if she is free within this period), then on her being clean (from menstruation 
either on the 3rd, 4th, up to the 8th day) she should wait for one day and then wash herself. 
If she passes completely nine days and nights (in menstruation) (and then is free from it), she 
should wash herself on the same day, (i.e., there is no need of her waiting for one night 
more). 

(21) On account of severe cold,, it is allowable for her to sit near fire, and when she washes 
herself, she ought to take the baj (of Sarosh). The washing of her hands, except with gomez, 
is not proper. When she washes herself (with pure water), 200 noxious creatures should be 
killed by her for the atonement of sin. 

(25) Again, if a person comes in contact with a menstruous woman, or with any person 
for whom it is necessary to wash with gomez and water, it is the root of a sin of 60 stirs. 

(26) If one knowingly has sexual intercourse with a menstruous woman, it is the origin 
of a sin of 1 5 tanafiors and 60 stirs. 

(27) If a menstruous woman sees a fire, it is a farman sin ; if she goes within 3 steps (of 
such fire), it is one tanafur. If she puts her hand on the body of a fire, it is a sin of 15 tanafurs. 
The same is the case (if she puts her hand): on the ashes (of a fire) and of dried cow-dung (gobaraki 
lit., the produce of the cow). 

(28) If she looks at water, it is a farman, sin ; if she sits in water, it is a sin of 15 tmiajurs ; 
if she walks out in the rain through contemptuous disregard, then for every drop, there is a sin 
of 15 tanafurs. 

(29) She should hot look afc the sun and other luminaries ; she should not look at animals 
and plants ; she should not converse with a righteous man ; for so violent a fiend is the fiend of 
menstruation that where another drug does not smite with her look, that (i.e., the druj of dashtdn) 
strikes (a person or a thing) with her look. 

(31) ... . The tray of food, if apart from the lip (lahav— <->.]) and contact with it 
does not occur, is proper. 

(32) When one wishes to consecrate the Darun, and one holds up the Barsam from the 
Barsam-stand and if (a woman) is in menses, then as soon as it comes to one's knowledge and 
one puts down the Barsam and goes out, the Barsam is not riman. 

(33) In menstruation, she is to be so seated that there should be 15 steps of 3 feet each 
from the water apart from her body, 15 steps from the fire, 15 steps from the Barsam, and 
3 steps from a righteous man. 

(34) They should carry food for her in iron or leaden vessels and he who carries the food 
should stand three steps away from her. 

Cf. Pah.Vd. 16 §2:— 

If fire is seen away from 3 steps, water from 3 steps and a well ( gU ? ) away from 3 

steps there is no sin committed When she is engaged in work at a 

place, the clothes which she wears on her body (before the commencement of menses) do not 

become riman When (a woman beoomes menstruous and) she goes out at once 

(from the place) and if one has his hand on the Barsom (i.e., one has been conducting any cere^ 
mony with the Barsom) it is not riman, if she can go away in the manner (prescribed) (U w ith 
all proper precautions such that everything in her way should be removed and the ground should 
bestrewn wrth_dust) ; but if she again goes to the ceremonial apparatus (patmanak • Cf Pat- 
manak-i Padyavi) (or, if she goes within the measured distance ( ,JWaj i.e., within 15 
steps), then she makes it polluted (i.e., the ceremony is vitiated), 

* 28 



218 



Pah. Vd. 16 § 4 Comm ; 



These following things are riman on account of her gaze : — Barsam, Aiwianghan, Zor and 
Jiv [i.e., Jivam=:milk). 

Everything, if at the right distance (lit., measure i.e., the measure of 15 steps, &c), is 
proper, except that one when the uncleannesa is above (i.e., when the dashtan woman is on the 
upper floor) and the ceremonial apparatus (which are arranged for conducting ceremonies) 
are right below. For even if it is much below, even then it is not proper [i.e., the given distance 
is not sufficient for the purpose) ; no ceremony in such a case should be conducted below. 

Pah. Vd. 16 § 7 Comm.— 

It is proper that every one should sit, eat and sleep in one (secluded) place. At the time 
of (eating) food, she should wash her hands with gomez and with the Ichshnuman of Srosh should 
recite the vaj for taking meals (darun). Some say that (she should recite only) Yatha and 
Ashem. 

The food left over by a menstruous woman (is of no use whatever) and it is not proper 
(to eat it). The food should be (eaten) separately (by every menBtruous woman) : it is not proper 
(for more menstruous women) to eat it together. 

Nishapur has said : " In our house if any (other) woman sits (as menstruous) and if she 
has to take her food, then the food-tray of the menstruous woman (who has .already eaten in 
it) should be washed with gomez after she has dined (and then the other dashtan women should 
eat from it ) 

When she comes out (free) from menstruation, and if there is no fear of her being purified 
from menstruation, she should wash herself. If there is fear of the menstruation (appearing 
again), she should not wash herself and she should not, disengage herself. 

If a person comes in contact with a menstruous woman, he should wash his body and 
clothes with gomez and water. 

There is nothing the matter with one whose body (comes in contact) with the clothes (of 
a menstruous woman) or, one whose clothes (come in contact) with the clothes (of a menstruous 
woman) except that the teaching of Soshyos (says otherwise). 

If menstruous discharge flows from the body on to the clothes, then as much space (as is 
spoiled should be washed). Some say that if menstruous discharge falls from the body on to 
the clothes, then the whole body should be washed. 

Pah. Vd. 16 § 11 Comm 

Kushtan-bujet said that if after three nights she does not see (menses) and if she is very 
clean, she should wash herself (thus) : — She should watch it on the fourth day ; if she is clean, 
she should at once wash herself on the 5th day. Soshyos has said that tajah (i.e., the impurity 
arising through dashtan) should be taken into account (and therefore she should not wash herself 
within the period). If in the course of 9 days and nights, she is clean, then she should wait for 
a day for the sake of tajah (menstrual flow) and then she should wash herself. After 9 nights, 
tajah should not be taken into account, for whenever she is clean, after that period, she should 

at once wash herself (without waiting for one day more); except in this other (new) case f$ \<? JDi.5) 

whenafter three nights she sits in cleanliness and the dashtan discharge again begins, then that 
dashtan is tajah from the beginning and everything should be regarded as is the case with a 
new mentruous period. 

(Pahlavi gives three stages of menstrual flow :— «i-$ (lit-, yellow flow), fW (tajah) 

i.e., symptoms of menstruation, or, secretions preceding the menstrual flow and )>»«XJ>Y 

Pah. Vd. 16 § 12 Comm :— 

She should (in expiation of her sins) kiD noxious creatures— like the corn-carrying ants, 
which, if it is summer, should be 200 ; or, she should kill anynoxious creatures of Gana-Minu' 
if it is winter; 



219 



MU. I, p. 211. 

Bahman Punjya : (in Verse). Firashtas to be invoked in the ceremony of Davaz- 
dah-Hamasf.-Ihe reason assigned for the consecration of the Davazdah-Hara&st 
to be ordered by a woman is that during her period she afflicts and injures, knowingly 
or unknowingly, aU the good creatures and creations of Orrnazd and for 12 such 
good creations, she must cause 12 Vendidads (with 12 X 12 Yasnas) to be eonsecrat- 
ed for the expiation of her sins : — 

These 12 Vendidads according to Bahman Punjya's Rivayet are the f ollowing:- 

(1) Ardibehesht = Adar, representing fire. 

(2) Khordad, representing &bj yf i.e. running water. 



(3) Asfandar 

(4) Bahman 

(5) Amardad 

(6) Farvardin 

(7) Avan 

(8) Teshtar 

(9) Mab. 

(10) Bad or Govad 

(11) Khorshed 

(12) Anaram 



the earth. 

cattle. 

vegetation. 

a pious man. 

water. 

the rain (the Rivayat gives 'the stars in the sky 7 ).. 

the moon. 

the wind. 

the sun. 

the stars in the sky. 



These 12 Vendidads represent the least number. According to all Rivayefe, 
33 Vendidads should be consecrated for the propitiation of all the 33 Amshaspands- 
and Yazads If this is not possible, then 18 should be performed, if not, 12 
must be consecrated. This accounts for the greater or the lesser ceremonies of the 
Davazdah HamSst. (cf. MU. p, 211, 1. 1 and p. 215, 11. 15-16). 

MU. I, p. 212 & p. 219. 

Saddar Nazm .--According to the Saddar Nazm, the following 12 Yazads and 
Amshaspands should be .propitiated in the Davazdah Hamast :- 

(1) Khorshed, (2) Adar, (3) Aban, (4) Asfandarmad, (5) Farvardin, (6) Khordad, 
(7) Amerdad, (8) Dadar Hormazd, (9) Sarosh,i (10) Mah, (II) Bad, (12) Teshtar. 

Again, according to the Saddar Nazm (MU. I, p. 219,) originally 12 Davazdah 
HamayastNasks 1 , in full, were recited and consecrated chiefly for the propitiation of 
Aban (• e the Yazad presiding over water) for the expiation of the sins committed 
by a menstruous woman. But this is impracticable now-a-days and therefore 12 
Hamayast ayyam (>U e^U,) i.e. (12 different periods when 12 Yazads and 
Amshaspands) are propitiated consecutively in that ceremony i.e. 12 Vendidads. 
in their honour are consecrated. 



1 called l*ijy> (See MU. I p. 212 1. 7) This, is the same as »£ <JiJ}± of ffuOsr 
Nasrj Oh. 41 (see below). 



220 

MU. I, p. 220. 

Saddar Nasr :— Ch. 41 :— According to the Saddar Nasr, the following 12 
Yazadsand Amshaspands should be propitiated in the Davazda-Hamast Ceremony :— 

(1) Dadar Hormazd representing the minu i.e., the spiritual world. 

(2) Teshtar, representing rain and the stars. 

(3) Khorshed. 

(4) Mah. 

(5) Adar. 

(6) Aban. 

(7) Asfandarmad. 

(8) Bad. 

(9) Khordad. 

(10) Amerdad. 

(11) Sarosh (in order that the sins arising against 8 ^ ufjy ji 1 may be 

uprooted). 

(12) Farvardin (in order that the sins with regard to nasa may be up- 

rooted). 

MU. I, p. 216, U. 7-9= H. p. f. 388. 

Bahman Punjya .-—If a menstraous woman puts her bare feet on the ground, 
it is atandvir sin. If she goes within three steps of water or fire, the same is the 
case. If she speaks to a man, (it is a tanavir sin). Hence she should sit in seclusion 2 
so that she may not see any one and so that she may not distress 3 water, fire, a holy 
man and the land of Sapandannad*. If an impure 5 woman strikes her hands or 
garments with her teeth, she is riman, and should undergo the Bareshnum. She 
should not place her hand on anything. 

MU. I, p. 216, 11. 9-13. (MU. II, pp. 452-53.) 

Kaus Mahyar .*— Q.— How is it if a menstruous woman sees water, fire, the 
sun 6 , the moon, or the holy man ? 

A.— If she looks at them, then for every time it is a farman sin. If she places 
her bare feet on the ground, it is a farman sin. She ought to expiate (for that sin). 
Q. — If there are two menstruous women in a place, how is it ? 

1 a If t/ijj^ here and <v&Jjr* in Saddar-i Nazm (see above) refers to Srosh. West 
explains it as meal-time, but says in a note that this is doubtful. Perhaps this khwdak-gah 

is a corruption of Khorah-Khuda, (u><f>r> ^ by which name Sarosh is mentioned in 
Dadistan, pursesh 29 § 3, and again as farhho hhuidih Ovi^f^ p^a) in the Pahlavi and 
Pazend Setayesh of Sarosh (See Pahlavi Khorda-Avesta, edited by me, p. 243 (last line)). 

2 tjjtf *&/ for u^ **'/. 3 ijtjf ^ {or ajljf ^3. 
1 Spenta-Armaiti, the angel presiding over the Earth. 

6 a.e., menstruous. 

« ft* Lpi l V *4-);ji read **«,^i (See MU. II p, 452 1. 9), 



221 

A.— If it is not practicable for them (to sit apart during menstruation) then 
two persons who may be hi one place should not strike the bodies or the members 
thereof, one with the other. When they eat their meals, their garments should not 
come into contact with each other. 

MU. I, p. 216, 11. 15-16. 

Shapur Bharuchi :— If a person is in menses, then during the period of one day 
and night, it is necessary that she should untie and retie the Kusti seven times 
(only). It is not proper to do this more than seven times. 
MU. I, p. 219 U. 12-19 to p. 220, 1. 1. 

Shapur Bharuchi .-—Consecrating 12 Homast in honour of Aban'A The meaning 
(of thisclause as given in Saddar Nazm, Ch. 73 : see M.U. p. 219 1. 1) is this that the 
Nask called Aban* should be celebrated 12 times. Secondly the Davajda Hama- 
yast which is consecrated should be thus consecrated {i.e. in the following order) 
which gives the names of (the 12 Yazatas and Amshaspands to be consecrated in) 
the Davazda Hamast ceremony. (l)Dadar Hormazd, (2) Tishtar, (3)Khorshed, (4) 
Mah, (5) Adar, (6) Aban, (7) Asfandarmad, (8) Bad, (9) Khordad, (10) Amerdad, 
(11) Sarosh, (12) Farvardin. 

The meaning of this is that the Davajda Hamast Nask should be certainly 
consecrated with the Khshnuman of Aban Arduisur, and again it is said in the com- 
mentary of the Vendidad that if a person celebrates the days (ayyam) of ihe Davajda- 
Hamast, then just as a great wind comes on at harvest time and carries off (the 
harvest), the sin is extirpated 3 just like this and the person becomes clean and pure. 
For women there is no duty more indispensable than this ; for it is declared in the 
religion that when Davajda-Hamgst is celebrated, it is a merit of a 100000 tanavirs 
and when they celebrate it by day, 4 there is as much merit therein. Again Zartosht 
Asfantaman ordered Arduisur Banu (i.e. Aban) first to be celebrated, and (hence) 
this Yasna-service should be performed during the day, and it is not allowable at 
night and it ought to be celebrated for this reason that the sin which is committed 
against water would depart from that person in addition to this that Arduisur Banu 
would intercede for him with the Amshaspands. 

MU. I, p. 220 11. 16-19. (MU. II, pp. 478-79) 

Suratya Adhyaru : — Q. — About a menstruous woman : Should Davazda Hamast 
be performed by her or how many Yasnas (in place thereof) should be celebrated 1 

A. — It is necessary to celebrate the Davazda-Hamast, but in these times there 
is no (Nask called) Davazda Hamast ; (therefore) it is incumbent on every woman 
to order 12 Vendidads to be celebrated 5 . 

1 (J.lj-»J lit., declaring i.e., celebrating (See Saddar Nazm. ch. 73— MU. p. 219 1. 1). This 
is a quotation from Saddar Nazm. 

2 There is no Nask of this name, but there is the Nask called Hamast which, as here said, 
is celebrated chiefly for the expiation of sins committed by a menstruous woman against Aban 
(i.e., the spirit of water) among other sins. 

3 &jwi yijl for ijMi (^J j\ 

4 Water (Aban) should be consecrated by day and not at night. 

5 A distinction is made, in these Rivayats between <-£.»*• J c*~jU r tij^ji and SSijIjiS 
a, lj| o^j !•+, See Saddar Nazm, Ch. 73 ; MU. I. p. 219 and MU. II. p. 18. 



222 

Q.— As regards the man who has sexual intercourse with his wife : If the wife 
has not washed her bodyl and is in her period then it is necessary that she should 
purify herself just as if at another (time) she were menstruous. 
MU. I, p. 221, U. 2-3. (MU. II, p. 442). 

Dastur Barzu : — If a menstruous woman is affected with the impurity of mens- 
truation for 10 days or 30 days, more or less, she should observe precautions (about 
it), and if she is free from the impurity of menstruation, but affected with a disease, 
let it be known that she should wash her head 2 . 

MU. I, p. 221, 1. 5. 
Shapur Bharuchi .-—If a garment is polluted with the impurity of menstrua- 
tion, it is proper to tear off the portion of the garment which is polluted and reject 
it 3 . If not, it is not proper that one should sleep with such clothes on. 
MU. I, p. 221, 11. 7-12. (MU. II, p. 378 & p. 384.) 
Nariman Hoshang .-—Again, the chief 4 of the Behdins of Anklesar and the leader 
and the head 5 of the congregation, and Hirbad Homan should know that we put 
questions to Nariman Hoshang Bharuchi and he stated the circumstances of the 
case. We found out and knew that menstruous women eat their food with bare 
hands 5 and do not observe precautions thereabout. If it is so, their bodies and 
clothes are impure. They should not enter the house 7 . Wherever they go— to 
water or to fire,— they are margarzun. If they do not observe precautions about 
this, the leaders and Hirbads are responsible for it 8 , and now that it is made known 
to them, 9 they should not be remiss in the way of Ormazd's religion. 

Again, when a menstruous woman sits in a house, she should go far off to a 
place and should sit in seclusion (or, a confined place), m and should exercise precau- 
tions about water, fire and the holy man, just as it is manifest in the religion. 
MU. I, p. 221, U. 12-15. (MU. II, p. 449). 

Manech Changa and Jasa .-—Again about a menstruous woman : they should 
lay out a place or a spot so that mentruous women may have their halting-place in 
such a spot" until they become pure. They should (then) wash themselves with 
padyab (i.e. gomez) and water and return home. 

1 After sexual intercourse. 

2- i.e., purify herself by bathing. 

3 lH^-rV^abstain from i.e., dispose of it ceremonially i.e., (here) reject it and bury 
it under the ground. 

* 1*4 ^=the headman. 

5 MU. A*>\> or T33 j^\jso all: cf. u^lj G r crib chief, head. If it is 
a proper name, it is found thus in a corrupt form in all MSS. Darab Hormazdyar translates 
*il21 4W §1X1- Rami Herbad H6ma (See p. 410 of the Gujarati " Rivayat-i Dastur 
Darab Hormazdyar " by Ervad R. J. Dastur Meherjirana.) 

6 i.e., without putting on hand -gloves (/>JI_yi-wii) 

1 What is here meant is that menstruous women should sit apart in the dashtdnistan i.e., 
a place reserved for menstruous women, and when they are free from menses, they might return 

8 lit., is on the neck of — 

9 i.e., the proper way of treating a menstruous woman. 

10 i.e., the dashtdnistdn. MU. l£ 9iS ' ; MU II. p .384 L? ^' j & 

ii aU. i. B .,inthedaBhtaniBtan; HF ; has * Wj for cJa* . ie>j aU ffien » tmoua women 
may be m that spot. 



223 

MIL I, p. 121, 11. 17-18=H. ¥. f . 209. 

Kamdin Shapur : — A woman who is in menses should put on separate clothes , 
When she is to purify herself after menstruation, then on the first stone 1 she should 
apply the gomez of the bull to her head and body and then on the two (other) stones 
she should pour three vessels 2 of water on her head and thereafter should put on 
pure garments. For three nights (her husband) should not consort with her 3 . 

MU. I, p. 222, 11. 1.7 «H. P. f. 82, f. 89. ■ 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — Q— If a menstruous woman washes the cloth- 
ing she uses hi menstruation with pddydb and dries them up in the sun-light, is it 
proper that she should wash them with water or not ? 

A. — Until they are dried up. (in the sun-light), it is not proper that they should 
be washed with water, and when she washes them with gomez (pddydb) she ought 
to look 4 to them well (so that they may not come in contact with water or any 
other thing.) 

Q. — Is it proper that the garments used in menstruation be washed and 
regarded as pure or not ? 

A. — The garments which are used in menstruation should also be washed when 
(the menstruous woman) washes her head 5 . If she is three times in menses and if 
she uses the same garments without washing them, then it is not proper to wash 
them ; but if she washes them, they should be washed just in the same way as the 
garments made impure by dead matter and they are like those garments (polluted 
with dead matter). 

Any garment which is used in menstruation three 6 times and is not washed, 
or a garment hi which dead matter is carried three times' and is not washed, should 
be left apart for a similar purpose 8 , and it should not be washed, for it is not proper. 

MU. I, p. 222, 11. 10-16=H. P. f. 83, f. Ill, f. 165. 
Kama Bohra and KausKama : — Q. — Can a menstruous woman eat damn (i.e. the 
sacred cake) or goslwda 9 (i.e. the produce of the cow, e.g. ghee or clarified butter placed 
on the Darun) and (other things placed) before the Damn (for consecration) or not ? 
A. — If she is ill and if one cannot procure such things as are placed on the 
Darun at that time from any other place, then out of necessity she should eat there- 
of. If not, it is not proper that a menstruous woman should eat anything which is 
consecrated. 

1 Three sets of stones should be arranged whereon she may purify herself with gomez and 
water, one stone or seat being reserved for gomez and two for water. 

2 MU., and H.F. ^ j />•*'»> 13 /.« for yf f^ w^ /**» aB in T31 (i^ju -ega -isxi<? -p>) 

3 See MU. I. p. 190 11. 9-11 

4 MU. *ij£>— better H.F. &>& 

5 to purify herself from the menstruous pollution. 
« j-w for />«• 
7 lit., three corpses are carried. 

■ 8 i.e., for being used in m»aseB. 
9 Av. gaush-hudhao. 






224 

Q— Can a menstruous woman eat goshodaX and (other things placed) before 
the Damn for consecration or not ? 

If that woman has not been initiated a Navzud 2 , is it not proper that she 
should eat it ? if she has been initiated a Navzud, can she eat it or not ? 

A. — If that woman is not ill, it is better that she should eat nothing from 
the consecrated things 3 because what has been consecrated would be such as has not 
been (consecrated). 

ML I, p. 222, 11. 18-19. 

Kaus Kama (and not Kaus Kamdin) 4 : — Q. — Can a menstruous woman eat 
goshoda and (other things placed) before the Damn for consecration, or not. 

A. — If that woman has not been initiated a Navzud, it is not proper that she 
should eat anything thereof, but if she has been initiated a Navazud and if she is 
ill (at the time) — May God protect us— and if such things cannot be procured from 
any place, then they may be given to her out of necessity. 5 

Treatment of a woman after child-birth and still-birth, and about 
a woman who dies during her periods or in pregnancy. 

MU. I, p. 223 11. 2-5= H.F. f. 382. 
Bahman Punjya : — When a pregnant woman gives birth (to a child), she should 
sit apart for 41 nights in a place of the house so that she may not come in contact 
with any one. Water and bread should be given to her as at (the time of) mens- 
truation and hand-gloves 6 (should be used by her) as described. She should not go 
near water. When the 41 nights pass away, she should purify herself of the pollution 7 
and impurity, and wash herself with the gomez of the bull so that she may moisten 
all her limbs and the hair of the head and so that when she squeezes (the hair) the 
gomez of the bull (applied to it) may trickle down it. She should (then) make her 
body dry and pour down three vessels of water on herself and wash herself clean and 
put on pure garments : then she is pure. 

MU. I, p. 223, 11. 7-12=H. P. f. 129. 

Kama Bohra : — The 84th chapter is this : when a woman has given birth (to a 

child), she should not bathe 8 for 21 days and should not place her hand on anything. 

She should not go to the upper-storey 9 of her house and should not step out of the 

threshold of the door of the house. If, after 21 days, she sees herself in such a state 

1 Av. gavsh-hudhao. 

2 i.e., if the Navjote (or the ceremony of the investiture with Sudreh and Kusti) is not 
performed. It should be borne in mind that the time of this Navazud is generally laid down by 
the Bivayat writers at 14 years and 3 months. 

3 MU. Va^.— better H.F. .i&j \i.^ 

i This Rivayat is not found in E 60 which alone gives Kaus Kamdin's Collective Rivayat, 

6 See note above. 

6 /■*.$$— lit., a bag i.e., the /Olj-i-w,} or /.jti«,j— hand-gloves. She should wear 
hand-gloves at the time of eating so that no bare part of the hands should come in contact with 
the water or food. . 

1 (jyixj&j — jAj = Av. hikhra — bodily refuse. 

8 Ut., wash her head. 

a ,* Ij also means roof or terrace. 



225 

%hat she is able to wash her head, she may wash it ; thereafter, until the coming of 
the 40th day 1 , she should abstain from touching anything wooden or earthen. She 
should abstain from cooking (food) in a pot and from all (such) things. Then when 
40 days (from the beginning) have passed, she should bathe and do all her works^ 
Until (another) 40 days pass away, 1 her husband should not approach her in any 
case whatever, for it is a great sin. It may happen that she may be pregnant a 
second time and the suckling child will grow weak, 2 i.e., it will go without milk 3 and 
the parents will be responsible for the sin, as conception will take place (after child- 
birth) sooner than thereafter. 4 If after 40 days (the woman) finds that she is im- 
pure and knows for certain that this is owing to (the effects of) coition, 5 (then she is 
not regarded as polluted). If not, this should be regarded as menstruation and she 
should sit in the place reserved for menstruous women. She should not ba bold 
in doing such work (u e. consort with her husband) as, at such a time, she may 
sooner approach her period of menses. 6 

1 After m^J.jj) Jf»- HF. rightly adds— ^ yjJ&wj ^aj j-a. ^j^-a. c&ijo Vl j 

(iJ^efjJ jjj Jf*. Uj (J^ ^i' 1 ™ iSJ^ >**tJ i^LumIjmi iXmlj 

2 $&\r*A — a ' suckling child nauseating the milk. 

3 Zji.M£ for j.i«l=: Pah. As-ti _jiey- 

4 Cf. MU. I. p, 190 11. 13-16. 

5 o^»\y i.e., the after-effect of child-birth — j,j.,o := Pah. '»£=:coition ; Cf. Saddar 
NasrCh. 76; — O..J 8<v°f iJijf jl /.i i>JI,S ^'i-^jcsi jtx 

Cf. Pah. i("eiJ3j)-5 - — (("ei- 13 -"-^ ^0J| (Per. aj and ^^ == child-birth)=a woman 
Who has given birth. 

6 Cf. the following from Rivayet-i Hemid-i Asha-Vahishtan : — 

.MTOiw-tj ir«wi )\o 3i ii»o-»jj^ ss: f^wo m f^> -m -GV 

Cf. Sis. Ch. Ill § 15. 

fWHR»J» W <?$ -»U WUKii-a ^ <?f *»$ if -O 3) «031 ow jw-S *$&*) 

1K)|)W W "?£• J ! I eVlO ^V -O # •"• 1TO1K3-H3 #• *S 110 -"Oil | iPSWJ £ £5 

.°. 1TO1R3-S3 iffftDA -"OS) iS £ VS 

JBemid-i Ashavislii&n 1 — 

Q. — What about the discharge (hilchm) which flows from the body of one who has given 
birth 1 

A. — Within 40 days, except that it is known for certain, that it (i.e., the discharge) is like 
dashtdn, it should be regarded as (the after-effect of) child-birth. After 40 days, except that 
it is known for certain that it is (the after-effect of) child-birth, it should be regarded as dashtan. 
Sis. Ch, III § 15 :— 

If a woman has given birth or has miscarried, and if she finds herself polluted (by any 
discharge) within 40 days, then except that it is known for certain that it is dashtan, it (i.e., 

the discharge) should be regarded as (the after-effect of) child-brith ( iJ> — i\ — (J!* r l). After 

40 days onwards, except that it is known for certain that it (i.e., the discharge) is (the 

after-effect of) child-birth ( iS ), it should be regarded as daahtdn. 



226 

MIL I, p. 224, 11. 11-19— H. F. f. 85, f. 114, f. 150. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — Q. — If a clot 1 comes out of (the womb of) a 
woman and if she does not know whether it is nasa (i.e. the premature expulsion of 
the foetus) or dashtan, what is the decision ? 

A. — Sagdid should be performed over that clot, and it should be taken up by 
two men united together with a paiwand and should be thrown into some padyab 
(i.e. bull's urine). If it turns white in the midst of the pddyab and if it is not dissolved 
in it, it is nasa (i.e. foetus imperfectly formed). If it turns red and dissolves, it is 
menstruation. 

(11. 18-19). If a woman dies at the time of child-birth, 2 sagdid should 

be first performed over the woman, and then over the (still-born) child. 3 

Pah. Vend. 5 § 49 Comm. (p. 191 11. 6-10.) :— 

Within 40 days, i£ something (i.e., any discharge) is apparent, then, except that it is known 

for certain that it is not (the after-effect of) child-birth ( iS ), it should be regarded as (the 
after-effect of) child-birth ( 3-5 ). After 40 days, except that it is known for certain that it 

is (the after effect of) child-birth ( i5 ), it should be regarded as dashtan. 

a. Sis. in § 22. 
■Wtf ) 1WI1KU-" ^ ^>*0 ) |W)W -^ "0-H3 G |>»«>0-5 |£ $0$) (22) 

wp )wsw J t3-£ i e^f ))£> -hjrj-" ^-"Wa \)<?\)w -"oji 4 is«*$" •»)) w ■hjmkuo' 

(22) A woman Who is free from menstruation (lit., whose menstruation goes out of its place) 
and then sees that she is again riman,. then (at that time) if her pregnancy is certain, she should 
be washed with gomez and water except when her miscarriage is evident ; but if her pregnancy 
is not certain, she should be regarded as menstruous. 

Of. Vendidad 7 §§ 60-72=Vd. 5 §§ 45-54. 

i A 'i.iS lit., knot, lump, i.e., clot, blood-clot or fcetus imperfectly formed. Cf. Per 
/i£i.f = firm and ^I&f — to twist. 

2 jjj i.e., child-birth. 

3 Cf. Vd. 5 § 49 Comm. (p. 189 11. 8-12). 

•v-jj sosii Wia^> % W^ f.f '. 1fO|)«£ off t£ J " JJ W _>• 11° I vku-"^ 

.". 1TO1K3-H5 ^-5) )\Q 

Soshyos said that if in doubt, one should try this (experiment) : — If a clot (gashtaJc) comes 
out, a dog should be shown to it and two jiersons (united with a paiwand) should throw it into 
gomez-; if it then turns white, it should be regarded as nasa (i.e., fcetus imperfectly formed), 
(and if it turns red, it is dashtan). 

This gashtah or gashta is thus explained in Bahman Punjya's Rivayat (MU. p. 227 11. 3-7) :— 

!jUc hjl <Sm lyii^J+J fyfei •'• fcjf^ &ikl jl Si'* A" U*tij 

i.e., If the nasa (i.e., fcetus) is not more than 3 months old, then a dish full of urine should 
be brought and the clot should be put into it. If it turns white, it is nasa. The mother 
(therefore) should undergo the Bareshnurn. If red, it is only blood (i.e., dashtan). 



227 

MU. I, p. 227, 1. 19 to p. 228, 11. 1-3= H.F. f. 83. 

KamaBohra :— Q.-If a woman gives birth to a still-born child, what should she 
eat during the (first) three days and nights, how should she shy and what should 
be given to her (for food) ? 

A.— It is proper that she should eat meat which is not salted and cereals not 
cooked with water 2 and vegetables and fruits which are not watery. She should 
not sit near fire, should not drink water except when there is fear of death or of a 
grievous malady ; and until it is the dawn of the fourth day (and over and above 
that period) one more hour passes i.e., when the three days and nights pass by and 
one (more) hour on the fourth day, she should not drink water ; otherwise if she 
perishes^ then at the place whereon she dies, pollution will go down as far as the 
water (below) 4 . 

MU. I, p. 228 U. 4-5— H. F. f. 115. 

Kama Bolira .-—If a pregnant woman, i.e. an ainal^, gives birth to a still-born 
child, what should she eat during the (first) three days and what (things) should not 
be given to her (as food) ? 

A.— Bread« wMch is not impregnated with water' or salt should be baked on 
fire or should be boiled in milk wherewith no water is diluted or fruits which have 
not become watery (should be given to her for food). 

MU. I, p. 228, 11. 5-19 to p. 229 1. 1— H. F. f. 130. 

KamaBohra .-—The 85th cahpter is this : If a woman gives birth to a still-born 
child, the first thing to be given her is padyab (i.e. urine of the bull) 8 so that she may 
cleanse therewith her body and its inside ; thereafter (drinking) -water should not 
be given her for three days, as it is not permissible to do so in such an affair, except 
that there is fear of death. And these three days are from period to period in such a 

1 i.e., in what maimer should she act and keep herself aloof. 

2 but cooked with milk or any other thing having no water. 

s wflj.j i.e., is dead. The Pah. word for "fall down" is ))*])*)$ (ramituntan) 

and for 'to die 1 is \\<?\\W$ (yemitunatan). These two words are confounded here, but 

cf. Per. (jdliil to perish. 

i d *& ,J Ji w *j , This is a phrase borrowed from the commentaries of Pah. Vend. 
The writer means 'that" the pollution in such a case is so great that the space of ground 
whereon the impure woman lies will not only be made impure, but the water underneath that 
portion i.e., the sub-soil water, will also be affected by it. 

Cf. with this Rivayat, Vd. 5 §§ 50-52. _ 

5 ^Jol A woman who gives birth to a still-born child is here called amah which is Pah. 

W which itself is a contraction of }j,Kt (aevalc-bar). An aevah-bar is riman and 
therefore should wash herself with the Bareshnum purification. Av. oe«5-bar5 and Pah. Jj} NT 
is one who carries the dead in an improper manner and therefore is a sinner. 

e ^ad— Pah. 4> |4- ( n) 

1 &U.*— Pah. *D< which is a non-aryan equivalent of dp. 

8 Dr. West in Chapter 77 of Saddar Nasr translates padyab as " something washed with 
ceremony » (S.B.E. Vol 24 p. 240) ; but padyab in a technical sense is used for gomezov bull s 
urine in Vendidad, Shayast la-Shayast, Epistles of Manushchehr and the Persian Rivayets, 
as it is the chief purifying element recommended in the Vendidad. 



228 

manner that if this thing happens at (the time of) the mid-day prayer (of a certain day) 
then water should not be given her until (the time of) the mid-day prayer (on the fourth 
day and the lapse of one more hour), or if it is (the time of) any other prayer, until 
the time (of that prayer on the fourth day) and the lapse of one more hour (from 
that period) water should not be given her, and after that, till the lapse of 40 days, 
she should sit apart again, and then should undergo the Bareshnum purification. 
If the child (in the womb) from (the time of) its attaining to four months to any 
time (of the remaining five months) is (still)-born, it is a dead bodyi for the reason 
that so long as it does not attain to (the age of) four months, it is not animated with 
life. If, before the three months, this affair occurs, a dog should be shown to it 
and padyab (i.e., gomez) should be poured into a bowl. Two persons should take 
(the still-born child) up with a pahvand and put it in the bowl ; if it turns white, it 
is nasa (i.e. dead matter) and it is necessary for the mother to undergo the Baresh- 
num ; but if it turns red, it is blood 2 and it is not necessary 3 for the mother to wash 
herself with the Bareshnum. But if this affair occurs after three months, one is to 
exercise great caution and one should not have the hardihood, in this affair (to act 
as one likes, but should act in strict conformity with the prescribed rules about 
disposing of the dead) ; for our religion has confined itself with this affair 4 . If one be 
polluted, one should keep oneself pure ; (if not), so long as one is living, one will 
never become clean from this pollution. If (thereafter) one washes one's head 
10000 times with padyab (i.e. gomez) one will certainly not be purer on account of any 
(pollution) there may be with one ; because this pollution is not from without, but 
this pollution mixes itself with every bone, vein, flesh and skin ; and water cleanses 
(only) that thing that is on the outside and patent (to the eyes). Whatever of that 
impurity is within cannot be removed except by nirang-i-dini i.e., gomez 6 . Now 
the drift of it is that it is nirang-i-dini which is pure and the pollution can be removed 
(only) by that nirang (i.e. gomez). Any person who practises remissness in this 
affair will never be pure from that pollution and everything he lays his hands on 
he makes impure and whenever such things come in contact with water, fire and the 
food of men, sin upon sin settles upon him, and one sin (arising therefrom) will be- 
come tenfold and ten will be hundred, and a hundred will be thousand. The Darun 
(i.e. sacred cake) 8 on which he (i.e. the impure person) lays his hands on becomes im- 
pure and unclean and everything from amongst the eatables with which he comes in 
contact is impure and unclean, until the time when he undergoes the Bareshnum 
and keeps (the retreat of) 9 nights when every three days he (or, she) should wash 
himself (or herself) with padyab and water. Then it is proper that he or she may 
apply his or her hands to anything because he or she is pure and not riman (i.e. 
impure). 



1 And therefore should be treated with all precautions as prescribed in the Vendidad, as 
it was animated with life. 

2 i.e., it is dashtan. 3 ^jtjj MU. & H. F.— better a,j Uj 

4 Practically, the major portion of the Vendidad treats of the care and precaution to be 
Observed about nasa. 

5 Cf. the following line of Nosherwan Marrzban, MU. p. 227 1. 11 :— 

wii <-&ry <JU *W I } yjji _•_ ^j y jf J& ^ (j &JJ ^ 

6 And, for the matter of that, any food. Cf. Ay. ©-J-ojivIa =food. 



229 

MIL I, p. 229, 11. 3-8 & p. 230, 11. 3-7= H. F. 114 & 150. 
Kam Kama and Kama Bohra —It is manifest in the religion that to any woman 
whose child perishes (in the womb) i.e. who gives birth to a still-born child, the first 
thing they should give her to eat should be nirang (i.e. urine of the bulled 
upto the fourth day they should not give her water or (anything cooked with) salt 
and anything that may be impregnated with water or salt and the food which is 
cooked over fire with (the mixture of) water therein should not be given to her and 
any fruit which has not become watery should be given to her. It is proper that 
they should give her any (of the following) food, e.g., cereals which to*afari ™ 
milk or watery fruits which are (as yet) not impregnated with water, and for those 
(first) three days and for one more hour which passes by on the fourth dayl, they 
should not give her water.for it is zmargarzan sin. If there isfearof death* and if 
they give her water, her husband should go to the high-priests and offer patet («. 
penitence). If it is winter; or, if it is such a place where garment S 3 cannot be had 
and if there is fear of death*, she may go near the fire*, but it is necessary for the 
husband to at once go to the high-priests and offer patet, for which reason he may 

be less sinful 6 . 

MU. I, p. 229, 11. 10-15— H. F. ff. 207-208. 

Kamdin Shapur .—If a still-born child has come out of the womb of the mother . 
they should not give her, for three days, these three' (things), mz., water, and meat 
with salt (for consumption). On the fourth day, they should first give her padyab (mi. 
aomez) so that she may wash herself entirely with padyab. Two persons should unite 
themselves with a paiwand, tie anew their Kusti, recite Ashem Vohu in a suppres- 
B ed tone', take a broken piece of bottle8 to hold nirang (therein) and the ashes o 
the Adaran (i.e. fire). The nirang or gomez should be collected from a bull and 
should be carried and given to her so that she may drink it, (mixed -with) the ashes 
of the Adaran (fire). Thereafter, after the lapse of 41 days, she should wash her head 
with the Bareshnum and should keep (the retreat of) 9 nights. If (the period of) 
the first washing^ has not been passed over, and if she is in menses, she should tear 
off her garments and she should again undergo the Bareshnum. If she has passed 
over the period of the first washing," and if she is hi menses, she should agam 
undergo the Bareshnum, but should not tear off her garments : she should _ wash 
them At thefirst and the second washing,^ the garments should first be sprinkled 
over with nirang and then washed with water. At every new washing, she should 

put on different sets of clot hing. ■ 

' m, from the period when the term begins to the same period on the fourth day and one 

more hour in addition to it. .... , 

3 i.e., if the woman is on the point of death or in a grievous malady. 

3 To protect her from the severe cold. 

1 To warm herself. 

5 Cf . with this the following Bivayats and Vd. VII §§ 58-69. 

6 lj A ^ Lit., three-fold. 7 — I _y* 

a MU. A^ |>— HP.' has only jb and keeps a blank for J&^& 

s £j ,T ' first washing with water, called nav-shii. During the 9 days of the Bareshnum 

purificftionf the candidate -should wash herself three times with water after the lapse of three 

days at a time. 

io i.e., on the 4th and the 7th day when she washes herself with water. 






230 

MIL I, p. 229, 11. 17-18— H. F. f. 85. 

Kama Bohra : — If, for (fear of) death or grievous malady, she has drunk water, 
as has been said before, her husband should go to a high-priest and offer patet (i.e., 
pentential prayer) for her sake.i 

MU. I, p. 229 1. 19 to p. 230 1. 1— H. F. f. 151. 
Kaus Kama : — Q. — What should be given as food to a pregnant woman, i.e., 
one who gives birth to a still-born child ? 

A. — Meat which has not been mixed with water or salt should be roasted 
over fire or cooked in milk which has not been diluted in water, or fruits which have 
not (as yet) been impregnated with water. Any liquid 2 which may come in contact 
with her impure body 3 within should not be given to her. 

MU. I, p. 230, 11. 7-13 & p. 232 11. 8-13. (MU. II, p. 447). 
Maneck Changa and Jasa : — It is improper to allow a (pregnant) woman whose 
child perishes i.e. who gives birth to a still-born child, to remain in a house or a place 
where there is fire or a holy man. That woman should be taken to a piece of ground 
or a plot which is uncultivated and which is 30 steps away from water, 30 steps 
from fire, and 30 steps 4 from a holy man and a consecrated (Dar-j)-Meher 6 . Two 
persons united with a paiwand should give water and bread as food to her and 
from the time that the child perishes up till 4 days, they should not give her water, 
and should not give her food which has been cooked over fire with (the mixture of) 
water, except fruits 6 ; thereafter, on the 4th day, she should wash herself with 
padyab and water and (other) food should be given to her until 41 days pass by. 
On the 42nd day, she should wash her head with the Bareshnmn, and should be hi 
'the no-shaba (retreat) for 9 nights 7 , and she should keep herself away from the con- 
tact of men and after (the lapse of) three nights, she should (first) wash herself with 
padyab and then wash her head and other lirabs with water. On the 10th day she 
should wash herself with pure water and should go home as she is pure and clean. 

MU. I, p. 230, 11. 15-19 to 232, 11. 1-6— H. F. f. 244. 

Kamdin Shapur : — When a woman brings forth a still-born child of one month 
to 10 months old, the first food they should give her is nirang (according to the fol- 
lowing Avesta) : — aat (Vd. 5 § 51). 

i.e. Ormazd said to him : " The gomez of the bull and the ashes of the fire 8 (should- 

1 g,}ljB> lit., path, road. Cf . with this passage Vd. 7 § 69. 

2 *3 = moisture, liquid, i.e., water only, as the liquid gomez is given to her. 

3 nasa lit., dead matter. 

iip, 

* Avesta gives " three steps " for a holy man. ._-*» anc | ,*« are often confounded. 

5 j^o for ^,+jj i See MU. I p. 232 1. 9 and II p. 447 1. 18. 

6 Fruits which are not watery. 

1 The retreat of 9 nights observed in the Bareshnum purification. 
8 Cf. Pah. Vd. 5 § 51 :— 

.'. ^teuDI© 1 ^-"(S 1 -J 3.5 | o£f -"))? -l i-S -is -u£)»>» ?e>f ■"CO" 

■■1)41(01 Jj ??j.>oc-u se|Ae>oi ?.£■ $■*>£ )V>)^ 3| .fwej f-useuo' £ ireV (v 4i$ -HJ^tfiej 

The first thing to be eaten, as appears from the Avesta is this '.—-until she washes herself, 
anything she eats is not proper, (but she should eat) ; — the ashes of Atash-Behram (mixed) 
with the gomes of an uncastrated bull. 



231 

be given) and upto the fourth day, it is not proper that they should give her water 
or salt or anything made of water and salt. When it is the dawn of the 4th day, 
they should give her nirang so that she may wash herself clean and she may wash 
her clothing entirely with nirang, but she should not wash herself or her clothes 
with water. For 41 days, they should give her food united with a paiivand. (The 
Avesta further says) : — aat. mraot. Ahuro. Mazdao. &c. 

Ormazd said 1 : — She should keep herself away 30 steps from fire, 30 steps 
from water, 30 steps from Barsom holily spread, and 3 a steps from the holy man. 

And when 41 days pass by, and she sees that she is clean, she should go to a 
deserted place and comb the hair of her head and tear off completely her garments, 
and they shoidd give her nirang united with a paiwand, so that she may wash her- 
self with padyab three times . Then she should go to the place where Bareshnum is admi- 
nistered and the Dastur who administers the Bareshnum should go to the place of 
the Bareshnum. Both should recite the patM, and then a little consecrated nirang may 
be given to her for drinking, and the Yozdathragar who has the cane with 9 knots 
(called navgar) with him should fasten an iron spoon or one of lead onto it and should 
exercise caution so that there may be nothing left on the head or any Hmb of the 
ayubar (i.e. the impure woman)'. If there is any, it should be removed. The Yoz- . 
dathragar shoidd pour (the contents of) the spoon on the ayubar with both his hands 
and should point out the hmbs of the body in order 4 , so that she may moisten her 
limbs and head and everything (with gomez). Then the Ayubar should catch hold 
of the dog and the Yozdathragar should recite the Avesta. (At the recital of) 

apahhedhra. apanasyehe the ayubar should go inside the furrows with the dog 

and she should purify herself a second time (with gomez)) in the same manner, till 
she washes herself at the six (sets of) stones 5 inside the furrows. At every (set of) 
stones, the Yozdathragar should recite the Avesta. When she reaches the 7th (set of) 
stones, the Yozdathragar should give three spoonfuls of dust in the hands of the 
ayubar (so that she may apply it to her body) and should pour one spoonful (of dust) 
on her head. Then he should sprinkle 15 spoonfuls of dust on the head of the ayubar, 
and the ayubar should therewith make her hair and Hmbs dry so that the moisture 
of the nirang may not be left over. Again, the ayubar should catch hold of the dog 
a second time. The Yozdathragar should recite the Avesta and the ayubar should 
step on to the set of stones (reserved for washing the body) with water. She should 
wash herself at the first set of stones once ; at the second set of stones, twice, and 
at the third set of stones, thrice with water and come out of the furrows. (The 



1 Ci. the Pah. Version :— Vd. 5 § 48 :— - , li; . 6 i. ' 

2 uM, for ,m 

3 ,j «j| Ayubar} the woman who gives birth to a still-born child (for Av. aevo-bara which 
is used for persons who carry nasa (or dead matter) improperly); called also nasamand. 

I (jjUU j ^ij—^jj— limbs and ll) UU = order (See Vd. 8 where the order of the limbs 
indicated). 
5 Called magha in Avesta : originally 'pits,' (replaced now by 'stones' 



232 

Yozdathragar) should recite the Avesta once again and the ayubar should wash 
thrice her hands and face and three spoonfuls of water should be again poured on her 
so that she may wagh her whole body. Again the Yozdathragar should recite the 
Avesta twice and every time the ayubar should recite nemascha. fa. armaitish. 
izhacha. with the Yozdathragar. Then one vessel of water should be poured on 

the head of the ayubar, and. then the ayubar should put on clothes } and the 

Yozdathragar and the ayubar should utter the vaj together. Then the ayubaf 
should perform 2 the Kusti. 

On the first day there is no need for her to uncover herself up to the time she 
goes to rest ; for the rest everytime that she eats her meals, she should unoover her- 
self, wash her hands and face with nirang, wrap up her (right) hand with a piece of 
cloth and hold therewith the end of the spoon, and she should so eat that her bare 
limbs may not come in contact with the plate or the spoon, and the piece of cloth 
(in which her hands are wrapped) should not come in oontact with bread or water 
or the eatables ; if they come in contact, they are impure. When three days and 
nights pass away, they should give her padyab and water so that she may Wash her- 
self 3 and moisten her clothes with nirang and when (her limbs) become dry, she 
should wash herself with water and they should give her another set of clothes so 
that she may put them on. She should wash herself 3 times in 9 nights 4 and then 
she is pure. If in the midst of (the retreat of) 9 nights she is menstruous 5 , but if 
(the time of) the first washing 6 has passed away, she should not undergo the Baresh- 
num, but if (the time of) the first bath has not passed away, she is riman and she 
should wash herself and her clothes with padyab and water and the Yozdath- 
ragar (should also wash himself) and his clothes. If the clothes are not washed, 
they should be put in a place wherefrom they should be (taken up and) put on 7 at 
the time of another administration of Bareshnura. Until the Yozdathragar purifies 
himself, he should not come in contact with any pure thing ; and the water and 
nirang wherewith Bareshnum is administered should have a dilution of the conse- 
crated (water and nirang) 8 . 

MU. I, p. 232, 11. 15-16— H. P. f. 388. 

Bdhman Punjya : — If a pregnant woman gives birth to a still-born child, 9 they 
should not give her drinking water nor baked bread for three days. At the same 
point of time on the fourth day 10 (at which she had given birth to the child on the 

i MU., HP. i^>S (^aa^Ij /£§+=>. j she should take the spoon on her sleeve (for 
eating) — this is an interpolation. (See below MU. p. 232 1. 1). 

2 (jj ijjil =to fasten ; to tie. 

3 On the fourth day. 1 i.e., on the 4th, 7th and 10th days. 

6 jl+j -j lit., prayerless ; i.e., a menstruous woman who is unclean and therefore cannot 
say her prayers. 

6 *£j <_>f the first nav-sJm j.e., the new bath after the lapse of 3 days. 

1 MU. ya for &#>j*i — HF. om. (t>«^JJ for) jU &ijj £f.iy? fjtffji} 

s It is a practice to pour a few drops of the consecrated nirang (gpmez) and av (water) is 
the quantity of water and gomez which is not consecrated. 

j 
9 (il Hj &i /9i f° r y'O ri ft&t l0 ' i* V ?&■» dawn : MU. jj— HF, &j — S.D.B. &*j 



233 



first day)i, she may throw off 2 her garments 3 and wash herself with padyab, eat 
her food and put on new garments and when 41 nights pass away, they should 
administer Bareshnum to her. 

MU. I, 232, 11. 18-19 to p. 233, 11. 1-9. (MU. II, p. 381.) 

Nariman Hosliang :— Changa Shah and all the Hirbads should know that as 
regards an impure 4 woman who brings forth a still-born child, they do not exercise 
precautions for the first 3 days about her drinking water and her eating food and viands 
cooked in water. Of course, they should be informed of it and should abstain there- 
from. Those three days, no water or (food) cooked in water is allowable until the 
given hour on the fourth day and one more hour pass by and then it is allowable 
(to give her water). 

We have indited some of these facts in the Dari and Par si language so that its 
decipherment would be easier. Enclosed 6 (herewith) are some leaves of paper 
whereon are (written) some decisions of the religion so that the Hirbads may read 
them and attend properly to them. 

Again as regards such impure 6 woman they have come to know that the 
woman who gives birth to a still-born child eats food and drinks water and 
indulges in eating and drinking for the first 3 days. We have been so informed as 
has been represented. 7 This is not praiseworthy ; it is a sin and it is not proper 
according to the religion of Ormazd. 

Again, when a woman is nasamand, i.e., if a woman brings forth a still-born 
child, sagclid should be first performed over that child and (two persons) united 
with a paiwand should carry it to a desert place and they should bury in the earth 
the clothes they have put on and wear new clothes. Again, when they return, they 
should first wash their bodies with the gomez of the bull ; and then they should 
mix some gomez of the bull with (a pinch of) the ashes of the (sacred) fire in an 
(empty) shell of an egg and give it (to the woman) so that she may swallow it, and 
thereafter, till the fourth day, she should not drink water nor eat bread or salt 8 
till that point of time (on the fourth day at which she had given birth to the child 
on the first day) 9 passes by and then she should go to a desert place and bury down 
the ground the garments she has on her body and then return and wash the body 
with gomez and then she shoidd swallow the gomez of the bull (mixed) with the 

l i.e., she is to wait from the given hour on the first day when she has given birth, to the 
same hour on the 4th day and one hour more, and then she is allowed to drink water, etc. 
a 0.X jViji— Cf- Per. W i/ J.3^j to throw aside. 
smj,HJ. l^y^— S.D.B. (No. 235). 1^>U 

U3 ,i ■ ■ a woman who gives birth to a still-born child is called nasa or nasamand, 



<M/0 



VJ 



as she brings forth nasa or dead matter :— also called ayubar. 
6 _.?ajl— better lSj'Aj!: Pah. pjif» 

1 MU. AJi^J J OwJuliU pjlx*— MU. II. p. 390 ftJij.*).^ c^lH.U.yi *A ^1** 

8 *£, i_£,+3 lit., salt and brackish. 

s See note 1 above. 30 



234 

ashes of fire and put on other garments. Then she may drink water and eat bread 
and anything she likes and for 40 nights she should sleep (in a secluded place). Then 
if she is found clean, she should undergo Bareshnum. If not, i.e., if the Bareshnum 
cannot be administered, she should undergo (the purification of) si-shui 1 . During the 
first three days I have spoken of, for (removing) the anguish of thirst, it is proper 
(to give her) the milk of the cow or the goat and whey and fruits which are not 
juicy, inasmuch as there would be fear of death 3 for (such) women. 

MU. I, p. 233, U. 11-15. (MU. II, p. 375.) 

Kamdin Shapur and Nariman Hoshang : — Q. — Can a still-born child, from 3 
months old to 10 months old, to which a woman has given birth be carried to (and 
put in) the Dakhma ? 

A. — In this quarter (i.e., in Persia), they carry a still-born child from one month 
old to 4 months 3 old to the foot of the Dakhma or to a dry place in a desert, and 
they carry (such a child) from 4 months and 10 days old to 10 months old to the 
Dakhma (and dispose it there), for the reason that the soul has animated it. 



MU. I, p. 233, 11. 17-19— H. F. f. 216 & f. 222. 



Kamdin Shapur : — In a sea where there is a ship-wreck and a woman 
gives birth (to a still-born child), it may be thrown into the sea ; thereafter when 
they come out of the sea 4 , they should expiate for a margazan crime. 5 

If a woman after travelling 80 cubits" in the sea gives birth (to a still-born 
child) then, if they can, they may carry the child away from the sea (on the dry land) ; 
if not, it should be confined for a time 7 in a corner of the boat so that it may fall 8 
of itself into the sea. Thereafter when the woman comes out (of the sea) she shoidd 
undergo the expiation of a Margarzan sin. 5 

MU. I, p. 234 to p. 235, 1. 1. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — If a woman gives birth to a still-born child from one 
month to four months old, then that still-born child should be carried to the foot 
of the Dakhma. The Yasht-i-Gah§n 9 should not be recited over it and its Sarosh 
ceremony should not be performed and the (sacred) clothes should not be consecrat- 
ed on the dawn of the fourth day 10 , for that child is not 11 animated with life. For 



1 lit., 30 washings : a kind of lesser purificatory ceremony. 

2 lyl^-o for tyiy° 

3 4 months and 10 days (see below). 
* i.e., when they alight on land. 

5 As the water of the sea has been polluted with nasa. 

6 jji.^,1 f or ,J»jT = cubit or fathom. 
' L -S'i>jl lit., a little. 

8 ■>*!.*! I— H - F - A^ljJ— Paz. gj.jjwj 01 , gj. w ,.j = saj |_washed away by the waves. 

9 The Gah-Sarna ceremony, i.e., the recitation of the 7 hds of the Ahunavaiti Gatha over 
the dead. 

10 The ceremonies which j£re prescribed for the grown-up dead should not be performed for 
such a child. 

H for o,.wjij read vi*.w_j-AJ /> 



235 

the still-bom child from 4 months and 10 days up to 9 months old, which any woman 
brings forth, the YasM-i-GaMn should be recited and carried to the Dakhma and 
the clothes (on the dawn of the fourth day) should be consecrated for the sake of 
that child, and it is necessary to perform the Sarosh ceremony ; and if the still-born 
child is polluted with blood and impurity, it should not be washed with the gomez 
of the bull. Then the woman who has brought forth the still-born child should 
wrap it up in a pure shroud and it should be put in a place enclosed by a furrow 
and Sagdid should be performed over it. Then the 7asht-i-0ahTm should be recited 
over it, and the nasasalars should carry it to the Dakhma in conformity with the 
tenets of the religion. Water should not be given for 3 days to that impure woman 
for there is fear of death and it will be a grievous sin. When 3 nights pass away, 
then on the fourth day she should wait for one or two hours (more) and the clothes 
which she has put on her body should be torn to pieces and should be disposed of ;i 
those clothes are polluted for this reason because she has given birth to the still- 
born child with, those clothes on. Thereafter, nirang-din {i.e., gomez) should be 
given to that impure woman so that she may drink it. She should put on other 
clothes and for 40 days she should observe precautions according to the tenets of 
the religion. If, on the first day they give nirang (gomez) and administer si-shui* 
(for the purification of her body), it is proper ; but water, and meat with salt should not 
be given her for 4 days, and the food cooked over fire with water should not be given 
to her and anything prepared with water or salt should not be given to her (as food), 
but any fruit which is not juicy should be given to her. Any eatables, e.g., any cereals, 
which are cooked in milk and the watery fruits which are (as yet) not become juicy 
should be given to her. Meat which is not salted or cereals which are not cooked in 
water and fruits of trees which are (as yet) not juicy, should be given to her. The 
milk of the cattle and the kine may be given to her. During these 3 days and 
nights and on the fourth day until one (more) hour passes, 3 water should not be 
given to her for it is a margarzan sin and there is fear of death. She should be far 
away from populated places for 40 days and when the 40 days are over, then 
on the 41st day the impure garments also should be torn to pieces and should 
be buried underneath the ground*. She should go to a desert place where 
fire is not admitted and she should comb the hair of her head and drink nirang-din 
and undergo the Bareshnum. If any woman brings forth a still-born child, whe- 
ther one month old or two months old or 3 months or 4 months old, then that woman 
should not come in contact with anything for 41 days and she should abstain from 
everything according to the tenets of the religion. After 41 nights she should 
undergo the Bareshnum. In this matter they should study all strict injunctions. 

1 i.e., buried under the ground in a desert place. 

2 a kind of purification to be undergone by a person who is riman. 

3 i.e., from the time she has brought forth the still-born child, they should wait for three 
days and nights, and one or two hours after the term begins on the fourth day, they should give 
her water. 

4 Here S.D.B. (No. 235) adds:— lj ,,-eU ^T jfob ^J ^Ji/o j^Uj &&tj ,yC* ^J jSj 

yiato &X [ y b z"* 1 -* <J \ri w*"^ j'ii>* vW a** 3 ' *•*&*■ <>k]fe v^aj Mtr^ 
A&L y+Jj ^U. ttjf &$ Mlj «>ij"» *>}/> tt»l»i ^ f^** isif Ul ^r" ^'^ 15**^ 



236 

No woman who gives birth to a still-born child is pure, until she passes com- 
pletely (the retreat of) 9 nights and undergoes the Bareshnum. The gomez of the 
bull or anything which is given to that woman should be given to her every time 
with a paiwand. 

Again, if a woman brings forth a still-born child and if that woman dies, then 
those who put her (body) apart in the space enclosed by a furrow (leash) should 
dispose of (i.e., reject) the garments ; or those clothes may be given to the nasasalars, 
for it is allowable if the nasasalars put on these garments. 

MIL I, p. 235, 11. 2-6— H. P. f. 212. 

Kamdin Shapur : — If women who are in menses for one day or two days or three 
days and then die, then two men should proceed with the vcijl and carry a dog (with 
them) and place that woman in hash (i.e., a place set apart by drawing furrows) 
and then (both the persons) should clean wash their heads and clothes with gomez 
and water and carry the dead body according to custom (to the Dakhma). That 
menstruous (dead) woman should not be washed (with water) for it is a great sin. 
For those who have washed (with water) such as are dead, 7 Vendidads should be 
consecrated for the expiation of sins in regard to water. 2 The seven (Vendidads) 
should be recited (in honour) of Ormazd, Ardibehesht, Shehrivar, Asfandarmad, 
Khordad, Amerdad and Aban, so that the sin may be extirpated and the soul of 
that person may be free from that sin. If (the Vendidads) are not consecrated, 
1000 frogs, 2000 tortoises 3 and 100 blind moles* (should be killed for the expiation 
of the crime). At the resurrection, the man who has washed with water 
and the man who has ordered (the washing) will draw grievous sins (on them- 
selves). 



MU. I, p. 235, 11. 8-11— H. F. f. 452. 

Shapur Bharuchi :— If a woman has been in menses and if during the first day 
she is in throes of death, her body should be clearly washed with gomez of the bull 
and Sudreh and Kusti should be put on her body. Water should not be poured on 
the body of the woman in menses ; she should be purified with the gomez of the bull 
and if they do not get such an opportunity as to make (her body) clean with^owaeg 6 
then they should certainly 6 cover (her body) with Sudreh and Kusti and cover it 
with a clean shroud and dispose it of in accordance with the tenets of religion. Then 
the person who has clothed her with the shroud must wash himself with padijab 
and water and should wash his clothes with padyUb and water. 



1 Recite the Srosh Baj, united with a paiwemd. 

2 After (ji.a.y H.F. adds J (Pazendadds !}*) 

* JjS" is+^yjl (J/ isfor )£r-- tf**f 3f>ji is generally written _*_jj and 'explained 
in G-ujarati as ^LrtC-itSU (i.e., the iguana). (J - 

5 MU. Jf— better HP., S.D.B. jjtjjf. 

« MU., S.D.B. jjj^i— HF. jU13 = out of helplessness. 



237 

MO*. I, p- 235 11. 13-15=H. F. f. 85. 

Kama Bdhra :— Q.~How should a woman who has died in pregnancy be dis- 
posed of ? 

A.— Sagdid should be performed (over the dead body). Four persons should 
unite themselves (in pairs) with a paiwand and dispose it of (ceremoniously). If 
she dies just at the time of giving birth, first sagdid should be performed over the 
woman and then sagdid should be performed over the wombi in which is the child, 
and the body should be taken up by four persons, because if two 2 persons take her 
up, both are riman 3 . 

MU. I, p. 235 11. 16-17 = H. F. f. 207. 

Kamdin Shapur .—If a pregnant woman* dies, then four nasdsdlars should 
take her up (to carry her to the Dakhma) and other persons should shoulder the 
bier 5 . In such a way, such dead bodies (should be carried) by four nasdsdldrs. They 
need not undergo the Bareshnum. 

MU. I, p. 235 1. 19 to p. 236, 1. 1=H. F. f. 107. 

Kama Bohra .'—If a woman who is pregnant dies, 4 persons should carry (the 
corpse) uniting themselves (in two pairs) with a paiwand. If (only) two persons 
take her up and carry it to the dad-gah (i.e. the dakhma), both must undergo the 
Bareshnum, because the child is in the womb of the mother.« No means can be 
devised to perform sagdid over it (as it is confined in the womb) : then, as has been 

described, it would be better if (the y act up to) what has been said. , 

' i tj ^ Cf. »3j* = wcanb. ' 3MU. ^-better H.F. w 3jW 

3 and therefore should purify themselves with the Bareshnum. 

Cf. Sis. II § 6 and Sis. X § 10. 

no ji *\j vo^-m ^y )A no «s twtf *'#i«n UK" 01 J P i] (Ch - 2 § 6,) 
„e> iji»y *a5 -j jjij»_ j» f ty W wi»w Jjij \t tHeso* J p*\ (Ch. X § 10) 

WW ran no ftiiDAv & ■»** j no *T > 3»w J '^- 3,w ^ ** * V&f ■*!* ^ 

(Ch. 2 § 6 ):— Vand-Hormazd said that if two men carry a pregnant woman, both are to 
be cleansed by the Bareshnum purification. 

(Ch. 10 § 10): When a pregnant woman dies, she is not to be carried away (to the Dakhma) 
by less than four men who should be always united with a paiwand (ham-zurih-ham-paiwand) ; 
for if, after a dog's gaze, other corpses are carried along by two men united with a panoand, they 
do not become riman. But two dogs are necessary for a pregnant woman, to whom, being united 
with paiwand, the corpse should be shown and she should be carried by four men united with 
a paiwand, who do not (thereby) become riman ; but if two men carry her, then they are to be 

washed with the Bareshnum ceremony (pishak=pikhak— Cf. -»<9"a •■»»■»] i.e., ceremony 
with navgareh). 

i lit., a woman who has the child in her womb. 

5 ^ Aw io'- \£ *4*» lit., should go under the bier i.e., act as the assistants of the nasasalgfs. 
The former are called Khandhias in Gujarati : lit., who take the bier on their shoulders, 

6 and therefore there are two nasas or dead bodies. ... 



23S 
MU. I, p. 236, 1. 3=H. F. f. 382. 

Sahman Punjya :— A woman who dies in pregnancy should be carried (to the 
Dakhma) by four persons, united (in pairs) with a paiwand. 

MU. I, p. 236 11. 5-9= H. P. f. 452 & f. 462. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — Q. — A woman is pregnant and dies — (what is the decision 
about her) ? 

A.' — If a pregnant woman dies, sagdid should first be performed (over the dead 
body). Four persons should take her up to carry her (to the Dakhma) , united (hi pairs) 
with a paiwand. If two persons (only) take her up and carry her to the dad-gah, both 
are riman and they should undergo the Bareshnum. Since the child is in the womb 
of the mother, no means can be devised to perform sagdid over it : — then let it be 
known that it would be better if they act according to what has been said. The 
gahan (i.e. the bier) should be purified six times with dust, and if the gahan is bes- 
meared with the blood or any dischargei of the nasa (i.e. the dead body), it should 
be washed six times with padydb (i.e. urine of the bull), and the bags 3 i.e. the twofold 
cloth which the nasdsdldrs have wound round their hands 3 should be torn to pieces, 
and should be buried in the vicinity of the Dakhma. For the sake of carrying other 
dead bodies, new hand-coverings 2 should be provided. 

About purifying the clothes of the carriers of the dead amd those 
who have become riman otherwise. 

MU. I, 237 11. 3-5= H. F. f. 89. 

Kama Bohra : — If persons 4 putting on a certain suit of clothes carry a dead 
body (to the Dakhma) and if they carry three dead bodies with the same suit on 
and do not wash it, then (those garments) should be (reserved) for this work, vis. 
that dead bodies should be carried (to the Dakhma) with the same (clothes) on. 
If these (garments) are washed, they are to be washed in the same way as the gar- 
ments which have been polluted with dead matter. It is proper that (after being 
washed), they should be (reserved) for women in menses or women who have given 
birth to a still-born child. 5 If it is so, 6 then it is better that these clothes should be 
washed every time that they are used (for carrying a corpse to the Dakhma), or may 
be left just as they are and may be used for one and the same' work. 



1 *j lit., moisture. 
I 

2 LUj ; (Jw or cUi = a bag : a hand-glove in the form of a bag. 

3 The bare hands should not come in contact with the nasa, hence it is necessary to cover 
them up with a kind of hand-gloves {bilaha), or wrap them up in a piece of cloth folded several 
times. 

4 i.e., the Khandhias i.e., those who assist the principal carriers of the corpse called 
nasasalars. Different rules are prescribed for the clothes of nasdsdldrs (the principal carriers) 
and the khandhias (the assistant carriers). See just below (Kamdin Shapur's Rivayat). 

6 j-ii/ojl — an armesht is a woman who gives birth to a still-born child. 

* i.e., if these clothes are to be reserved for women in menses or for an armesht. 



239 

MU. I, p. 237 11. 7-8= H. F. 1 263. 

Kamdin Shapur .-—The clothes (put on) by nasasalars should be (kept) sepa- 
rate, and. they should not be washed. They should be kept aparti in a place far 
away from the abodes of Behdins. Then (the Nasasalars) should procure pddydb 
and wash themselves therewith according to the tenets of the religion and then wash 
themselves with water and go home. Of course, they shoidd leave nothing undone* 
(in this matter), as in our 3 religion, there is nothing better 4 (prescribed) than 
this. 

MIL I, p. 237, 11. 10-14= H. F. f. 80. 

Kama Bohra :— If a garment has been polluted 5 , then the (polluted) part 
should be torn off by two persons united with a paiwand 6 . First sagdid should be 
performed over it and it should be torn off and disposed of 7 and then the rest should 
be washed with padyab s {i.e. gomez) six times. Every time it is (thus) washed, it 
shoidd be dried up with dust till it is thus washed six times and then it should be 
washed six times with water and thereafter it should be placed for six months in a 
place where the wind blows over it and the sun and the moon shine over it. After- 
wards it is suitable (only) for a woman in menses or an armesht 3 who cannot (let) 
perform (for herself) the Yasht-i-Navazud. It is not even fit for the Sudreh 10 . If 



l lit., hidden. 2 or, fail to do. 

5 ,jjU for jjjLe : or u^x>= «)■*>-"£ Mazdayasnian. For ytj ^1^—B.F. Ji »H l («* 
but T33 if J $ J I** . H ^is last reading is preferred, then the translation would be : — In 
the religion of the Manthras, there is nothing better than this. 

1 y^i for ytj 

6 ^iss-^S ; Pah. HKW^r- 

6 ham-zur. lit., united in strength (for mutual help). Hilchra and nasa and all things 
polluted with hilchra and nasa should be disposed of by a couple of persons at the least. Two 
men holding a piece of string, with each end of the string tied to the palm of each other's hands 
are said to be ham-zur or ham-paiwand. 

1 parhihhtan lit., to abstain from. This is a technical word used in every case when hikhra 
or nasa or any article coming in contact with it is to be disposed of ceremonially, according 
to the injunctions laid down by the law. 

8 Av. paityapa : technically used for the urine of the bull. 

8 According to the Rivayats, an armesht is a woman who has given birth to a still-born 
child. According to Vend. 5 § 59, an armesht is nairika. dakhshtavaiti. skendo. aipi-jato-pishtro. 
aipi-irito. gatush i.e., a dashtan woman injured or wounded in the body, bruised, and fixed in 
an alloted place (on account of her being in menses). An armesht, therefore, is one who on 
account of her uncleanness has rendered herself unable to move about and should therefore 
confine herself in an armesht-gah (aipi-ereto-gatush fr. Av. U =to fasten). An 
armesht or a woman in menses is unable to offer an Yasht or prayers, and therefore in neo-Persian 
even, such women are called ^jUj ^i and in the passage of the Vendidadin question it is 
said of her : Tat. hamaha, zasto frlne. nizhbarat i.e., till she brings out her hands in prayer 
i.e., till she is quite clean.. Here, in this Rivayat, mention is made of Yasht-i Navazud. The 
Pahlavi gloss to Vd. 5 § 59 says that it is an armesht who, cannot perform an Yasht (Cf . Per. 

i° Zir-Kwsti i.e., the (sacred) garment underneath the Kusti i.e., the Sudreh. 



240 

It is made into a Sudreh (zir-Kusti) and if the Kusti is tied over it, the Kusti is 
said to be gushada 1 i.e. untied 2 , 

MU. I, p. 237, U. 15-19 to p. 239 11. 1-2=H. F. f. 104, f. 146. 
Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama :— Q. — Which are those garments which become 
riman {i.e. polluted by coming in contact with dead body) and which can never be 
pure by being washed ? and which are those (impure garments) which can be 
purified ? and if they wash them, how should they be washed ? 

^■•— One is that which is besmeared 3 with the urine or spittle of the mouth of 
the dead. When they wash it, that (soiled) piece should be torn off and thrown 
away and the rest should be washed with padyab and water so that it may be pure. 

The second is that which is soiled with the impurity* of a menstruous woman. 
When they wash it with water and the stain thereon cannot be removed, then that 
much piece should be torn off and thrown away and the rest should be washed with 
padyab and water and it will be pure. The third is that which is permeated with 
the blood or exudation (issuing from the dead body). (In such a case), sagdid 
( should be performed over it 3 (by two persons) united by a paiwand ; then that much 
portion which is soiled shotdd be cut off and thrown away 6 and the rest should be 
washed 6 times with padyab and (then) dried with dust and (then) washed 6 times 
with water and thereafter it should be exposed for six months in a place where the 
light of the sun or the moon falls on it and where the wind blows over it. Afterwards 
this garment should be (reserved) for a mentruous woman, or an armesht (i.e., 
a woman who gives birth to a still-born child) who cannot perform any Yasht,? and 
it is not proper that Kusti should be tied on it?* If any (armesht or dashtan) woman 
(who uses such garments) binds the Kusti thereon, it is such as if they go without 
the Kusti tied on and let it be known that it is a sin of Kushadeh-davarashnih (lit., 
running about uncovered i.e. without Sudreh and Kusti on). 

The garment used by a menstrous woman and those garments which are worn 
by a person 9 (i.e. a woman) who has been made riman by (giving birth to) a still- 
born childio and which are put on by her just before" she becomes an armesht (i.e. 

1 i.e., it is a sin of Kushada-davarashnih i.e., walking about uncovered with Sudreh or 
Kusti, (See Comm. to Pah. Vd. 5 § 59), because the Kusti is not tied on the proper Sudreh. 

2 In Vd. 5 §§ 57-62 and Vd. 7 §§ 17-22, it is said that nothing whatever of God's gifts that 
can be properly utilized should be needlessly thrown away. Hence it is enjoined that impure 
clothes which have come in contact with nasa, after being thoroughly washed and disinfected 
as indicated here should be used by women in menses (ndirika dakhshtavaiti), or wounded and 
eiek persons (skendo. aipi-jato. pishtro) or armesht persons, who should remain in an armesht- 
gah or confined in a place of seclusion (aipi-ereto-gatu=aTmeaht-gah). If aipi-irito is read for 
aipi-ereto, according to some MSS., then it is the same as Per. &£Jb impure i.e., a place where 
impure persons (like a woman in menses or an armesht or a lying-in-woman) should sit. In 
any case the Pah. gloss to Vd. 5 § 59 uses armesht for persons who are incapacitated for work 
through any cause. 

3 * mj lit., reaches. i 'y^ Av. hihhra. 

B As part of the nasa has passed through that garment. 

6 ^ AiSfliJ or y i^J_Jir ji ( aa ™ Kaus Kama) i.e., disposed of i.e., buried in the ground. 

7 i.e., who cannot say her prayers in such an impure state : cf. ,-j t*-*^ i-e-, ceremonial 
impurity in women disqualifying them from engaging in prayer. 

8 i.e., such garments should not be made into a Sudreh (or sacred shirt). 

9 15"'*' iov tft?^ 10 here '•"}= still- born child: Cf. oJuoLo y)=C».&..«jl yj 
11 MU., HF. ^my jjf jl ,_)wJ /.S (Kama Bohra) — better Kaus Kama liJ^J yi jl (j*^ /•$ 



241 

gives birth to a still-born child)— both these (kinds of) garments are alike ; and 
when they are washed, they should be washed well once with pddydb and should be 
exposed to the sun for making them dry and then they should be washed with 
water, and until they are dried up in the sun, let it be known that it is not the 
rule to wash them with water, and one should not overstep the usual bounds.! 
Any garment that is used in menstruation 3 times and is not washed, or a garment 
in which dead matter is carried 3 times 2 and is not washed [and the garment which 
is worn by a woman who gives birth to a still-born child] should be left (apart) for 
-the same purpose, 3 and it should not be washed for it is not proper. Garments 
worn by a woman who gives birth to a still-born child are the same as are made 
riman by dead matter. 4 



1 &U£i ieji^ **o not be mtre pid or b°ld. 

■3 lit., 3 dead matters are carried. 

3 i.e., for being used by a dashtdn woman or an armesht or for carrying nasa. 

1 Cf. Sis. II §§ 93-96 :— 

.Mwn^'oo jmj ^$* 

(95) Clothing which is useless is this :— that in which they carry a corpse ; that even which 
is underneath is mostly (Icabed) or altogether useless (or, that which is mostly or entirely unfit 
for all use); that with which they wash (the corpse) ( w i_j«J=to wash; or, reading 

H^eJfOI —that on which the nasd decomposes) ; that on which the excretions of the dead 
come ; so much space should be torn off and the rest to be washed with 6 months' process.* 

(96) That which a menstruous woman uses should be left for the same work (i.e., it should/ 
be used by that woman again in menses). 

Cf. Pah. Vd. 7 § 13 Comm. i— (p. 247 11. 7-16 to p. 248 11. 1-2) 

The clothes which are useless are the following : — 

That on which one dies ; that on which they carry (a corpse) ; that with which (the corpse) 
is washed (Cf. Per. .&&&) [or, that on which the corpse decomposes], that which 
is mixed up with secretion's (charpashna) (or exudations) ; that on which hilchra (refuse) 
of the dead spreads; that which is soiled with the dashtdn and stains (| r guna) thereon 
are not removed ; that which a menstruous woman keeps in use and makes a bed thereof 
(cf. Per. (ijAj^Jj to make a bed; to spread a cloth); or, that on which dead matter 
has come; that on which exudations from the dead occur : so. much space (as has been spoiled) 
should be torn off (and rejected) and the remainder is pure (but not fit for ordinary use : it 
should be used by a dashtdn or armesht). As for that which is soiled with dashtdn and the stains 
( | r ) whereon cannot be removed, as much space (as has been soiled) should be torn off and 
the remainder is pure. As for that which is permeated with secretions, so much space (as has 
been soiled) should be torn off and the rest will be pure with the six-months' process : but the 
remainder is all useless. 

* Cf. Vd. 7 §-15 : — If the clothing is woven, it should be washed 6 times with bull's urine, 

should be scoured 6 times with earth, washed 6 times with water and should, be fumigated 

and exposed for six months at the window of the house. 

31 



242 

Cf. Sis. II §§ 97-99 :— 

^ci je>> (98) .•. fu^eo j-»$xty $ iKsSyiiKJ-" if&Ho ^rop^re-" no -> ^rasi (97) 
1 1TO115 jjjj ^hj|» Ar no -i Jjjj -^ -j itojto ai|j o-^f no ^j -"^f i^nre wteoio 
t ironim" -^j ikj^i woV -j^-"hj no ■"jtj -^si? - 1 iwj:k3 -»]j -Ha-f no %J _j" 
.". ikmoo jp^ibJ -i ^Oi) no our iWiiV^ ^(5 -^ «wi i£ w-^o )i«o^-" no ^ 
*$ i r'f i .jkwV i 1®4 ) £«a i iw fwsy )Wn«j nw^ .£■£ ->£ <f.^ ^«u» ^P© 1 (") 

f. IttJaWjIl ^j^P.^ }?? a^Rui /.7W lieey lienee HW-n -"TO 7-»f $w 
(97) The clothing which should be washed by the six-months' process is such as is declared 
in the A vesta. (98) If the clothing is of leather, it should be washed 3 times with gomez and should 
be made dry with dust every time and should be washed 3 times with water, and should be 
exposed for 3 months in a place in the open sun-light (lit., as can be viewed by the sun) and 
then it is proper for an armesht who cannot perform prayers (in that state), or it is proper for 
a menstruous woman. 

(99) Other clothing, when hair is on it is (to be washed) jtist as a woven cloth : wool, floss, 
silk, hair, camel's hair all should be washed just like woven cloth. Woven cloth should be washed 
6 times. 

Cf. Pah. Vd. 5 § 59 Comm.— (p. 200 11. 9-10)— 

Polluted and impure garments (of a dashtan woman or an armesht or soiled with nasd) 
should be washed with the 6 months' process. Kusti (ayabasashni Cf. Per. ,..«'£,= girth or 
surcincture) should not be (tied) over these garments (Cf. i>j(AJ *, lj ^i^S ji\ MTJ. p. 237 
I: 12 f ) and (by wearing it) the sin of vashdt-dubdrashni should not be committed. If the 
garments are washed with the 6 months' process arid Kusti (ayabasashni=Per. aw'^j) is (tied) 
over it [or, if Sudreh is made of such a garment ), then the sin of vashdt — dubdrashni is committed. 
Those (garments) which are polluted with hikhrd (or impurities) of this world (e.g., of 
dashtdn, armesht) — (if they are put on and Kusti tied over themf) — both these (garments) — of 
a dashtdn woman or of an ayukbar (i.e., of an armesht) cause (the sin of vashdt-dubdrashni). 
About dashtdn (garments) nothing is said otherwise (Cf. MU. 238 1. 4 &&U * 7 y.^ j&tj 
Ci. Vd. 7 §§ IMh :— ' 

(12 j Can the garments be purified, which have cbrhe in contact with the nasd of a dead dog 
or a dead man ? 

(13) . . . They can be made clean : How ? Thus : If they be of leather or woven and 
if they be (soiled) with pus or perspiration or excreiuent or vomit, then the Mazdayasnians shall 
tear off the cloth arid bury it (as much as is soiled). 

■ (14) But if they be ndt (soiled) with pus or perspiration or excrement or vomit, then the 
Mazdayasnians shall wash these clothes with gomez. . 

(15) If they be of leather, they should be washed 3 times with gomez, they shall rub them 
with earth thrice, and wash them with water thrice, and expose them for 3 months at the window 
of the house. If they be woven, they should wash it 6 times with gomez, shall rub them with 
earth 6 times, shall wash them with water 6 times and expose them for 6 months at the window 
of the house. 

Cf. Vd. 7 §§ 17-21 and Vd. 5 §§ 57-60 :-- 

(1 7 ) Can the clothes (which have come in contact with the dead or used by a lying-in woman) 
be used, after Being washed and purified, by the Havanan &c, .... or by a priest or a 
warrior or a husbandman. 

(18) These clothes after being washed and cleansed cannot be used by the Havanan, &e. 

(19) If there be, in the house of a Mazdayasnian, a menstruous woman or any one who is 
wounded or lacerated or bruised and who is (therefore) in a place of infirmity, then their clothes 
shall serve for their bedding or covering, until they can withdraw their hands for prayer. 

(20) For Ahura Mazda does not allow us to waste such things as clothing, not even so much 
as an Asperena (i.e., of the value of one diram) nor anything of any the least worth (avaehino), * 
such as a spinster lets fall in spinning. 

(21) If a Mazdayasnian throws (any clothing) on a dead body of such a rneasure as a spinster 
lets fall in spinning, then he is not holy when alive and he does not get the Best Existence 
when dead. 

t or, thus : — Sudreh should not be made of it, i.e., not one of such washed garments should 
be made into Sudreh. 

\ or, Sudreh (ayabdsashnih) is made of such garments. 
* Av. vach to speak : lit., contemptible, small, 



243 

MU. I, p. 239, 11. 4-5-H. F. f . 209. 

Kamdin Shapur :— A child dies and if its urine or blood besmears any garment 
then that portion of the garment should be cut off and disposed of (i.e., rejected), 
and the rest of the garment should be washed 6 times TVith gomez and 3 times with 
water and it is pure.i 

MU.I,p.239,1.6=H.F.f.80. 

Kama Bohra :— A garment which is polluted with the bodily refuse of the 
living should be washed with pddydb and water and if it is (besmeared) with blood 
whose stain cannot be removed on being washed, that much portion should be cut. 
off (and rejected). 

On the purification of metals, stones, etc., which are defiled, 
H. F. f. 132. 

Kama Bohra .-^Chapter 90 :— In what mode is it necessary to wash everything 
that becomes poUuted by dead matter. Gold which is poUuted by dead matter 
should be washed with gomez once, should be made dry with dust once and washed 
once with water so that it may be pure. 

Silver (vessels) should be washed in this maimer twice so that they may be 
pure. Copper, tin, brass and lead {vessels) should be washed three times ; steel, 
four times; stone (articles), six times; turquoise, ruby, jewels, amber, carbuncle 
and cornelian and like these, whatever arises from mines and pits should be washed 
six times with pddydb {i.e., gomez), and should be made dry with dust. 

For pearls, the Dasturs have spoken of two mqdes, but the conclusion is this 
and it is such that they should be washed like stone (articles). Wooden and earthen- 
ware should be thrown away. It is requisite to wash the clothing also six times 
as I have mentioned, and^fter that to put them fornix months in a place where the 
moon and sun may shine on them, and after that they should be removed and are 
fit for a menstruous woman. 2 

MU. I, p. 239, 11. 8-10— H. F. f. 222. 

Kamdin Shapur :— Q.-^-How should metals which are become evidently riman 
' with nasd be washed % 

A.— Gold (should be washed) once with gomez, once with dust and once with 
water and it shall be pure. Silver (should be thus washed) twice with gomez, &c. 
Iron, ,3 times ; steel, crystal, ambergris, agate, turquoise and (vessels made of) 

1 See MU. I, p. 161,11- 2-3 and p. 253, 1. 18. 

2 This Bivayat is found in H.F. only :— 

a,4,b J.b J, .yj^ei yt, ^ j yij. y£&> ^ Mi J (i^f *i^ V 1 ^ M>- & » l i 
trirfj- j t>ibJ j wOO; 1 J w*kti J *^- d[ i 4 v l ~^ ■&** *>!** -''■ ji *f&* J 

&*» &'£■ '4 f**-^ j sp-^y. jjj w^ j j ^^ A£ji> db/'"' 1 °y } JJf j ^J 



244 

stone — all (should be washed) 6 times with gomez, 6 times with dust and 6 times 
with water and they shall be pure. 

Diamond should be (thus) washed 3 times. (Vessels of) brass or copper (should 
be washed) 6 times as described.! 

MU. I, p. 239, 11. 18-19 to p. 240, 1. 1. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — If a dog dies and anything of metal becomes riman (by 
coming in contact) with that dog, then after disposing of (the carcase of) the dog, 
a Behdin should wash that metallic vessel in conformity with the tenets of the religion 
with ab-i-zar (gomez) and (then) wash it with water and then he should also wash 

1 Cf. Saddar Nasr, Ch. 91 and Vd. VII §§ 73-75 :— 

(73) Can the eating vessels be purified . . . that have come in contact with the nasd 
of a dead man or dog ? 

. (74) . . . They can be purified. How ? Thus : — If they be of gold, they shall be washed 
once with gomez, they shall be rubbed once with earth, they shall be washed thrice with water 
and they shall be clean. If they be of silver .... twice 

(75) If they be of iron (or of brass) thrice 

If they be of steel four times . 

If they be of stone sis times . . 

If they be of earth or of wood or of clay, they are unclean for ever. 

Cf. Pah. Vend. 7 § 75 : Comm :— 

AD jewels should be thrown in (the category of) iron, and crystal is just like gold. Am- 
bergris, jewels, agate, black coral and white (coral), diamond {aolas^ialmas) and ebony (are 
like) wood. About pearls they have been of different opinions. Some say, they are like gold. 
Some say : they are like other jewels. Some say they have no washing. 

Cf. Sis. II §§ 112-117. 

510 J-uj^KT 1NMWJ 'Mj <s€f \\a *±J 7>0* iWllfiW $4 ^W°i ■W!C ±y>$ (112) 

jmj «£r" nei *fj jf #»-» (113) .'. -«ij iwfcce -"jj -hj-C nei *^j 7W W7 7-W -Ay 

•»$&<? 1KJ3-" 1 (114) .". -H3-SJ (WJiTO -iMj •*}■£ \)Si luj _)l |P0»,l7 *U J-W Ay lie) IKJJTO 

Wsitfo mkjj» 7 xjey -)£)» <?eif iV (H5) :. ^j_j»_ f jkj ) *■» 1 £y# n'feAei 1 Ijjj 
.viw-s-" itoSy iwnro nw-" i-vp ^v 1 -iKj way w\\m nw-" J«a^ t jj-uJ )X5 a 

•Si^WSy^l -J JJf nPO 1 KM-" ■*» VKSM jQ-V f^a ^-"V i\^U I JD0^7 I H©J-DrV (116) 
•»» S»^ ) )WV Jpe HOlfft- 5 - 5 <fWI ^7 4j jjj <p^> 1 ^-H3 IKJSy IlKW IKMK} iWltflAJ fOf -^ 
lj») 1) j Jjjy iif>o> i |WW 1W3JTO tVjV-^ )ys>§ (117) .'. %jK)' 3W3 -HJ-" MeW1.<*> Wl 

.'. 7JJK)a ^7 if ? ^JKT IKMKJ J 0- i) 1WW1-M VW\ -^ 

(112) Gold, when dead matter comes on it, should be washed once with gomez, should be 
made dry with dtist once and should be washed with water once, and it is clean. (113) Silver, 
(if dead matter comes on it) should be washed twice with gomez, should be dried with dust 
(twice) and washed with water twice, and it is clean. (114) Iron (should be thus cleansed) 
thrice; steel, four times, and stone, six times. (115) Afrag has said that glass or crystal (or, 
quicksilver) is the same as gold; and ambergris is the same as stone, and all (other) jewels are 
the same as iron. (116) Pearls, ambergris, ruby, gems, turquoise MfJa IjJjQ ), agate, 
coral stone (vasadin-sang) and things made of bones and other precious stones which 
have not been specially mentioned are to be washed like wood. When they are (once) taken 
into use, there is no washing for them (if they come in contact with nasd) ; but if they are 
not (at all) taken into use, then their washing is once (if they come in contact with nasd). 
(117) Things made of earth and horn have no washing ; other gems which have not been taken 
into use (at all) are to be washed once, and are declared out of use (when once they are used and 
if they come in contact with nasd). 



245 

himself with the gomez of the bull and water and he would be pure. The garments 
that are put on (at the time) should be washed. These garments should also be 
washed with pddydb and water and then they should wash themselves with pddydb 
and water and make themselves pure. 

On cooking and drinking vessels- 

mi, p. 240, 11. 1-2= H. F. f. 440, (MU. II, p. 453.) 
Kaus Mahyar : Q.— Can food be cooked in a pot (manufactured) by a, darvand 1 
or not ? 

A if a pot manufactured by a darvand is scoured 2 and tinned, it will do out 

■of helplessness. 

MU. I, p. 241, U. 1-2. (MU. II, p. 385.) 
Nariman Eosliang ;— Q.— Can they cook food in an earthen vessel ? 
A.— If the pot is brought in a clean state (padyab) from the potter (who is a 
darvand) and until that pure state (padyab) of the pot is preserved, it is proper ; 
but if it becomes impure.s it can never be fit for the Behdins eating their food there- 
in in any case. 

MU. I, p. 241, 11. 4-5=H. F. f. 440. (MU. II, p. 453.) 
Kaus Mahyar .-—How is it about an earthen pot baked in an oven and manu- 
factured by darvands ? 

A.— If water has not been poured into it 4 (by the darvands), the Behdins may 
use it. They may wash it (themselves) and keep it free from pollution, but it is 
not fit for the dasturs {i.e., the priestly class). 

MU. I, p. 241, 11. 7-8. 
Kaus Kamdin :— Q — Is.it allowable to eat food in china-ware or not ? 
A.— In this quarter (i.e., in Persia), one cannot eat food in anything other 
than metaUic vessels. 

MU.I,p. 241,1. 8=H.F.f. 218. 

Kamdin Shapur .-—China-ware (or porcelain) is not pure 5 . 

MU. I, p. 241, 11. 10-13. (MU. II, p. 386.) 

Nariman Hoshang .-—From the religion of the Behdins, nothing is known about 

china-ware, 6 but if from quarries of pure stones (vessels are made, they can be used). 

Except metallic vessels, (no other vessels) are allowed?. On this side (i.e., in Persia), 

when (a vessel) is broken, and if the same vessel is taken to a furnace 8 and forged 

1 Now technically used for one of a foreign faith. 

2 ^j U;_Cf. Per. e w_jU=to polish, furbish ; or this may be &>/b = to the pot 
or culinary vessel. 

3 yljilj antonym of o'jib— Cf. Pah. MOW (Nirangastan).= &!&>& • 

4 lit., if it has not seen water, i.e., if the darvandhas not washed it with water after manu- 
facturing it. 

5 i.e., eating in such wares is not allowed. 

6 And therefore we cannot pronounce an opinion on it. 

7 Amiu Ja.m 8 for ijj$ read tj^i 






246 

anew therefrom, just as is (the case with) glass, it is allowable in the religion of the 
Behdins to eat food therein and it is proper ; if not, i.e., if thedeast earth has entered 
into it and if it cannot be taken to the furnace and cannot be melted, it is. not pro- 
per according to the religion of the Behdins to eat food therein, 
MU. I, 241, 11. 13-15. (MU. II, p. 476.) 
Suratya Adhyarus :— Q.— Is it proper for the Behdins to eat food in glazed 
vessels or vessels of porcelain, in which those of a foreign faith or of another religion 
have eaten their food, after making them pure and washing them (with water) ? 

A.— Those which are made of stone or those which can be melted in fire are 
allowed ; but those manufactured from clay are not allowed. 

About the pollution of a piece of wooct 

MU. I, p. 241, 11. 17-19 to p, 242, 11. 1-4=H. F. f. 101, f. 144. 
KamaBohra and Kaus Kama, .-—If a person is hanged on the gallows and he- 
remains suspended on it in such a way that no part of his (lirabs) comes in contact 
with the gibbet,i then the impurity (of the corpse) does not descend to. the ground ; 
but when they take him down from the gibbet and if any bare member of his comes- 
in contact with (the gibbet), then the pollution goes down to the water underneath 
(the ground) 3 , or when they place (the body) on the ground, and if any bare (mem- 
ber) of his (body) strikes the ground, then (also) the poHution descends 3 to (the: 
water under) the ground. 

Kaus Kama If he remains suspended in air and he is let down in such 

a way that (his body) does not come in contact with it (i.e., the gibbet) or if any 
bare part of his body is not allowed to come in contact with the ground, then th& 
pollution does not descend to the ground 4 . 

MU. I, p. 242, 11. 4-7— H. F. f. 127. 
Kama Bohra .-—The 76th chapter is this :— A wooden board .or plank" where- 
on they carry a corpse, one whereon a dead person is washed, one which is polluted 
with the blood and impurities (issuing) from the dead, that which a menstruous 
woman touches with her bare feet or any uncovered member of her body, that 

l ^j,J = wood, gibbet. 2 because the gibbet touches the ground and as the. 

former has come in contaet with nasa, the latter also is polluted. 
3 MU. 4J.&3 _jy— better ,HF. t>y&jj (as in Kaus Kama). 
* Of., Sis. II §23:— 

\pk ij iiKHitai ^jj wvf iwnwtf -»u '$* t£> «0 \_rio' w <?p (23) 

.Memtai Sxytgiif^ vba $r> zS i rim tan ^jj <?$> i s.ml* 

(23) When one dies by strangulation, and (is suspended) by the rope on the neck, and if 
there is fear of his falling down, he should not be carried down (to the ground, lest it should be 
polluted). When there is: fear of his falling down and when that fear is as regards one side of 
him, then he .should ,be carried .down on that .side .(only, as thereby a small portion of ground 
will be polluted ; if not, by falling flat on the ground, he will pollute a much larger space). But 
if he is on the point of falling clown, then they should carry him down (and the corpse placed 
over) as much space as he has fallen on. 

5 Wooden biers for carrying a corpse are not allowed. The biers or gahdn should be made 
of iron. 






247 

.'/piece of wood) on which a man is hanged— all these pieces of wood should not be 
usedi and one should not come in contact with them again. If the clothing is pol- 
luted, 3 it ought not to be burnt but should be carried to a place whence no one 
•can carry them off and burn them or bring them back for the use of men, because 
it is so said in the xeligion. 

MU. I, p. 242, 11. 9-10 & II. 15-16. 

■ 

Shapur Bharuchi -and Kaus Eamdin :— Q.— If there be a large or a small piece 
■of wood and on one side thereof, any impurity adheres, can that much space 
be scratcheda a little with an axe and the rest (of the wood) regarded as pure 
or not ? 

A.— Except (the impurity of) menstruation, and of the dead matter of a dog 
or of a man, whatever there may be thereon of the impurity* of the living, may be 
scratched away and it will be pure after 4 months and 10 days. 

■ 
MU. I, 242, 11. 18-19. 

Shapur Bharuchi ;— If fire-wood^ is soiled and besmeared with the bodily re- 
fuse's ; then what has been besmeared should be disposed of (i.e., rejected) and what 
has not been polluted is pure. 

A comb which has been poUuted or which has such teeth' as inflict any wound 
Is of no use and should not be used. 






MU. I, p. 243, 11. 1-8— H. F. f. 88, £. 118, f. 154 






Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama :— Q.— If a piece of fire-wood or a comb has in- 
flicted a wound on the head or the hand and if it is carried to the water or fire, does 
the sin arise just as in the ease of (allowing wood to come in contact with) bodily re- 
fuse or with dead matter % 

A.— If the fire-wood inflicts a wound on a member of the body & then that 
portion thereof which has inflicted the wound on the member and what has been 
besmeared with blood should be cut off (burand) and thrown away, and the rest 
will be pure. 






1 ii).iy J&* Bfc,'ta> avoid, shun. 

2 MU. aAIu— better H.F. A,S,Ui 

;,„ no-.v-oTil 

3 Mn. = lS .j&b c~~&J— better B. K. = l M*1j3 A£t 

4 jiX, Av. hilchra. 

5 />+-i r =fuel, fire-wood. , . , 

A v A 7-7 7. 

7 ^U lit., a place, i.e., the tooth (which raises a sore). 



■s ^ta. lit., a place. 



. 



248 

It is said about a comb that when it is polluted and when it has inflicted any 
wound on any member of the body, it cannot be of use again ; it should be re- 
jected. 

Kaus Kama : — Q.— If a piece of fire- wood inflicts a wound on any member of 
the body and if it is carried to water or fire, what is the decision ? 

A. — That portion which has been polluted should be cut off and the rest is pure, 
and when they cut it off and it reaches water or fire, it is the same as the nasd of the 
dead has been taken to water or fire. 

When they dress the hair with a comb and if it raises a sore at a place, then it 
is not to be used again, for (if it is used again) it is a margarjan sin. 1 

On trimming or shaving the hair and the ceremonial disposal of it. 

MU. I, p. 243, U. 9-12. 

Kaus Kamdin : — Can Behdins dress the hair of the head and the beard with a 
comb ? 

A. — When they have combed the hair of the head, they should wash their 
body with the pddy&b (i.e., gomez)oi the bull, then make it dry, and thereafter wash 
it with water and it will be proper. 

Q. — Can a comb with which the hair of the head is dressed be again used for 
(dressing the hair of) the beard or not ? 

A. — The comb with which the hair of the head is dressed should not be used 
for (dressing the hair of) the beard. (The combs for dressing the hair of) the head 
and of the beard should be kept separate. 

i Cf. Sis. II §118:— 
P£ .". iKJtl^ej JJ|J JD)»^ (€tt?| tflllW Sl» J)» W <)K? V ?f £»-" (118) 

War i .". iwn^'Oo -A .££ -hj^ iron;W -»u f^w jup^ wj ireoyp _y kw?i -up far> 
to. <?ei)> ne&jj n«wi9 i /. iw-'oo iwo-uto 1 -j pi-" ua tat ?e>v -opookj _j» -^r^ wo 

(118) Fire-wood, when green, should be cut off the length of a span, one by one, as many 

(sticks) as there are ; if dry, one span and two finger-breadths ; they should be 

deposited in some place for the length of a year and water should not be sprinkled over 

it ; it should be taken out after the length of a year. Soshyos has said that it is proper as 

fire-wood for fires and Kushtan-bujit has said that it is just as is declared in the Avesta, i.e., 

when it is washed (i.e., purified), then even it is fit for the dahhma 1 of a forest (i.e., it 

should not be used in ordinary cases). 

■ 
Cf. Pah. Vd. 7 § 31 Comm. (p. 259 11.13-16). 

When it (i.e., the wood) is thus washed, then even it should never be used for water or fire. 
Mah-Ormazd said : it may be used for the work of the foundation of a wall (tagarg : Cf. Per. 
iJI»S3 ) Parik has said that it should not be used as an apparatus for the Yasna. 



l i.e., taken to such a place as is far away from human habitation. A ddhlima is always 
impure, therefore an impure thing may be used in connection with another impure thing. 



249 

MU. I. p. 243, 11. 12-13— H. P. f. 0l. 

"Kama Bohra ': — Q. — If one gets his hair (of the head) trimmed (or, shaved)*, 
'then can one wash it with water during the '(first) three days or not ? 

A. — If any matter or blood or pus does not issue from it, it should be (first) 
'washed with pddyab so that it may be (finally) washed with water. 

MU. I, p. 243, U. 14-18— H. F. f. 121, f. 160. 

Eamit Bohra and Kaus Kama ■:— Q— If onergets the hair (of the head) trimmed 
or shaved, can one wash it during the (first) three nights 2 with water or not ? 

A. — Whenever there does not issue any matter or blood, or pus or exudation, 
then one may (first) wash it with pddydb and leave it (for a time) till the matter 
(issuing) is dried up ; then one should look to it again and If there does not issue 
any (fresh) matter, it is proper if one washes it with water. The work of a barber 
means trimming of Shaving the hair. 

MU. I, p. 244, 11, 1-2. 
Jdsd :-^-A Behdin should not trim the hair from above the navel and should 
never pluck it off (therefrom). He who trims -it (so) or, plucks it off is riman ; he 
should wash his head with the Bareshnum. The hair from below the navel may 
be trimmed but should not be plucked off. 

MU. I, p. 244, 11. 4-6. (MU. It, p. 386). 

Nariman Hoshang :— Q. — Is it proper to shave the hair of a young child of 5 to 
"7 years old or not ? 

A.— On this side {i.e. in Persia), the hair of a little child from 3 to 4 years old 
is trimmed with scissors used for paring the nails' ; but it is not known whether it 
is permitted to shave it (with a razor) : but, of the child from 5 to 7 years old, (the 
hair) cannot be (shaved) except when there is a necessity or if it has any disease— 
onay God forbid. 

MU. I, p. 244, U. 7-11--H. P. f . '265. 

Kamdin Shapur : — Disposing of the hair ceremoniously — It is so necessary 
that (the hair trimmed) should be taken up and carried to a place in such a manner 
as described* and placed underneath the ground and (then) Srosh Vaj should be 
recited : — Yafha-dkv,- f airyo-Zdota- should be recited (up to vidhvao rnradtu) and the 
hair should be placed "in the ground and this Vaj (or, riirang) should be recited over 
it:— -At-ahhydo-ashd-Mazda-urvardo-valchshat. & (Three) Yathas should be recited 
and at every Yatha, a furrow should be drawn round it and the Vaj (of Srosh) 
should be finished ; then one more Yatha should be recited and Kem-na-Mazdd 
with the vaj should be recited. 6 

1 \J or fjtjt^a- barber and ^Xjt j£= trimming, or shaving the hair. 

2 ^S* =8j.^ — night. 

3 T33 and S. D. B. add £.iii^. ^j 

I i e., to a place where there is no water or fire or away from human habitations. 

o Y. 4SSG. 6Cf.Vd.17. 

32 



250 

MU. I, p. 244, 1. 12— H. F. f. 388. 
Bahman Punjya : — About disposing of the hair ceremonially : — It should be 
collected in a place (free from water, &c.) and nails should (also) be taken to a desert 
place where it may not reach water or fire. 

MU.I,p. 2441. 14=H. F.f. 440. (MU. II, p. 453). 
Kaus Mahyar : — Q. — How is it for the hair trimmed (or, shaved) ? 
A. — The hair (trimmed) or the nails (pared off) shoidd be taken to a desert 
spot, but should not be buried under the ground 1 



MU. I, p. 246, 11. 13-19 to p. 247 11. 1-11— H. F. f. 41. 

Kama Bohra : — Q. — How should nails be pared and where should they be 
placed ? 

A. — While paring the nails, first 2 that (of the finger) next to the last 3 should be 
pared ; then one next to the thumb 4 i.e. of the fore-finger, and then of the last finger 
and (fourthly) of the thumb 5 and (5thly) of the middle finger. They should be 
pared in this order. 7 When the nails are cut, one Yatha, Ahu Vairyo should be 
recited on cutting each nail into (two) pieces and should be placed in a piece of paper 
on a dry piece of ground and the ends of the nails should be turned towards the 
northern direction, (and then the vdj recited) : — Khsh?iaoihra-Aliurahe-Mazddo 

Ashem 3, Fravardne (with the gah). Sraoshahe mraotu, and on reciting 3 

Yathas, three furrows should be drawn round 8 the nail-parings, i.e., at every 
(drawing of) the furrow, one Yatha, i.e. for 3 furrows, 3 9 Yathas should be recited 

(and then the following nirang should be recited) : — paiti-te-meregM 10 

With the end of the nail-cutter, a pinch of dust should be thrown on the nail-parings 
three times. From every furrow (or enclosed space) a little dust should be taken up 
(on to the end of the nail-cutter) and thrown over the nails. Then (the Vaj should 
be finished). 

MU. I, p. 247, 11. 13-19— H. F. f. 264. 

Eamdin Shapur : — Q. — How should one act while paring the nails and dis- 
posing 11 of the hair? 

A. — For paring the nails, the rule is this that when they pare off (the nails), 
then for every one (paring), one Yatha shoidd be recited, and at the recital of (each) 
Shyaothenanam, the nail paring should be cut into (two) pieces and then they should 
be wrapped up in an old piece of paper. They should take the vaj of Srosh and recite 

1 See above : other Rivayats say that they should be buried. 

3 pjlji = Paz. j^-^ia • 3 4 — small i.e. last finger. 

1 />-* = (iJj_}^ t!*&&l)=thumb 

5 After A *> H.F. ooreotly adds -iyU •> -cy£j 

8 /j'j>-« CU'&ftl middle finger (also — ^^/a c^ftl) 

7 MTJ. (i )A-';^- ic*! — better H. F. w ;k ^ (written in Avesta characters) 

a MU. ij- H.F. &J t ji ij, o H.F. adds. /Ma 

!0 For this nirang and its translation, see Saddar Nasr Ch. 14 and S. B. B. Vol. 24 p. 275. 
11 ^ksjjj disposing of the hair (after clipping). 



251 

up to Yatha-ahu-Vairyo-zaotd (rnraotu). Then one Yathd should be recited 

and at (the recital of) each, a furrow should be drawn round the nails and at (the 
recital of) Shyaothenanam, the ends of the furrow should be completed.i (Thus) 

three Yathas should be recited and three furrows should be drawn (and the 

nirang) Paiti-te-meregha should be recited, till the end of the Vdj. % Then 

(the nail-parings) should be taken to a place far away from men, water and fire and 
should be buried in the ground and the Vaj of Sraosh finished. (On reciting) Ashd 
Vohu-Mananglid-ydo-sruye.-vare-Maghdono (and 2 Yathas), three furrows should 
be drawn round (the place where the nails are interred) and the baj should be 
finished. 3 

MU. I, p. 248, 11. 1-2— H. F. f. 440 (MIL II. p. 453). 

Kaus Mahyar : — Q. — Can the nails of the hands and feet be (pared) and col- 
lected in one place or not ? 

A. — The nails of (the fingers of) the hand should be separately disposed of and 
those of the feet should be separately disposed of. 

The swallowing, unawares, of a tooth. 
MU. I, p. 248, 11. 18-19 to p. 249 11. 4-5— H. F. f. 82, f. 110 and f. 165. 

Kama Bolira & Kaus Kama : — Q. — A tooth of the mouth suddenly disappears 
and it is not known whether it is swallowed down or not. What is the decision ? 

A. — When there is a doubt (about it) and one knows not with certainty whe- 
ther it is swallowed or not, the whole body* is riman and one's clothes should 
be washed with pddydb and water. 

MU. I, p. 249, 11. 1-2— H. F. f. 388. 

Bahman Punjya : — If a person swallows a tooth (extracted) from its root, he- 
is riman ; that person should undergo the Bareshnum. 

1 i.e., the circle should be completely drawn. 

2 i.e., the nirang. MU. ^dJIyhj r \jj*a '3 — better om. as in H.F. 

3 Cf. Bd. 19 §§ 19-20 :— 

(19) Regarding the bird Ashok-Zusht, l which is called Zubarak and the Vohuman-bird, 
Vashdkachak, they say that a part (bdg) of the A vesta is given in its tongue. When it speaks, 
the demons flee (or iywJ = tremble) and do not make their abode there ; for that reason 
they make their abode in desert places which are in non-Iranian countries. The demons do 
not make their abode (there where the bird is). If the nails are not prayed over, the demons, 
and wizards take them and like an arrow they shoot at the bird and kill it. (20) On this account 
the bird seizes and devours nail-parings so that the demons may not use them. When they are 
not prayed over, it does not eat them and the demons are able to do any offence with it. 

Cf. also Vend. 17 §§ 1-8 and its Pahlavi version. 

Cf. SIS. XII. § 6 :— 

)FiS^£ j J-u-Sey ?5 %| ^TOiu* $ py iwn^'oo -^ ^ooeyf iwi k A 1 ^nr (6) 

(6) One is this that they should not leave nail-parings unprayed over, for if they are not 
prayed over, they go over as the arms and equipments of Mazanan demons and in the Dat Mask 
(i.e., the Vendidad) this is explicitly shown. 

& i^i ,,*, i.e., the head and the body. 

1 In the Saddar-i Bahr-i Tawil or the long-metre Saddar, this Ashozusht is called Bahman 
Murgh and is identified with ijy (Kuf) i.e., an owl. (See MU. I. p. 246 1. 4. 



252 



On a sore mouth and about the soreness of any member of the Body. 

MU. I, p. 249, 11. 7-19 to p. 250 11. 1-11 = H. F. f. 110, f. 156. 
Kama Bohra, Kaus Kama, [Kaus Kamdin]i:—Q.—A sore is raised by a tooth 
(m the mouth)- and a piece of flesh in the mouth is ruptured,, but does not become, 
separated, but as (the person) cannot throw it out of the mouth, he leaves it as it 
is, and when (after a time) he looks for it, it is not such as has been left (in. the mouth 
at the beginning), or, it is (perhaps) swallowed, or he does not know for certain 
whether it is healed up 2 , what is the decision ? 

» 

A.— When it is said that when a sore is raised in the mouth and a piece of flesh 
thereof is ruptured and one leaves it (as it is) in the hope of its being healed up* 
again but that, thereafter, such is not the case, and one does not know whether it 
is healed up2 again or has been swallowed and one is (therefore) in. doubt (about it) ; 
but if (that piece of flesh) is left (as it is) in the hope of its being healed up, then it 
maybeleftto.be healed upland if proper care is brought to bear on it, it should 
be left (thus) in the- hope that when it is separated, one should throw it out (of 
the mouth), but if one is in doubt that it. has not been thrown out, one should 
undergo, the Bareshnum.. 

MU. I, p. 250, 11. 11-13=H. P. f. 49, (cf. MD; I, p. 607, III 2-4). 

Kama Bohra .-^If one swallows- the blood (issuing) from the mouth, one should 
undergo the Bareshnum.. 

If one swallows. a tooth of the mouth, one should undergo the Bareshnum after, 
three nights, have passed. 

If one pulls out a tooth or takes blood (from any member of the body) by open^ 
mg a venii then ; one is a sinner ; one should undergo the Bareshnum. 

MU. I, p. 250 11. 15-19 to p. 251, 11. 1-4=11. ¥. f, 122., f. 161. 

Kama- Bohra and Kaus Kama .--Q.-If any member of the body*, is lacerated 
or a wound has been made in it and the flesh comes out of it (i.e. of the skin) and on 
account of pain, one leaves it as it is so that it may be dried up, (^so.that the wound 
may be healed, up),, but if water is applied* (to such a wound);, what is the decision ? 

A.-If matter issues from the wound,6 that much portion, of the member, 
should not be washed: and one should be careful, so that, water may not reach it 
and (m such a state), if he, recites any Nyaish or consecrates (Daruii-)B a j, it will do. 

When it is dried up, it.should.be first washed with pddySb, till' it is cleansed 
of the blood and till there does not issue any matter. Then if water reaches it 
there is no sm ina s much as i t, has been healed up with t hat member of the body?.' 
l E 6Q. does, not give this Rivayat attributed to Kaus Kamdin. ' 

2 />*«J j'j lit-, grown up i.e., healed up.. 

3 After yX„j jjj add as in H.F. w ^ ^ ^tf (See Kaus j^ &(j) _ 
* C? 1 * Ut -> a P lace 5 ^...reaches.. 

6 &J>L jl Uja. lit., if it (i.e.,. the wound or uleer, or sore or boil) is moist. 

c*«i jsLmj w j ji ^ cj ^i^ a ULi upto the time when it app6ars again 

bST-iTS'*^* 1Minber of the body "" wll6n that member which iB affeeted ie cured ° f th °- 



253 

But if (any part of the flesh) is separated from the body, it should be away from 
water and fire* and should be properly guarded from (its being mixed with) water 
and it should be kept three steps away from other hallowed things (padyabiha) 
(such as Barsom, Horn, Darun, &c.) 

MU. I, p. 251, 11. 5-10= H. F. f. 91. 

Kama Bohra :— Q.— If any member of the body of a person is ruptured or if 
a sore is raised in it and some flesh thereon has been lacerated which inflicts severe 
pain and on account of pain, it cannot be torn off but it is left as it is so that it is 
dried up, and if there is fear of blood or bodily refuse (issuing from it), can one pour 
water over it or not ? 

A.— If matter issues 3 from the skin, then that portion which has the sore 
should be left so that no water reaches it, and the place (round about) where there 
is no blood or any bodily impurity may be washed (with water) and (in such a state) 
if a Nyaish is offered, it is proper. When it is dried up, and if there is no fear of 
any matter or 4 impurity (issuing therefrom) and if it has been healed up with the 
member of the body 5 , then if water reaches it, there is no sin. When (any part 
of the flesh) becomes separate from the body and if it reaches water or fire, then 
it is the same as if the bodily refuse of the living has reached water or fire 6 . 



Blood-letting. 

MU. I, p. 251, 11. 10-11=.H. F. f. 439. (MU. II. p. 10, 1. 6 and p. 452). 

Kaus Mahyar :— Q.— Can one take blood (from any member of his body) by 
opening a vein or not ? 

A.— It is not proper for the Behdins (to do so.) : If this happens, one should 
undergo the Bareshnum ; but it is not proper for the Dasturs {i.e., those of the 
priestly class) to take blood. 

MU. p! 251, 1. 13.= H. F. f. 207. (MU. II, p. 10, 1. 8). 

Kamdin Shapur :— It is not proper for an Herbad to let blood from his hands 
or belly, or back. (If so), he should wash his head with the Bareshnum and keep 
(the retreat of) 9 nights and then should perform other ceremonials. 

MU. I, p. 251, 1. 15. 

Shapur Bharuchi .-—If a person lets blood from his body and causes a vein to 
be opened or bleeds the body in any way, it is proper for him to undergo the 
Bareshnum. 



1 H.F. (Kama Bohra) y^J^^J *j '}J (_£# _, yT jl— Kaus Kama (H.F. & M.U.) 
have only (jwj.j.yj iSjUj 

2 MU. Li iU (Kaus Kama)— better H.F. and (Kama Bohra) ^jIj,J 1 J 

3 iS„£lj A lit., is moist. 
* lj for lj 

6 Cm»I A*»J i*'^ 1 J& lit > ;t appears again or grows with the member, i.e., when the 
member is cured of the sore or boil. 
6 And therefore he is riman. 



254 

MU. I, p. 251,1. 17 -H. P. f. 49 (See MU. p. 607, 11. 2-3 = MU. II, p. 10, 1. 10) 

Kama Bolira : — If one lets blood (from his body)i, or pulls out a tooth, or 
opens a vein, then one is a sinner and one should undergo the Bareshnum. 

A child who has hitien another child- 

MU. I, p. 251, 1. 19 to 252, 11. 1-11=H. P. f. 156. 

Kaus Kama and Kaus Kamdin.: — Q. — A boy is not yet 8 years old and he' 
bites another boy with his teeth, what is the decision ? How is it if the boy who 
bites shall make his teeth and mouth pure instantly and rub off (the impurity) and 
throw out the spittle ? How is it ? What is the decision 3 about a child (more 
than) 8 years old but under 15 years of age and what about the child who has com- 
pleted 15 years ? Shall all these be (regarded) as alike or not ? 

A. — If (the child) has attained to 8 years, it is like a riman and it is not en- 
joined that its clothes on being washed are to be (regarded) as pure.. Again it 
and its clothes are riman. 

If a suckling child who is nourished by the mother's milk ruptures her breast 
(with the teeth) and if its mouth is cleansed and washed with padyab, it is not riman 
but let it be known that if it is not freed from impurity and swallows (its spittle 
mixed with the blood issuing from the breast), it is riman ; because our religion 
claims relationship with purity 3 . 
. 

About burns and brands- 

MU. I, p. 252, U. 13-15— H. P. f. 212. 

Kamdin Shapur : — If a child from 3 to 7 years old is branded with hot iron, 
then the plate of its food should be kept separate till it attains to 10 years and 
thereafter it should undergo the Bareshnum. If it is one year old or less 4 than two 
years old, its parents should purify themselves with the Bareshnum ; and (then) 
it is pure ; or he who nourishes the child should undergo the Bareshnum and whea 
{the child) attains to 10 years, it should undergo the Bareshnum. 

MU.I, p. 252, 11. 17-18 and p. 253 11. 8-9. (MU. II. p, 467). 

Shapur Bharuchi : — If a child is burnt in fire and if a blister is raised (on any 
member of the body), it is a sin incurred by the mother: she is riman, and it is pro- 
per that she should undergo Bareshnum. If she is pregnant, the father of the child 
is riman, and that father should undergo the Bareshnum. 

MU. I, p. 253, 1. 1.— H. P. f. 388. 
Balvman Pimjya .-—If a suckling babe is burnt in fire, its mother is riman. 



1 o.-o ya 7 — better c*^oj.si£k^= cupping or bleeding. 

2 MU., H.F. c^-Jj.^ (i/f uy^j— S-D.B. ^3=? (j'W.J 

3 /X«j jU (or as elsewhere ,.'i~*i jL;)=:is bound up with; i.e., claims- relationship, 
f&tAj \(j Ut; grows, waxes, or advances. Cf. Vd. 5 § 21, 

•1 MU. p.S — H.F., T 33 eSj— T 31 s «j" 



255 . 

MU. I. p. 263, 11. 1-4— H. F. f. 439. (MU. II. p. 452.) 
Kaus Mahyar :— Q.— If the hands or any members of the body of a person are 
burnt in fire, how is it. % 

A. When three days and nights pass and if no sore is raised, then after 3 nights, 

his garments and clothes should be washed 6 times with pddydb, should be dried up 
with dust 6 times and should be washed 6 times with water and they shall (then) 
be pure. If a sore is raised before the (first) three nights, then the clothes should 
be interred in the ground and he should keep himself away (from men and things) 
till his wound is healed up and then he should undergo the Bareshnum. 

MU. I, p. 253, 1. 6.— H. F. f. 388. 

Bahman Punjya : — If a person is burnt in fire, and if before the (first) three 
nights pass away he is well,i he is pure. If any blood-poisoning 2 matter issues, 
he is riman : he should undergo the Bareshnum, 

MU. I. p. 253, 11. 9-10. 

Shapur Bharucki : — If a person has a brand on his body, then he cannot convey 
a corpse on a bier. 3 If he conveys the dead on the bier 3 (gdhdn), he is rimanA 

About a child falling in water. 

MU. p. 253, 11. 14-16. = H. F. f. 156. 

Kaus Kama and Kaus Kamdin : — Q. — If a child falls into water and is brought 
out of the water and if it is brought out with this supposition that it is alive, but it 
is not so, what is the decision ? 

A. — From the very first (in such doubtful eases), it shoiild not be regarded as 

alive. 5 

About a child defiled by coming in contact with nasa. 

MU. I. p. 254, 1. 7— H. F. f. 207. 

A. 

Bahman Punjya : — If (a child) three years old or four years old has come in 
contact with 6 nasa, its garments are riman and the child should be washed 3 times 
with pddydb and water. 7 

1 i.e., if there is no sore or blister raised. 

2 uyi. (-iL.} lit., bad state of the blood ; blood poisoning. 

3 lit., he cannot go underneath gdhdn; i.e., he should not do the work of a nasdsdtdr or a 
khdndhid. 

& For MU. I. p. 253 11. 10-12, see MU. It p. 9 11. 940. 

6 i.e., they will exercise all precautions if they suppose from the very beginning that it is 
dead. (For MU. I p. 253 1. 18, see MU. I. p. 161 and 239). 

Kaus Kamdin* gives a decision in this matter quite contrary to the above, thus : — 
" From the very first, it should be regarded as alive." i.e., Supposing that the child is not 
dead, it does not matter if any person comes in contact with it at the very beginning, but 
no sooner does one know that, it is dead, than all precautions about a dead body should 
be taken, 

6 ^„ . \b lit., retreats. 

> -* • 

7 For MU. I p. 254 11. 1-5 see MU. I p. 195 and p. 196. 



* This is not found in E 60 ; perhaps, then, it is another version of Kaus Kama. 



236 

Kinds of animals which are regarded as nasd when dead, or not* 

MU. I. p. 254, 11. 9-10— H. P. f. 213. 

Kamdin Shapur : — Q. — How many kinds of nasd are there ? 

A. — These are the 'nasd : — a man, 1 a dogi a fox, a crow, an ape, 2 a mole and 
ten sorts of moles (or cats) which are Ormazdian and which have their heads and 
tails white. All these are nasd. A chimar 3 is nasd. 

MU. I. p. 254, 11. 12-13. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — Q. — How many kinds of nasd are there ? 

A. — These are the nasd : — a man, a dog, a weasel, a porcupine, a hedgehog,* a 
water-dog, an owl, 5 a vulture, a mountain-kite, 6 a fox, a crow, an ape, a mole, 
and ten sorts of moles '(or, cats) which are Ormazdian and which have their heads 
and tails white. These are nasa. A chem-atf is nasd. 

MU. I. p. 254, U. 14-17. (MU. II. p. 475.) 
Surdtya Adhyarus : — Q. — Which are the Khrafstars 8 (i.e. noxious creatures) 
and which are those regarded as nasd from amongst the crow, the hare, the mole, 
the squirrel and the bat ? 

A. — It is said in the religion that the black eagle, the mountain-kite 9 and the 
carrion-eating birds are nasd. The bird called the bat is of the category of a dog 
(and therefore) it is nasa-.™ The mole and the squirrels are not (to be found) in 
this quarter (i.e. in Persia). (Perhaps) they may be khrafstars. 8 The two-footed 
rat 11 is (found) in this quarter : it is nasd. The four footed mouse is a khrafstar. 8 

MU. I, p. 254, 1. 19 to p. 255 11. 1-8. (MU U. p. 441). 

Dastur Barzuji : — Both the ape and the bear are nasd. If they die in a populated 
place, then sagdid should be performed over them by two persons (united with a 
paiwand) and taken to a place which is not populated so that men may not become 
rinmn by coming in contact with them : because their dead bodies (nasd) are like 
the dead bodies of men. 

Again, the mole and the two-footed rat which may be (found) in a desert should 
not be killed. 

Again, among the species of flying creatures, there is no bird which is a khrafs'- 
tar : 13 some of them are nasd and some of them are hot. Of the flying-creatures, the 
gnat, the locust, the bee, the mosquito and those resembling them are khrafstars. 13 

l Of course, when all these die, their bodies are regarded as nasd and therefore should be 
disposed of in conformity with the tenets of religion. 
3 ic (J '« an ape, 
MU. jjc /.*.; H.F. luefps == j*x*. (?) 

* />si a. or /?ta. Cf . Pah. i5 pS • otherwise c&j J-L 

*i*. an owl 6 jX (jj^= -yi SjU "' y ^ for ^*ik, (?) 

And therefore when dead, they should not be counted upon as nasd. 
ij/jU^/j^jU, 10 MU. II p. 475 adds , ijUw^iLJ Cum, tbjm oJ&wjS' ,_£ Jj.s^j 

11 Called Jerboa. 

12 The bird species generally is of Ormazdian creation and not Ahrimaman. 

13 And therefore, when dead, are not regarded as nasd. 



257 

Again the bird called an owl is called in religion the bird Aslu>zusht.l If it 
dies in a populated place, it is a nasd : it should be disposed of and carried to a 
place which is not populated. 

Again, that species of bat called khaffdsh (in Arabic) is nasd ; it is like the nasd 

of an owl. 

Again know that men are of ten kinds ; those men who are engaged in occupa- 
tion and trade and in the region of Khanirath? the good and the illustrious and 
other species live on the peninsula of Hindustan and in the seas and on the moun- 
tains. The heads of some of them are like the horse's head and some of them have 
•also the dog's head. Some have tails like the cattle and some are mm-tan (U„ 
half-bodied) but no one has seen these 10 species of men. 
MU. I. p. 255, 11. 9-10. (MIL II. p. 384). 

Nariman Hashing .—No quadruped {i.e. the cattle) is (regarded as) nasd(when 
dead), so that it can be disposed of ceremonially (like a man or a dog, when dead). 

Again, ten kinds of men are nasd, when dead. 

Again, there are 8 kinds of dogs and four or five kinds of birds which have 
been included in (the category of) nasd. 
A story of Jam and Jame and the different species of men and animals. 

MIL I, p. 255, 11. 12-19 to p. 256, 1-4. (MU. II. p. 467). 

Mapur Bharuchi .-About the offspring of Jam and Jame.4 From Jam and 
the pari? (arose) the ape and the bear and the limber-legged ones and those having 
ears like a shield ; and from the impure Dev and Jame (arose) alligators, tortoises, 
frogs and cats.® 

Again first there were 10 kinds of men and their names are -the breast-eyed, 
the three-eyed, the breast-eared,' the elephant-eared, one-legged, limber-legged, 
those having the head of panthers,, those having the head of lions, those having 
the head of camels and those having the heads of dogs. 8 

2ndly: _l5 S p e cies of ox :-the white, the ash-coloured, red, yellow, black, 
dappled," the elk, the buffalo, the camel-leopard-ox (i.e. the giraffe)^, the ox having 
the nature (fl») of a fish, the Frash-ox, Eajdv and other species of px.« 

1 See Saddar Nasi Ch. 14 §§ 8-9 and Bd. Ch. 19 § 19. 

2 Liy^i, -better & Jrf i, (See MU. II p. Ml) for ^ 

3 See %rf**f in Steingass' Dictionary. 

, c- +o n f Tbtti 5 Av. vairihd, a female evil being. 

e T^Zo,.,, *or JaLhidand J(H rf. see the ver.on of .oshirvan Maraba* 
in verse, MU. II PP- 208-210 and MU. I pp. 259-60. 

7 MU. &&^p!jl f« S - D - B - W 1 %0j (Pah> -vA) 

8 Of. Bundehesh Ch. 15 § 31. 

9 ^J (Pah. }*0t>) Cf- Av - paesa = {Ut., leprous), 

10 Jb^jW!-^ for J$> n for ti^f S.D.B.=y^l : Pah. gives ^ jftf «|»ff 



33 



258 

3rdly :— Eight species of horse : white, black, yellow, bay, the chestnut, 1 the 
wild-ass, the hippopotamus and other species of horse. 

4thly : 10 kinds of dog :— The shepherd's dog, the village-dog which is the house 
protector, 2 the blood-bound and the taruh (slender-hound), the water-beaver which 
is called the water-dog, the fox, the ichneumon, 3 the hedgehog which has spines 
on the back, the udra* the civet-cat, 5 of which two species are accustomed to bur- 
rows, 6 one the fox and one, the ichneumon ; and those accustomed to the forest are 
such as the u&raW (porcupine ?) which has spines on its back and the hedgehog 
which is the same. 

5thly. That having the form 8 of a hare (i.e. the hare-species) is of 5 kinds :— 
two are wild species and one dwelling in a burrow 9 and one dwe lli ng in the forest. 

6thly. Eight species of weasel : one, marten ; one, blaek marten ; the ermine, 10 
the Md- n ermine, the white ermine and other species of weasel. 

7thly. Eight species of musk-animals : one, is that which is known 13 by its 
musk ; one is the musk-animal with a bag in which is a pleasant smell ; the bish-^ 
musk which eats fo'sfc-planb ; the black musk which is the antagonist of the serpents 14 
which are numerous 15 in rivers and other species of musk-animals. 

8thly : Fish were created of 10 species : first, 16 the fish Ariz, the Arzuva, the 
Arzuka 1 ' and of other Avesta 18 names. 

Then, within each species, species within species are created ; so, the total 19 ' 

is 282 species. 30 
r 



l o**/ a bay horse with a black tail and mane. 2 ( ^ 



iDiyw tf 



3 ^j or j-j or, a weasel. 4 jA j| for fi ^ ^ 

6 Jra = Pah. fri * ^ f _ S . D .B. ^,_ Pah . iy or ^ anotherformof 
a5n — (see the following remark). 

B ^(y— Sifflply a transcription of Sm , (in Gr. Bd.) : Cf. Per. W U= form ; figure, 
resemblance; K20 (Bundehesh) lias ^J^LS^ = -tXJJ 

■> yk =Pah. w . MU. cu^U_^-S.D.B. oAJU^ 10 v ^^ = p ah . 
—J ^ I =*i^ (jiij^rwhite ermine (Justi). 



" 



13 UT Pah. jjj TOJ j _ ^ W j] 13 f J k y a kjmj of p i ant- 



■ 



11 ij for ijj Pah. ^j,— Paz. : $iU&- 

15 ijtf (Jij for )R)))TO ^_jj. 16 0w j_jj = Av. nazdishta=Sah. )Vui S } 

1? S.B.B. adds \g-.ut is * ,. . i fnr 

2° Gf. Pah. Bundehesh Ch. 14 §§ 17-22 and § 26 and § 27. 



259 

The dog Zarrin-gosh. 

MIL I, p. 256, 11. 4-19 to p. 257 11. 1-8. 
[Shapur Bharuchi] 1 .-—Once when the creator Orrnazd moulded the body of 
Adam 2 on the Alburz mountain, he appointed the seven Amshaspands as guardians 
and protectors of that body. The Omniscient (Creator) had from the first commanded 
them to beware and take care of the body and that they should see to it that 
the accursed Ahriman may not get the better of them and that he may not do any 
harm or injury to the body of Adam in order to destroy it. (Thus) the Creator 
Orrnazd had said to the Amshaspands from the very beginning and the Amshas- 
pands also were cautious of it ; but the accursed Ahriman was devising a remedy 
so that he might destroy that body. Then once it so happened that the Amshas- 
pands were overcome with stupor and the accursed one threw something on the 
body of Adam so that he might perish. "Then when the Amshaspands looked at it, 
they saw a most wonderful thing near the place of the navel of Adam whose body 
was perishing. The Amshaspands were thunder-struck and went to the Omni- 
scient Creator and stated their case. The Creator Orrnazd said : " I had spoken to 
you about it from the very beginning and I was also aware of it." Then the Omni- 
scient (Creator) ordered them to remove, with a spoon, what was thrown over their 
body and place it on one side of it and to take care that no harm might reach that 
thing too. Thereafter the Amshaspands acted as enjoined by the Creator Orrnazd. 
They removed that thing (lying) on the navel of Gayomard with a spoon and placed 
it on one side thereof. Then the Omniscient (Creator), through His own power, shout- 
ed out invisibly to it thus : " Zarrin-gosh 3 ! get up," and instantly there came into 
existence a dog who got up and barked, and napped both his ears. When the un- 
clean Satan who was contriving some means 4 with the demons saw the horrible 
sight of that dog Zarringosh and heard his dreadful bark, he was afraid and rushed 
into hell with the demons. Then the Creator Orrnazd appointed that dog as a 
protector and guardian of the body of Gayomard and that dog alone guarded his 
body. As the seven Amshaspands were not able to take care of the body, that dog. 
alone took care of it. That dog Zarringosh is keeping a watch near the bridge 
Sirafi i.e. the bridge Chinvad. Now the Creator Orrnazd has ordered his servants 
that it is necessary for them to treat, with consideration, dogs who are their protectors 
inasmuch as in both the worlds such other (protectors) are fewer. If any person 
who takes care of the dog in this world gives him his morsel of food and does not do 
him harm, then although the soul of that person be fit for hell, and just at the time 
when the demons inflict punishment on him, Zarringosh barks so dreadfully at the 
time that the demons withhold their hands from afflicting that soul and they do not 
inflict any punishment on it. Then if the (proper) time of the punishment passes 
away, and if at another time, they (want to) inflict torture and punishment, then 
they cannot inflict punishment on the soul fit for hell out of fear for Haptorang 6 

1 See S.D.B. (No. 235). 

2 The first man i.e., Gayomard. 

3 lit., of yellow ears. 

& iSnaJUa/o for JaaL..* or, as in S.D.B. Mw/o — overpowering^. 

5 i I ye> bridge across hell. 

6 One of the four principal stars. 



260 

who guards the souls of those fit for hell with 10000 stars. Again, Meher of the 
wide pastures brandishes his club three times every day at the entrance of hell so 
that out of fear for that club of the angel Meher, they are unable to inflict 
punishment more or less on the souls of those fit for hell. Then that soul remains 
at rest and Zarringosh constantly watches that soul in this manner. If any 
person does harm to a dog in this world, Zarringosh intercepts his soul at the 
entrance of the Chinvat Bridge, harasses him and shows enmity towards him and 
does not allow that soul to pass the Bridge. 1 , 

Animals, birds and fish which are fit to be eaten. 

MU. I, p. 260, 11. 13-15— H. F. f. 439. (MU. II, p. 452). 
Kaus Mahyar : — Q. — What kinds of gospand (cattle) are allowed to be eaten ? 
A. — It is proper to eat (the flesh of) a. male or a female gospand 2 , the sheep, the- 
goat, the deer and the mountain-goat. 
Q.— What fowls should be eaten ? 

A hen, except the cock; the pigeon, the partridge and the mountainous partridge,, 
the water-bird 3 and the watery duck ; but the crow, the owl and other (birds of 
that species) should not be eaten. 4 

MU. I, p. 260, 11. 17-18. (MU. II, p. 384.) 
Nariman Hoshang : — Q. — What fowls or fish may be eaten ? 
A. — A fowl which eats cereals as food but which does not eat nasd (dead mat* 
ter) and does not feed on carrion (should be eaten). The fish which the Behdins 
should eat should not be large and hideous, for there may be the fear of its having 
eaten nasd ; it should not be hideous. 

MU. I, p. 261, 11. 2-5. 

Dastur Barzu : — The- pig is the creature of Bahman 5 . It is a species of gaos- 
penta (i.e. the cattle), but, because it eats foul matter 6 , its flesh should not be eaten. 
If a person binds it and gives it grass for food, then after the length 7 of a year its 
flesh can be eaten. 

Again, in this quarter (i.e. in Persia), we have not seen the rhinoceros and 
have not read about it in any book whether it is the creature of Bahman or a khar- 
vastar & ; but if it is. in that quarter (of yours i.e. in India), this can be (properly) 
ascertained by the reasoning faculty : if it has horns or hoofs and if the manner, of 9 - 
its eating anything is like the (other) cattle, it is a creature of Bahman. 

l Cf . the account of this dog in the Arda-Viraf nameh composed by Noshirwan Marzban, 
in verse (MU. I pp. 257-59). 

a For MU., H.F. ^iij _,(£■ _, y&b better B.K.. j &i.k^j$ and the Gujarati translator- 
also omits the phrase. 

3 ii&— yia. = J^ia.= a sparrow, or water-bird. 

4 MU. II. p. 452 adds ^ijyL ^A^'s 

5 The Amshaspand who presides over cattle.. 

6 j.i«lj.i. lit., vermin. ? & t j& Pah. jujuJj - 
8 a noxious creature,. 9 j\&jc — centre, goaL 



261 

MU. I, p. 261, 11. 7-10 = H. F. f . 440. (MU. II, p. 453 & p. 476.) 
Bahman Punjyd .-—Killing a hare is a margarzan sin ; but if it is killed, its flesh* 

is like that of gospends : i.e. it can be eaten. It should be known that it is not 

impure. 

Kaus Mahydr :— Q.— How should a hare be (regarded) n 

A. — The flesh of the hare should not be eaten, because it is nasd. 

Suratyd Adhydrus .-— A hare is a species of gospend ; it is not nasd s . 

On the lawful slaughter of gospand and fowl. 

MU. I, p. 261, 11. 12-18. 

Kaus Kamdin :— Q.— About the slaughter 4 of the cattle (gospend) : how one is 
slaughtered. ...... 

A.— While slaughtering a gospend for the myazd an<* gdhdmbdr (ceremonies) 
and for the zur 5 {i.e. the offering of fat) to the Atash Behram, one born of a Herbad 
who is pure and fit (for the work) and who has undergone the Bareshnum and who 
has been initiated a hirbad* should recite Khshnaothra. Ahurahe. Mazdao. Ashem 

Vohu 1, and should recite in an undertone : Be-nam-i Izad (i.e. in the name 

of God) and (then) should recite 7 the Khshnuman of Bahman Amshaspand 8 and 

recite one Yatha up to Shyaothenanam and then he may draw over 9 it a pure 

and sharp knife. He should not so 10 manipulate" (the knife awkwardly) but he 
should fix his eyes on it and should retain his breath, so that the gospend may have 
less pain. When the gospend is slaughtered, the hands and the knife should be 
washed and (the rest of) the Ahunvar should be completed. 20 other Ahunvars 
should be thereafter recited and one Ashen Vohu should be completely recited. 

On this side here (i.e. in Persia), (no darvand i.e. one of a foreign faith) 12 is allow- 
ed to slaughter a gospend; in order to consecrate the flom-Awim, 13 it is (only) out 
of necessity 14 that darvands (are allowed' to) slaughter (the gospend). 15 

1 Via. lit., things i.e., members of the body : S.D.B.=J.Aa. f* 7 

*: '■ ■ ■ 

2 i.e., is it a gospend or a kharfastar. ? 

3 Kaus Mahyar's statement differs from the other two. 

i .& = jiU. 6 . • for ■),< e /.l^jjA'i i.e., has been initiated a Navar i.e. 
has become qualified for priestship with the greater Khub ceremony. 

1 Jalji for yj&Jtja. 8 because he is. the Amshaspand presiding over cattle. 
9 MU. ,Ji AX&S— better E60 (j)&*«£ 

10 /.j.1 = Pah. j)ju=thus; same as (^jOjI or ^J.**. (eJij ly^ m E60 ' 

11 - . y^j f lit., bring and carry (the knife) i.e., there should be no 
awkward movement adopted in slaughtering the gospend and, as said below, it may not give 
it any pain. i 

12 These words in brackets are necessary to complete the sense. 

13 i.e., Baruns in which the Khshnuman of Horn Izad is recited. — uJJJ*&T — t)JJ& &}t 
11 i.e., if Parsees are not available. 

15 In some towns of Gujarat, when death occurred in a house, it is said that Parsees only 
were allowed to slaughter a gospend so that its fat may be offered to the fire on the dawn of the 
fourth day after death. Such Parsees were surnamed bokra-kapu i.e., killers of goats. The 
practice has now fallen into disuetude. . ... 



262 

. MU. I, p. 261, 11. 18-19 to p. 262, 11. 1-6. 

Kcms Kamdin /—The nirang {i.e. religious formula) (to be recited) when slaugh- 
tering a gospend or the four-footed ones or fowl. 

It is necessary that a Hirbad who has undergone the Bareshnum and who has 
been initiated a navar should perform padyab-kusti 1 and should put on the Penorn 
(i.e. the month-veil). Then he may recite the following Avesta : — He should first 
recite Khshnaothra. Ahurahe. Mazdao. Ashem Vohu 1. Then he should mutter 
in an undertone thus : — 

Benam-i (see text). Then he should speak loudly — one Yatha 

up to Shyaothenanam and then with a sharp knife he should cut the head (of the 
gros^emfZorthefowl). When the gospend turns cold (i.e. dies), (the rest of) the Ahun- 

var should be completely recited. Thereafter 21 Yathas should be recited, 

and one Ashem Vohu should be recited and Ahmai Raeshcha up to the end should 
be recited. 

MU. I,. p. 262, 11. 8-9— H. F. 221. 

Kamdin Shapur : — It is said in the religion that a gospend which is under one year 
old should not be slaughtered, and the cMshni (i.e. Myazd offering) thereof should 
not be consecrated. Eating the flesh (of such a gospend) is a grievous sin. It is 
permitted to eat (the flesh of) the gospend which is more than one year old. 

MU. I, p. 262, 11. 9-10. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — If a gospend whose zur (i.e. fat) is to be offered to the 
Atash Behram be a male or a female which is not big with young it is proper. It 
should not be unsound. 3 If it is under one year old, it should be known that tha* 
is also not allowable. 

MU. p. 262, 11. 12-19 to p. 263 U. 1-10 & MU. I, p. 540, = H. P. 246. 

Kamdin Shapur : — If one wishes to consecrate the head of a gospend, the whole 

head should be put (for consecration) ; (if not), the arvar i.e. the left ear, the hizvan 

. i.e. the tongue and the left eye (should be consecrated). The goshodd 3 (to be placed 

with the Darun) should be (a piece of) flesh of that gospend. The Khshnuman (for 

the consecration) of the Darun is (see text) 

The arvar (i.e. the left ear, the tongue and the eye) should not be used 

as goshodd (as according to the following passage of Ys. 11) : 4 (see text) 



1 i.e., wash his hands and face cerernoniaUy and untie and retie the Kusti. 

2 See Nirangastan, 56 

3 lit., cow's produce. Now-a-days the representative of goshodd is ghee or clarified butter 
(See Modi : Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees : p. 299). 

I Cf. Sis. XI § 4 :— 

When a goat is slaughtered and divided, its gaushddlc should be thus represented : the 

tongue, jaw and left eye are for the angel Horn himself. 



263 

MU. I, p. 263, U. 2-10, . 

Kamdin Shapur : — The Khshnuman for consecrating the heads of fowl is 
this. First it should be recited in ydd^ (i.e. in a suppressed tone) : — In Khshnu* 
maine (see text.) 

This Yad should be finished and then Klmreihem (see text) should be 

recited. 

Eating unconsecrated flesli of cattle is unlawful. 

MU. I, p. 263, U. 12-13. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — If one eats unconsecrated flesh, then goshurang 2 Amshaspand 
says thus : — Just as I bound Afrasyab and handed him over to king Kaikhosru, so 
I shall bind (the person eating unconsecrated meat) and hand him over to the de- 



mons 



3 






The text of Ys. 11 us-rm-pita &c, which is quoted in support of this statement is thus- 
rendered in Pahlavi : — 

.'.ijaji -!)» ii 

i.e., (God), my father always dispensed that which is Horn's feast : He, Ormazd, the Holy : 
(He gave) the jaw-bone (alrvar) with the tongue and also the left eye. 

1 lit. remembrance (See Modi op. cit., pp. 383-84). 

'2 Av. geush-urva or, Dravaspa who presides over cattle. 

3 It was a pious person named Horn who was chiefly instrumental in finding out the where- 
abouts of Afrasyab who had concealed himself in an underground palace to be out of the reach 
of Kaikhusro. (It is to be remembered here that the Khshnuman of Horn is recited for the 
■consecration of the flesh of a gospend). See Pahlavi Rivayat, p. 93. 

Of. Ys. 11 § 7 :— 

Thwashem. geush. fra-thwereso. tanchishtai Haomai. draono: ma thwo. Haomo. bandayat. 
yatha. mairim. bandayat. yim. tuirim. Frangrasyanem. rnadheme. thrishwe. ainghao. zemo. 
pairish-khakhtem. ayangahe. 

(i.e.,) Cut off quickly the gift of flesh for doughty Haoma. May not Haoma bind thee 
as he bound the fell Turanian Fragrasyan close surrounded by an iron palace in the mid-third 

of this earth. 

1 

Of. the following Pahlavi version of the above :• — 

\<?ay -"•£>">» tew ve)f «ttJKw£ A*) n#»j) ^wo> iyp si vp^a \f $4 &? ^wa^-" ipo£ 
(.-. ]W\W)x )vtf ))f^a -smow^ 1 ^^ nei*)A> <e»sr n^a \f 

Be quick so that you cut off that flesh (i.e., when you kill the cattle) and be energetic in this 

and (in the preparation of) the gift (jys i.e., Draona ) of Haoma (i.e., make manifest 

i.e., consecrate) the Hom-Dron ceremony so that Horn may not bind thee as he bound the 
murderous Turanian Frangrasyan in the middle of the 3rd division of this earth, who was 
surrounded by an enclosure of iron and silver. (So Mah-vindat said; Dat-Ormazd said : 
He was thus surrounded in Khanjast (i.e., Chaecha;st)i.e., about him a fortress has been made). 



264 

MU. I. p. 263, 11. 14-15— H. P. f. 221. 

Kamdin Sliapur : — Q. — Why* is flesh of the dead 2 not eaten ? 

A. — It is said thus : because the daevas bring opposition unto men quickly g 
and with harm. When men eat (such flesh), antagonism rushes on their bodies 
and they become ungrateful 4 unto their bodies, souls and Amshaspands. They 
are the breakers of promise (meher-druj) and simiers. 

MU. I, p. 263, U. 17-19 to p. 264 11. 1-4— H. F. f. 371 , 

Bahman Punjya : — It is said in the religion that the head of the gospend which 
men are to eat should be consecrated. In this case, they should be more energetic. If 
they do not consecrate the head of the gospend and if they eat (its flesh), it is un- 
lawful.- If any person does not cause it to be consecrated, or does not consecrate it 
(himself), calamity and harm will befal his soul, and Horn Izad will not allow his 
soul to pass (the Chinvat Bridge) ; he is intercepted at the head of the Chinvat 
Bridge, and for any one hair there is on the body of the gospend, he darts one arrow 
at the soul of that person and says : — " Oh you inimical to religion ! why did you eat 
the flesh (of the gospend) whose head was not consecrated. At that place, at the 
entrance of the Bridge, Bahman Amshaspand and Mah Izad, Gosh Izad and Ram 
Izad take hold of him, rejffoach him, and the soul becomes helpless on account of 
the arrows (darted at him). If, at a place, one is helpless and a hirbad is not present 
at the place to consecrate the head and because the gospend is not consecrated, then 
out of helplessness, a Yasna-service should be ordered to be performed for Horn, 
or Mah, or Gosh or Ram as an expiation for that (crime) so that the soul of that 
person may be released from the torture (of hell). If a person eats (the flesh of the 
gospend) whose head is not consecrated, it is unlawful and he experiences such 
torture in the other world as has been described before. 

Offering the fat of a gospand lawfully slaughtered to the fire of 
Atash-Behram on the dawn of the fourth day after death- 

MU. I, p. 264, 11. 6-8. 

Shapur Eharuchi : — On the dawn of the fourth day (after the death of a person), 
the head of a gospend should be consecrated 5 and the fat thereof should be offered 
to the fire of Vahram. It is so ordered in the religion. If there is no Ahash Behram, 
then, out of helplessness, (the fat) should be placed on the fire' at the time when the 
Afringan ceremony is performed. Again, the flesh of a flying-creature is not order- 
ed (to be consecrated) on the dawn of the fourth day because there is no evidence 
thereof manifest anywheredn the (sacred) writings. 

1 This is word-for-word from Pahlavi Texts (of Dastur jamasji) — page 126 § § 32-33. 

2 j |wo lit., putrid flesh, ;" the flesh of an animal which is not consecrated is called murddr, 

" « " 

3 <l.j 8jt**J Cf. Pah- fcjfiAJiOTe) -—here top is read ijj 

a o" v*" Jr for Pah. -O-ud-^P which should be read an-sep&S; 
6 &'ijU may be slaughtered, or i5.jj.ij may be consecrated. 



265 

Again, it is not proper to consecrate the eggs of the fowl (which are brought) 
from the houses of darvands. 1 

On the use of silken clothes, honey and opium. 

■ 

MU. I, p. 268, U. 4-8. 

Kaus Kamdin : — Q— Can silks be worn and honey be .eaten or not ? 

A. — As the accursed Ahriinan has produced 2 the silk-worm and the bee for 
doing harm to the creation of Orrnazd and for the destruction of trees, so the Crea- 
tor Ormazd has, through His wisdom, produced this advantage therefrom for the 
greatest good of His creatures, that when the silks are artificially wrought and pre- 
pared 3 i.e. when they are dyed, they are proper for the embellishment of mankind 
if they are worn. 



i Cf . Pah. Vd. 8 § § 22 oomm :— 

For him (i.e., the dead), on the fourth day a, gospend should be prepared (i.e., ceremoniously 
slaughtered) for the zur-offering (i.e., the fat to be offered to the fire), because it is necessary 
that meat should be prepared on the 3rd night for the 4th day. 

Cf . Sis. XII § 5 :— 

JjjpS jo^tec S ->iny hwo ■kjo^ ■■onea <t> ^•ty w^?i *os-j» an fv W (5) 

-• iu va ^«oei i«w£e \\<s tf \w\vp -^-"to 1 ff) iku-^i J-"i-S ii iron} n^np 

WHjV -m ^ -H^ -^J W ^KW ^ *$J W ■HJ-W W*>-*1 ^) -^J &£ff ^ 1K)'VTOt° 

i.e., One is this that when a person dies, then after observing the (three) days of Sedosh 
(after death), the presentation of the zur (i.e., the fat of a gospend) to the abode of fire should be 
made (on the dawn of the fourth day). That zur should be first presented to the fire ; for it is 
evident from the Damdad (Nask) that when consciousness (odd) of men is severed (from the 
body) (i.e., when they die), it goes out to the nearest fire, then to the stars, then to the moon, 
then to the sun ; and it is necessary that the nearest fire to which it goes first should become 
full of zur (i.e., fat) (or become stronger). 

Cf . Dadistan Ch. 88 § 6 :— 

(6) In the performance of the Hama-Din ceremony with (the offering of) zohar (i.e., fat), 
four pure gospends should be taken (and killed) and just as the Dasturs have taught, one zohar 
from one gospend should be offered for every one of the (sacred) fires. 

Cf. also Ch. 86 § § 15-17-20 and Ch. 88 § § 1-3-5. 
. Cf. also Epistle I, Ch. 8 § 3 where the zohar of the ass and the pig to be offered to the fires in 
the Gahambar ceremony is mentioned.' 

a iSijtt -Iji for iSJjijj./ j\y> Av. fra-kerentat. 

3 V&j( j £>*&>) ^ +i: °f- i5 U£ = artificial; wrought: for &^M read u^Ji 
as in B K. , „ . 



266 

The bee-hive should be purified and made ready by a Herbad for the priests 
and by a Behdin for the Behdins and (then) they should wash their hands and ex- 
tract (honey) from the bee-hive and then it is proper, if it is eaten as medicine and 
for (effecting) a cure. On this side here (i.e. in Persia), we consecrate cotton, clothes 
with the Darun on the dawn of the fourth day (after death), because cotton grows 
from the earth and is nourished by water : for this reason it is more precious (than 
silk.)i 

MU. I, p. 268, 11. 9-10— H. F. f. 440 (MIL II, p. 453). 

Kaus Mahyar : — Q. — Can honey be eaten ? 

A.— If one extracts honey with one's hands from the bee-hive, (it can be eaten). 
If a Dastur (i.e. priest) or a Behdin (extracts it), then it maybe eaten. A darvand 
should not (extract it for the Zoroastrians). 3 

MU. I, p. 268, 1. 14. 

I jr. , 

Dastur Barzu : — If a priest prepares opium with his own hands, and eats it, 
his Bareshnum remains valid ■ if not, it is not (valid). 

MU. I. p. 268 11. 16-18-H.F, f. 115, f. 151. 
Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — Honey is highly beneficial, but if one is with 
khub s and eats it, his kliub is vitiated, 4 because (honey) comes from a kharfastar 
(i.e., the bee). 

On drinking wine. 

MU. I. p. 270 11. 7-8 (MU. II. p. 385). 

Nariman Hoshang :— Q.— What sort of wine or liquor is it lawful to drink ? 

A. — Grape-wine or wine prepared from (the produce of) trees in your quarter 
(i.e., in India) which does not lead to any crime on being drunk, 5 is allowed by the 
religion of the Behdins, and (if one thinks) that any disagreeable action may be 
done (on the consumption of wine), it is not allowed 6 . 



1 Cf. Mino- Kherad, Ch. 16 §§ 64-66 :— 

(64) Of the dress which men put on, silk is good fpr the body and cotton for the soul, (65) 
for this reason, because silk comes from a noxious creature, (66) and the nourishment of cotton 
is from water, its growth from earth and as a treasure of the soul, it is called great, good, and 
more precious. 

2 Fpr MU. I, p. 268, 11. 12-13, See MU. II, p. 10, 1. 4 and 1. 12. 

3 A^\fi j <Sv*!> #*., adorned with the Yasht, i.e. one who is a fully qualified priest, or, 
as said elsewhere, one who is A»&i ti (nabar yashta) ; one having the Khub. A priest with 
the greater Khiib is one who can perform higher liturgical services. There are two kinds 
pf Khub— the greater and the smaller {cf . Dr. J. J. Modi's, Ceremonies and Customs of the 
Parsees, p. 147). 

4 lit., departs, i.e. he is disqualified from carrying on the function pf a priest. 

5 lit., in intoxication, 

8 Cf, MiQP-Kherad : Ch. 16 : §§ 20-63. 

According to the Rivayat of Bahman Punjya (Verne : M.U. p. 270 1. 12) the maximum nam 
per of the cups of wme to be drunk is three, representing, liumata, hukhta, hvarshta ie good 
thoughts, words and deeds, This Bivayet quotes the instance of Gushtasp and Ardai Viraf 
The former after drinking the consecrated wine offered to - him by Zartosht saw heaven in a 
vision and then administered justice and propagated the religion in this world. The latter 
through the drinking pf consecrated wine saw the mysteries of that world and made them 
known to the people of the world. 



267 
On the consumption of ghee or clarified butter. 

MU. I. p. 271 11. 6-7=H.F. f. 440 (MU. II. p. 453). 
Kaus Mahy-,r .-Can ghee (i.e., clarified butter) prepared from (the produce 
of) a gospend by a darvand or by one who burns the dead, be eaten or not ? 

A -The ghee which reaches one from then- hands makes one rimar, (On eating 
it): one cannot be purified even by the Bareshnuni purification. 
MU. I. p. 271 11. 7-13. (MU. II. p. 446). 
Da,lur Barzu .-It has been repeatedly dinned into our ears that the performers 
of the Yasna, and the devout of your quarter (i.e., of India) consume wroh their 
ooX the ghee prepared from (the produce of) a goat or a cow which , is supph d 
£ }uddil ; and again those who perform the function of a Yozdathraga and 
perform the Yasna think that such ghee is pure for the reason that it is melted by 
£e tf it is the case as has been represented (to us), it is quite contrary to the 
religion and it is inconsistent with their reason and religiousness ; because there „ 
nothing more contaminated and impure than ghee (prepared in this manner) as, of 
all the foods, this finds a place most in the marrow of the bones. It is necessary 
that they may employ some Behdins who may prepare it* so that there may be no 
need of the ghee prepared (by the darvands). When we were informed of your 
Ltives, it was fit and proper that (our views) should be expressed (thereon), and 
(we hope) nothing will thereby occur to the noble and precious minds of those dear 
ones,* as these statements were repeatedly made- by the people of the good religion 
who had gone to that side (i.e., India). 

Fruits and vegetables sold by juddins. 
MU. I. p. 271 11. 15-18 (MU. II. p. 386). 
Narirmn HosUng .-Q.-Can one take every kind of fruit brought by Maho- 
medans from their hands and eat it or not ? 

Can one sit with the juddins and the unworthy* and eat with them or not ? 
4 -Every kind of fruit from then- hands, eig'., the fruits which have grown 
up from seeds (sown in the ground), should be eaten if it is washed (with water), 
but if it is a fruit which has not grown from a seed sown in the ground,* it is not 
proper to eat it in accordance with the religion of the Behdins. 

Sitting with them ('*}., the juddins) and eating food in any way and of any 
. kind is not proper ; it is a sin. 



On Wine, See Dadistan, Chs. 50 and 51 : — 

The selling of wine should be in the hands of those who encourage moderate drinking of 

it (Ch. 50 § 3). . . 

The immoderate drinker as well as one who sells wme to any one who becomes intoxicated 
thereby are both sinners. Only three cups at the most taken in moderation and making the 
drinker virtuous are allowed. (Oh. 5]). 

1 jr c U ■ better ,^jw| (See M. V. II. p. 446). 

2 The writer means 'that his co-religionists in India will not take it ill on account of his 
outspoken remarks on this matter. 

3 , ,W| ', ,1 U for (olAiljjl lJ * e.g., cW fmita or *«•««■■ 






268 

MU. I. p. 271 11. 18-19 to p. 272 11. 1-2-. (MU. II. p. 477). 
Surahja Adhydrus :-Q.~Is $ lawful to eat the herbs brought for one's eon- 
sumption from the garden, e.g., the brinjal or the radish,* &c, from amongst (a 
basketful) of which one has been picked up and half of it bitten (or, eaten), and 
the other half (again) thrown into the whole contents, or, (is it lawful to eat such 
vegetables) if a man who is an anir (i.e., one of a foreign faith) or a darvand puts 
his hand into the mouth or acts improperly (and thereby denies the contents of 
the basket of vegetables) ? 

A.~ It is not allowable (to eat such herbs or vegetables). . 
Hot water will not remove druj-i-nasush. 

MU. I. p. 272 11. 2-3=H.P. f. 440. (MU. II. p. 453). 
Kaus Mahyar :-Q.-B.ow is it if they boil water in a pot and then wash 
(therewith) then heads (i.e., their bodies) » 

A.— The water which has been 'boiled will not remove the druj-i Nasush {i.e. 
the demon of decomposition), especially that of a menstruous woman.* 

Hides tanned by juddins. 
MU. I. p. 272 11. 5-6. (MU. II. p. 466). 
Shapur Bharuchi.-The hides of dead animals which have been tanned and 
coloured by juddins are impure. It is not proper (to use them). The hide or 
the leather which becomes polluted and denied by anything is not pure. It cannot 
be made pure either by water or by pddydb (i.e., gomez). 

On killing noxious creatures. 

MU. I. p. 272 U. 7-12. 
Kaus Eamdin :— Of what has been asked about killing the noxious creatures 
these six kinds (of Jcliarfastars) are (mentioned) in the proper place^ and the laws* 
about the reward and recompense for killing the noxious creatures are written 
in Zend and Pazend, as to what the merit is for (killing) each one. There are many 
other Jcliarfastars, but it is not known how they are caUed. Faithful and select 5 
Behdins may find them out. Those which are wild are— the elephant, the lion 
the panther, the wolf, the hyena, the jackal, 8 the cat, the lynx and the Karkuza? 
and there are others (of the kind). 

There are many stinging creatures such as the snake, the scorpion, the wasp, 
which are caEed biting creatures and again, there are the black fly, the fly which 
produces worms 8 , the corn-carrying ant and many flies there are which it is proper 
to kill. And again, about the kinds of ants :— It is proper to kill aU kinds of ants 
which exist, particularly, 9 the corn-carryin g ant is in the categoryio of a JcJmrfastar 

1 M.U. <-y J — H. F. >rLri 

2 The warm water which has the heat of fire in it is defiled by coming in contact with 
such persons and fire is injured thereby, therfore cold water should be used. (See Ardai Viraf). 

3 i.e. in the Avesta. * ^ 5 ^ fr . ^^ to appi . ove- (Ego _ ^gjj 6 % yj 

explained by JU£ 1 fjySjS called /.^.jye an emmet, pismire (?). See p. 2731. 10: cf. 
Saddar Nasr Ch. 43. 

s See Saddar Nasr. Oh. 43. 9 l^i f or Uy>. c 10 ^i, i tera „ 



270 

(lak-pusht), it is a merit of 3 tanafurs and it decreases a sin worth 3 tanafurs and 
he should know that (he obtains as much merit as when) a Hirbad performs a Yasna 
for his soul for one month. 

The impure Ahriman who has created the lion has produced it for the reason 
that the Creator Ormazd has made the Constellation of Leo in the form of a lion 
and in accordance with this knowledge (or, contrivance), the accursed and des- 
tructive Ahriman created the lion. 

The smaller noxious creatures are again produced by Ahriman himself and 
several large noxious creatures which he has produced are also produced on observing 
the plan of Ormazd. 

MU. I. p. 274 U. 6. 

Bahman Punjya : — If a person lolls a tortoise, 1 it is a merit of 30 tanafurs 
and it diminishes a sin worth 3 tanafurs, which becomes uprooted. 

Food gnawed by noxious creatures- 

MU. I. p. 276 11. 16-19 to p. 277 11. 1-5=H F. f. 94, f. 124 and f. 137. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — Q. — Can the food in which a serpent, or a 
mouse or a cat or an ichneumon (or, a weasel) thrusts its snout be eaten or not ? 

■A. — The food on which a serpent lays its mouth should not 3 be eaten. If a 
mouse or a eat thrusts its snout in the food, e.g., a piece of bread, then that much 
portion whereon the snout is thrust and that much whereof one is in doubt should 
be thrown to a dog and that which is left over may be eaten. Let it be known that 
the snout of a weasel is like that of a dog 3 . 

©.—(Same as above) : 

-4- — The snout of a serpent is fouler than that of a mouse or a cat and the 
mouths of other noxious creatures are fouler than that of the mouse. That much 
portion whereon the snout is thrust should be removed and the remainder is pure 
(and therefore may be eaten). One should abstain from (eating) the half -gnawed 
food of other wild animals. Let it be known that the snouts of a weasel and of a 
dog are alike 4 . 

MU. I. p. 277 U. 5-6. 
Shapur Bharuchi : — If food is gnawed by a mouse or a cat or a weasel, then 
that portion whereof there is some doubt should be thrown to the dog and the rest 
may be eaten. 



1 ul^J <S^ same as ii.«j <J"i/; all Rivayats give the word aa c*^J <J\£ but 
Dastur Barzu Kamdin's Rivayat (Bk.) rightly gives it as c*^j s*»\£ (Kasa-pusht) of which 
/.« is easily changed to \J t This word is used in opposition to &.mj j li. i.e., a hedgehog, 
otherwise called %jj y or ,&<?■ or ^js. As the Avestic Vanghapara, otherwise called 
Duzaka, is identified with the zuza or hedgehog, the Kah-pusht, or still better, the Kasa-pusht, 
i.e., a tortoise, is identified with Avesta Zairimyanghura (as opposed to Vanghapara) — See Vd,13. 
(See MXJ. I. p. 259 1. 5 where the Kak-pusht is identified with , „£ Liaj ,'. ■ \ 

2 for is.jU» read &jLm). 

3 i.e. the food wherein an ichneumon thrusts its snout should not be eaten. 
* i.e. food gnawed by them should not be eaten. 



269 

which, is also called susak 1 . And there are many flying and biting creatures living 
in water and on the' earth. Whatever kind of kharfastars there are, it is necessary 
to kill. 

MU. I. p. 272 11. 14-16. 

Bahman Punjyd : — In your quarter (i.e., in India), a wolf (when dead) is re- 
garded as nasd, but it is not necessary that any person who conies in contact with 
it 2 should undergo the Bareshnum. If any person comes in contact with a dead 
wolf, he should wash his clothes with pddydb and water and they will become pure. 
He should not undergo Bareshnum. To kill a wolf is a great meritorious deed. If 
its blood besmears the clothes, they should be washed with pddydb and water. 

MU. I. p. 272 11. 16-18. 

Kaus Kamdin : — Q.-^-la it lawful to kill a spider or not ? 

A. It is lawful to kill a spider. One should strive one's utmost in this affair, 
for it is a great merit. 

Q. — If a serpent 3 stings the body of a man and if the poison infects 4 the body, 
what (incantation) should be recited ? 

A. — We have no knowledge of the incantation. We cannot pronounce any 
opinion on it 6 . 

MU. I. p. 273 11. 1-4=H.F. f. 115 and f. 151. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — Q. — Can the flesh 8 of a hyena 7 be taken 

T ■ J. 

as medicine or not i 

A.— No noxious creature's flesh should be eaten. If any the least quantity 
of the flesh of a noxious creature is put into the mouth 8 , it is a tandfiir sin. 

Q. — If there is a large noxious creature whom it is impossible to kill, can it 
be burnt (alive) at the place where it remains in concealment 9 ? 

A. — If it does great harm, and if it is impossible to kill it, then out of necessity 
it must be burnt (alive). 

Q. — There is a large noxious creature and it does harm to the Behdins. Can 
a Behdin go and kill it ? 

A. — If the Behdins dissuade (that person) from going (near it), as it will do 
him harm, he should not be self-opinioned 10 , because opinionativeness is the law 
of Alnriman. 

MU. I. p. 273 11. 15-19 (MU. II. p. 464). 

Shapur BharucU :— If a person kills a bazmajH, it is a merit of 33 tanafurs 
and his sin worth 33 tanafurs is cut off and he should know that he obtains as much 
merit as when a Hirbad performs a Yasna for him for one year. If one kills a tortoise 



■ 



1 e£,w}.w an insect resembling a beetle, mostly found in baths (Steingass). 

2 i.e. a dead wolf. 3 _/<» for U 
* &*& 5/ Ij lit., goes up (in the body). 

6 On the contrary in the Books of Nirangs, a Nirang for snake — bite is given. 
6 *=sJ = o.«j.?. 7 j&ii£=£**e. ' 8 *« = cjt T iJ. 9 4ff $?: keeping bound as a 
prisoner : hence, lying hidden or concealed. M J , a *a, 
11 ^oy. in Guhpatlago— the iguana. ,,-. 



271 

About the cattle which have eaten nasa 
MU. I. p.2771. 7=H.F.f. 207. 

Ramdin SJmpur .— H a cow or a sheep eats nasa, then its dung or milk or 
anything is to be regarded as the worst form of bodily refuse* for a year. 
MU. I. p. 277 11. 10-12= H.F. f. 128. 

Kama Bohra .-The 80th Chapter is this :-If a cow or a sheep eats dead 
matter from anywhere, then its flesh should not be eaten untU the completion of 
Tyl, and (for 'that period) the milk, wool and dung (for fuel) should not be taken 
i nto use If the cattle which has eaten dead matter become big with young after 
a year the young one which is born is pure. If a domestic fowl has eaten* dead 
JZ its Lh Id eggs are impure in the same manner upto the next year, ,,., 
for one (complete) year, but after a year it is to be considered pure . 



1 'J)J£ Pah - "^ ^ 5^ is-nneotedwith ^ i.e. heaviness, griev- 
pusness. 

2 MU. I , US-better H.F. ij& JjU 

3 C£. Vd. VII. §§ 76-77. 

(76) Can the cattle be purified. . . .that have eaten the nasa of a dead dog or o a man . 
77 . .They can be purified : (but) (their) cheese (i.e. milk, curds &o.) shall not be used 

in re igious' ceremony (zaotkre), nor milk for the Barsam ceremony withm a year 8 penod ; then 
iter a year's period! they may be consumed as before by holy men as they like. 

Cf. Sis. II §§ 109-111. 
j»fc. U &> )*W» *!**»! ^ ,W0 ^ ^ ""^ "^ (1 ° 9) 

iw* *y w*w> »**» J <V WJ ' *g? *? *& (U1) ^ ^ ^ 

(109) Whichever of the animal species has eaten dead matter, then its milk dung hair and 
wool are , -II for the length of a year. If it is pregnant and eats it, then the child (m the 
Tomb) als" eats it and (therefore) that child (becomes pure) after the ^JjJjJJ £ 
• i L „f i*= ,wW m 01 When a male eats it and it mounts a female, the lemale is not; 
polluted (HI) Whl^an "S eats dead matter, and even while it is not digested, it dies, 
then it is just like a leathern bag in which there is dead matter. 

Cf. Pah. Vend. 7 §§ 76-77 coram : (p. 293 11. 6-10.) :-, ' ' '^ 

This is the account of that gospend which has eaten nasa. During the period of the year 
whatever (comes out of it) (e. g ., milk, wool, cowclung, urine &e.) must be regarded as refuse of 
the worst sort (oak gerai), and the hair which is allowed to grow on the body becomes pure 
. , . , , - '„t, lujo i e one year). If it eats (nasa) in a pregnant state 
after the ap P ohatedtmie(p^anafc--^U ,, - on6 ted Le, but if it eats (nasa) before its 
the young one and the mother ^ ^ ^ then Hats (nasa) before pregnancy and the 

Ky.SSS layT'an egg" (after eating it), it is pure (or, .**« ie. impure). 

A dead child (ritifc) brought forth by ayubaran &$ or ^>J * a Woman who brings forth 
* still-born child) should be washed with goraez and water. 



272 

Dead matter cannot be taken as medicine. 

MIT. I. p. 277 11. 16-19 to p. 278 U. 1-2 = H.F. f. 128. 
Emm Bohra .— Ch. 77— If a person orders a Behdin to eat dead matter for 
the sake of (applying) a remedy or for (effecting) a cure, then certainly that order 
should not be obeyed ; as it is said in the commentary of the Vendidad that the 
punishment for any person who has eaten dead matter is that his abode and 
belongings should be extirpated and his heart should be plucked out of his body 
-all these punishments should be inflicted on him, which he should undergo and 
his soul will be in heU for eternity except that he is brought before the religious 
heads and the Dasturs. The Dastur should order his head to be cut off ■ thus 

the punishment is inflicted on his soul and (thereafter) punishment is withheld 
from him. 

Couplets .-Abstain from eating dead matter : do not (thereby) make your 
soul a prisoner in hell. Take care ! Be heedful ! Beware! Abstain from dead 
matter. Abstain from dead matter, bodily impurity and pollution. On account 
of the pollution with dead matter, you wiU eternally despair of heaven.* 

MU. I, p. 278 11. 8-9=H.F. f. 128. 

Kama Bohra .--The 79th chapter is this :-If, God forbid, a person gives 
a Behdin dead matter to be eaten under some pretence or throws dead matter on 
to a Behdin without (the latter's) desire or order, then the former should undergo 
the Bareshnum purification and he should repent (of his action) before the religious 
heads and Dasturs and he should undergo the punishment which the Dasturs order 
so that he will be released from hell. 



i Cf. Vd. VII. pp. 23-24. — 

^(23) Can the men be purified, who have eaten the rf ' & ^ ^ ^ rf & ^ 

(24) They cannot be purified. 

V. Or, Such men do harm to their eall-blnrlrW l™ i,,-i„\ „ i t , 
cause their eyeballs to come out of tlSyes . (feolam^ m *° *"* hearts - ^ 

Cf. Sis. II. §§ 107-108 :— 

\AyU my* *,,«, £ -J ^ yi^h w ,# ^ K , af ^ (m) 

W$j^ (-ting) dead matter throng 

contemptible than a fox which is thrown irlto the W ahVe and d? US? ^ P6rson > is »°™ 
; (108) A mar W - ara never becomes clean and tZ ffi Tf ff ^ * hat Water " 
from the ceremonial apparatus. ' d the °f° ft ^3 should be kept 30 steps away 

1 i.e., Knowingly. ! ' ■ : ; 

2 Here „ sed for a woman who has brought forth a still-born child. 



273 

How should Bereshnum be administered to one of a foreign 
faith who has come in contact with nasd and who, therefere, wishes to be 

purified. 

MU. I. p. 279 11. 9-13=H.F. f. 85. 

Kama Bohra : — Q. — An infidel (aniri) or one of a foreign faith has set his heart 
on the good religion, 1 and Bareshnum cannot be administered to him for fear of 
others. What is the decision ? 

A. — It is said in the 8th fargard of the Vendidad that if any person who has 
become riman is 60 f arsangs away from a Bareshnumgar 2 then he should proclaim 
(his case) aloud 3 to a person (on the way) who should purify hhn with gomez and 
make (his body) dry (with dust) 4 . With a loud proclamation, he should take the 
padyab of the bull and with loud proclamation, it should also be poured on his 
head so that all parts (of the body) may be wet and then he should make himself 
dry with dust from the moisture of the padyab. He should wash himself with 
padyab for 30 times and dry himself with dust and then wash himself with water 
once : and he should yet abstain from whatever has been prepared or is being 
prepared for Yasht and YasnaS. One of a foreign faith who sets his heart on the 
religion and who is riman should be purified thus. 

MU. I. p. 279 U. 15-18 to p. 280 11. 1-14. = H.F. f . 115, f. 151. 
Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — Q. — If a person of a foreign faith who has 
his mind and speech set on to the good religion becomes riman by nasd and if they 
are unable to administer Bareshnum to him on account of some who are of bad 
nature 6 i.e., on account of this that the wicked tyrannise over the virtuous, what 
is the decision ? 

A 1 .— In the 8th fargard of the Vendidad, it is so enjoined that if (such) persons 
are away from a Bareshnumgar, i.e., between them and the Bareshnumgar there 
is (a distance of) 30 farsangs and if a person (from amongst them) becomes riman 
(vddydb), then it is necessary that he should wash himself 15 times with padyab 
and make (his body) dry with dust, and then he should go to a Bareshnumgar who 
will administer Bareshnum to him. (He should wash himself) for these 15 times 
for the reason that if a stream or a river or plants come on his way, they are less 
afflicted. 

1 HF. adds **> tO*ij**"*ij 

3 i.e. the person who is polluted by coming in contact with dead matter is in a locality- 
like a desert place far away from the habitations of men where he cannot come upon a Yozda- 
thragar or a Bareslummgar i.e. a qualified purifier. 

3 v^i^? Ai Ij /jl^J for cSj^ &i tJ is I A > Of. Vd. 8 § 100 berezyaoget-vaclio razayan 

i.e. (a man to whom) he should cry aloud thus : — 

4 i.e. administer the temporary purification. See Epistles of Manushchehr — Introd. 

PP- I- 2 - 

5 i.e. he should not participate in higher ceremonials, as he is not properly purified with 

the ritualistic Bareshnum. 

6 I j |*)jl<SJ or h f*'j^ as in T 33 and SDB. (from AJ & f lj' colour, i.e. nature). The 
writer refers to the ill-treatment by the Moslems. Cf. also Per. u"* 'j distressed ; unfortunate. 

1 In H. F. and T 33 there is a dislocation here and the answer begins with *-> l *J gi-, s*k I 

(See MU. II. p. 25 1. 17). 

. 35 



274 

If he is 60 farsangs away from a Bareshunigar 1 , lie should act 30 times as 
I have said, 3 and then he should engage himself in work, but should abstain from 
(the performance of) the Yasna-service until the time he comes upon a Bareshnumgar 
who administers Bareshnum to him. 

And one should act in the same way in the case of one of a foreign faith who 
has set his heart on the good religion. 3 Whatever has been ordered (to be done 
in such a case) by the Herbad Payadar^ from the religion has been enjoined in the 
8th fargard of the Vendidad, and the evidence thereof has been manifest in the 
Avesta : — thrisatathwem. frasnatee thrisatathwem. upasnatee (Vd. 8 § 98) i.e., he 
should wash himself 30 times i.e., with padyab (or gomez) and he should (thus) wash 
himself 30 times : 5 The commentary (of the Avesta) is thus given. Let it be 
known that there is not manifest (herein) the evidence of the Avesta as regards 
drying the body with dust. 6 

i MU. j> fy**ji — better H. S. J* ■£)**! ji J> 

2 i.e., apply gomez 30 times. 

3 i.e., Converts should be purified in this way. 

1 An unknown commentator : but see Saddar Nasr p. 1 and Intro, p. VIII where one 
Bahman Payadar is stated to have transcribed the Saddar from a MS. 

6 i.e., Nothing is said in this commentary about drying the body with dust after applying 
the gomez, but the commentary on this passage )$)*■*>■( -"!) JO J CO' ''he should rub his 
hands over it " may be taken both ways. 

Of. Pah. Vd. 8 § 103 eomm :— 

When he goes as far as 3 hdthras, he should not, as far as possible, go within populated 
places {mqta), until he addresses 3 persons (pathdrel) (for cleansing him). (If they do not cleanse 
him), then all the sins which he commits helplessly (by washing himself with his own hands) is 
theirs at the origin. If he thus washes himself, then even he should act thus ' he should do his 
work and engage in business. ' Some say that he may do all his work, but abstain from the 
Yasna service of God. 

Cf. Vd. 8, §§ 97-107:— 

(97) Can the men be purified who have come in contact with nasa in a far off place in a 
wilderness ? 

(98) They can be purified If the corpse has been eaten by corpse-eating clogs or 

corpse-eating birds, then he shall wash his body with gomez ; he shall wash it (so) 30 times we 11 
(frasndtee), he shall wash it 30 times all over (upasnatee), beginning everytime with the head. 

(99) If the nasa has not been eaten by corpse-eating dogs or corpse-eating birds, he shall 
wash it 15 times well, he shall wash it 15 times all over (with gomez). 

(100) He shall run for the (distance of the) first Hdthra. He shall thence run until he meets 
any one of this material world ; he shall declare with a loud voice to him thus : "As I have here 
come in contact with the body of the dead, lam powerless in (i.e. cannot control) my mind, speech 
or deeds, and therefore give me purification." (Thus) running, he shall reach the first (hdthra). 
If no one purifies him, J of his trespass is remitted. 

(101) He shall run for (the distance of) the second hdthra Thus running, he shall reach 

the second (hdthra.) If no one purifies him, J of his trespass is remitted. 

(102) He shall run for (the distance of) a third hdthra. . . .Thus running, he shall reach the 
third (hdthra). If no one purifies him, the whole of his trespass is remitted. 

(103) Thence he should run onwards, until he comes across the nearest house, street, village 

or town and declare with a loud voice thus : " I have here come in contact "If they do not 

purify him, then he shall wash his body with gomez and water all round . Thus he shall he clean . 

(104) If there is water in the midst of his way, the water makes him subject to a penalty. 
What is the penalty for it ? 

(105) .... 400 updzanas 

(106) If there are trees in the midst of his way, then fire makes him subject to a penalty. 
What is the penalty for it ? 

(1 07) 400 updznas 



275 

MU. I. p. 280 11. 16-19. 

SMpurBharuchi:-Q.-K one of a foreign faith who sets his heart on the . 
good religion becomes — and for fear, of others, the Bareshnum cannot be 
administered to him, what is the decision 1 

A _K is said in the 8th fargard of the Vendidad that if that Behdin is 100 
farsangs away from a Bareshnumgar and has become riman, then he should recite 
patet before another Behdin. Thereafter the (latter) Behdin may give him padyab 
so that he may wash his head and body clean therewith and then make them dry 
with dust for 30 times ; then he should wash himself with pure water once. Then 
he should abstain from whatever has been prepared for Yashts and YaW. One 
of a foreign faith who sets his heart on to the good religion should thus be 
ceremonially treated (parhikhtan) and washed. 

On peaceful and forcible conversion. 

MU. I. p. 281 11. 1-2= HF. f. 441 (MU. II. p. 454). . 
Kaus Mahyar .-Q.-Can a grave-digged, a corpse-burner and a darmjd 
(one of a foreign faith) become Behdins (i.e., be converted to the Mazdayasman 

religion) % 

A -11 they observe the rules of religion steadfastly and (keep) connection 
with the religion, and if no harm comes on the Behdins (thereby), it is proper and 

allowable. 

MU. I. p. 281 11. 3-5 (MU. II. p. 387). 
Narirmn HosUng :-Q.-A Behdin turns darvand (i.e., goes over to another 
faith) If he returns to the religion of the Behdins, is it allowed or not ? 

A -It is allowable. They should convert him to the religion in the way 
(prescribed). He should be advised and admonished, should perform a patet and 
E Bareshnum should be administered to him. He should again engage him- 
IK t p rfoSTg penitential acts and should recants £ f orm er deeds). Let it 
be known that he should be allowed (to be retaken) m to way. 

MU. I. p- 282 1. 6. 

MU. I. p. 282 11. 7-9 (MU. II p. 476). 
ma . v_n Mnsalmans convert a Behdin by force to Muha- 
med fT but T iXs • *£Z - on Muhamedanism, (What is the 

Cle T-Whenever (such a person) is converted by force to Muhamed™ 
and h his helrt^ndmind^^ 

1 i.e., he should not participate in higher ceremonies. 

2 MU. j/ forBK. &$.J)t 

3 CW »3 — recantation ; vowing to sin no more. 

4 lit. take poison. • The word is written in Avesta characters. 






276 

On the Treatment of juddins and on conversion. 

MU. I. p. 282 11. 11-18 (MU. II. p. 387-88). 

Nariman Hoshang :-Q.-Ii a Behdin kills juddim, does he become responsible 
for the murder 1 or not ? 

A-If the juddins have been involved in margarjan sins and do not follow 
the advice of the Behdin and squabble with him, then if they are killed, the Behdin 
is not responsible (for the murder). 

If a (Behdin) farmer* injures juddins (employed in his work) and if they 
become helpless (and are overcome), then indeed the Behdin" is responsible for the 

©-What is the retribution for taking away anything by force from the juddins 
and appropriating it ? j "<■ * 

A _One should give four for one in the spiritual world for (what is taken away 
by) oppression and violence, but if (a juddin) shows enmity towards a Behdin! 
then it is allowable to take away the thing from him by force. 

<2.-An innocent man is handed over to an unjust king so that the latter 
deprives him of Ins property by violence. What is the decision ? 

4,-For every harm and injury that (the king) does to him and his offspring 
^person who has handed him over to the king should be punished in the next 

Nariman Hosliung :-U sl^e-hoys and girls have faith in the good religion 

then rt 1S proper that Kusti should be (given to them to be) tied,* aM wh en tSy 

become intelligent, attentive to religion and steadfast, they should giT them 

Bareshnum and it is also proper and allowable to eat anything out of £ haul 

MU. I. p. 283 11. 1-2= H.F. f. 213. 

Kamdin S J Mpur :- A young (female) prisoner of war, bought (of another) 
if he has not been m menses, should be fed for three nights in a publi P W ai d' 
then her head should be washed with the Bareshnum. If she has been in mens s 
she should be fed for 41 days in a public place,* and then her head washed wS 
Bareshnum and then she should be married. 

Diseases and their remedies. 

MU. I. p. 283 11. 5-9= H.F. f. 167. 

KausKama .--There are a thousand lands of disease in the world and a thon,n i 

knids of drugs and medicines. The diseases are owing to Zd^^Zl 

Ahriman and the drugs and medicines too are created by God ItTsfo T Z 

that these drugs grow up from the earth,* and the diseases «£^^ 

i ».; does the blood sit on the head of the Behdin ? " 

2 jtC&jjA for $IL$ai ki. 3 

4 ..«., they should be converted to Zoroastriani sm . ' 

B £ J (lard), a public place, a race-cnnr=o o i • , 

Rivayat e^lains the word iLerln^T ^ i ."£ T m ^. te ™ ««* one 

*«-» P . 97 note. Fm . has "JT* ' ^ & ^ ( «* ^^ 

a Cf. Vd. 22. °^.ias ij^ f (=pasaea away) for ^ 



277 

larity of) the stomach. 1 Then when such is (the case), it is better that the work 
(of healing) may be left to God and one should engage oneself in obeying the com- 
mands of God. 2 All the commandments 3 which Ormazd has spoken about to 
Zartosht should be acted up to, so that by their study 4 of them, they may be (called) 
Behdins (i.e., followers of the good religion), but if they engage themselves in dis- 
obeying them, then let it be known that they are darvands. 

To avoid calamities and to ward off diseases, Amshaspands and 

Yazads should be propitiated. 

MU. I. p. 283 U. 10-19 to p. 284 11. 1-5= HF. f. 135 (MU. II. p. 65 1. 18 et seq., 

and p. 443) 

Dashir Barzu : — Then if a calamity befalls a person, it is necessary that he 
should give something in charity in the name of the Amshaspands and perform 
their Yasna so that the sinister aspect of a star may be removed from his horoscope, 
for virtue proceeds from Ormazd and the Amshaspands and vice from Ahriman 
and the demons ; then it is evident that nothing should be given in charity in the 
name of the Ahrimanian planets 5 . These seven stars and the "sun and the moon, 
are Ormazd's ; in all nine, with the others 6 . 

Everything is regarded as the cause of another thing and no body can find the 
right path of existence and (wear) the robe of entity without cause or motive, 7 and 
the state of every quality whose greatness and power comes into manifestation in this 
world of development and decay by the command of God cannot but be without® 
a Causer or capable Agent. But when the Causer of Causes has ordered that every- 
thing should have a cause, and every body, a motive, it is necessary that one should 
make vows 9 (unto God and the Amshaspands), and offer 10 and give something in 
charities (in their names). Perhaps (by doing so), a favourable opportunity may 
arise and the (particular) star may leave off its sinister aspect, and assume a fortu- 
nate aspect. And again, out of the (thirty) days, there is not a single day which 
is not (connected) with the name of an Amshaspand, and when they give something 
in charity and think of (doing) meritorious deeds, then that charity (offered) in 
the name of an Amshaspand in (the shape of) the consecration of Darun or (the 
performance of ) a Nyaish is accepted and the wishes of Ormazd and the Amshaspands 
are accomplished. Our hopes He in this that Ormazd and the Amshaspands may 
help us and the star which wears a sinister aspect may assume a favourable aspect. 
When God the most high sent Zartosht for the apostleship and conferred on us 
the good religion, Zartosht brought the 21 Nasks out of the sayings of Ormazd, 



i i.e., by eating and drinking immoderately, men are prone to disease, 
s i.e., one should obey the laws of health so that one may not be in need of various reme 
dies for various diseases. 

s lit., these words and those words. * ^y >>^a. = study. 

6 i.e. , 7 more than the sun and the moon. (See below). 

7 i.e., everything has a cause. 8 ,}L.i j y*S read ,1 U.S j ^j.5" +.1 U • after ^L (j 

add i_,AJ yjjf as in F. S. M. 

9 e>3) *iJ of. (.t'iJj.jii,J which is used in Pah. and Pers. in the sense of "to vow." 
W „j.A. for ,ia. 






278 

and of whatever was ordered by God, and made them manifest and explained 1 its 
import to the people of the world ; e.g., he showed us the way how to pass our lives 
in good thoughts, good words and good deeds and to keep ourselves away from bad 
thoughts, bad words and bad deeds, and he showed us the path of virtue and vice, 
saying : " Love virtue and abstain from vice." We obtain reward and punish- 
ment, in the other world, for the obedience and disobedience we practise. 

MU. I. p. 284 11. 4-5. 

Bahman Punjya' i : — Seven Ahrimanian planets are enchained under the 
custody of the seven Ormazdian planets : and again, the Ormazdian planets 
have been made subject to, and are in custody of, the Amshaspands and they have 
been appointed in the manner as described below : — 

(here the stars and planets are enumerated : MU. I. p. 284 11. 6-8). 

MU. I. p. 284 11. 11-19 to p. 285 U. 1-3, = H. F. f. 243. 

8ha,pur Bharuchi : — According to the sayings of the Behdins of Samarqand 
and (the people of) that quarter, water and nirang (i.e., gomez) and every service 
they want to celebrate should be celebrated (in the name) of a different firishte s (i.e. 
an angel), just as I mention, so that advantage may accrue to a Behdin thereby : — 

They should consecrate the Darun of Arda fravahar in the name of Raghdast 4 
for repelling a powerful enemy from the Behdins. If an enemy makes an attempt 
at depriving a Behdin of his property, they should perform the Yasna of 
Ardafravahar in the name of Zartosht. For (repelling) the affliction 5 of an enemy, 
they should perform the Yasna of Ardafravahar, of another description in the 
name of Ghobaru. 6 

In order to avoid famine, they should perform the Yasna of Horn in .the name 
of Yami 7 . In order to avoid pestilence, the Yasna of Horn should be performed 
in the name of Faridun. If one is bewitched by a demon, or a sorcerer or a fairy 
or an evil eye8 he should perform the Yasna of Horn in the name of Syavakhsh, 9 
In order to repel an enemy, one should perform, as an alternative, the Yasna of 
Horn in the name of Farshosht Khukh 10 . If one is frightened in a dream, the 
Yasna of Ardafravahar should be performed in the name of Faredun. For repelling 
the tyranny of kings, the Yasna of Khashashbad 11 should be performed in the name 
of Gushtasp. For the increase of wealth one should perform the Yasna of Khashash- 
bad in the name of Yan Jasan Vivan Jashan 12 . For fear of any disease, one 



1 lit., conferred on. 

2 S. D. B. gives this as B.P.'s Rivayat. 

3 M U. c^jjj for B. K. /S&jji, ' 1 MU. c**»*ilj and B. K- e*«*,elj a cor- 



rupt form of liijjj.* 1 (a brother of Afrasyab). 5 M. U. ^j and H. P. 


^.~j — better 


B. K. ^J for ^aj, 6 J^J J =. 

7 ^+j _ 8 rli«Jj of. j^AJj *^ or for ^iijj read, as in B. K. 





any harm from a jinn. 9 Aghriras, Gobru, Yemi, Syavakhsh are regarded as righteous 

persons and their names are invoked in the public ceremonies by the priests up to now. 

1° i*i. cu.i^.i.j.i: for ji^i. compare Pah. j»jf» (Hvova). 

ii &.j.£..£.i. : B. K. li.w.&.i. or oa^Aa. It is not not known who this is. 

12 (^.iuj. (jjl*^ i^""=- e)'j- : Bk. om. Mj in this sentence and takes ^ms. ^jj6 ^^ tyO 
with the following sentence. 



279 

should perform the Yasna of Khashashbad in the name of Khumishnai. For 
(avoiding the effects of) plunder a information whereof arrives later, the Yasna 
of Khashashbad should be performed in the name of VaniR For seeking kingship 
the Yasna of Khashashbad should be performed in the name of Arda* and (also), 
in the name of Khush Shavand Farvard*. For serving a king, one should perform 
the Yasna of Khashashbad in the name of Ardbari Farvash°. For the knowledge 
of penmanship, the Yasna of Khashashbad should be performed in the name of 
Shamidan?. For the acceptances of anything, the Yasna of Ardafravahar should 
be performed in the name of Arghui». For (avoiding) sickness, the Yasna of Arda- 
fravahar should be performed in the name of Faridun. For the concord of husband 
and wife, the Yasna of Ardafravahar should be performed in the name of Syavakhsh. 
When the heart of a Behdin inclines towards darmndi (i.e., to another faith), and 
if you wish that he may again revert to his faith, the Yasna of Ardafravahar should 
be performed in the name of the Amshaspands. For the consecration of Darun-i 
Safari the Yasna of Ardafravahar should be performed in the name of 
Raghdast 11 . 

MU. I. p. 286 11. 4-8. 
Kama Bohra (?) .-—About praying for one's wants in sickness, it is thus enjoined 
in the religion : As many Meher Nyaishes as are vowed for should be recited on the 
clay Meher. As many Horn Yashts as one has made a vow of reciting should be 
recited. The Yasna of Ardafravahar should be performed in the name of Fandun." 
33 eggs or as many as are vowed for should be consecrated with the Hom-Darun ; 
or (the head of) a gospend should be consecrated in the name of the angel Meher . 
or charities may be made on the day Adar for the court of the Atash Behrams 
or as many Ormazd Yashts as are solemnly undertaken should be recited on the day 
Ormazd ; or as many Behram Yashts, as are solemnly vowed for should be recited 
on the day Behram 13 . 

i ti>^j^ (?) : B - K - eA'LH* 

2 so MTJ : better Bk, ^U C^ i-e. for one who is absent or, F. S. M. * t ?i 

!<■ i. e., for the sake of any work 

3 LJ.1JJ (?)— B. K. <_aj,j * lijl (<j). 

e ijjf *1-jA J**- (?) 6 iAW U* ^ W~ B - K - ^ Whi ° h " tak6n 
with the next sentence. _ - 

10 The Damn consecrated when going on a journey (safar). 

U Generally this Damn is consecrated now-a-days in the name of the Yazad Behram. 

12 According to Vd.20, Thrita, generally identified with Faridum, was the first person 
in this world who invented remedies from plants for various diseases ; hence latterly many 
lilnd afsL (i.e. charms) with the intermixture of certain Avesta texts are composed m 
ZZnToi Faridum, to ward off fever, sickness, plague and the various evfis man « heu- to. 

13 Cf. Sis. 12 §§ 8-10 (See Sadder Bd. ch. 22 : MU. I. p. 286) :— 

are? i »«*. ivw *r>v \ «rp"j'v« w» uW> $*faf * f * W 



280 

The blind and the maimed should be content with their lot. 

MU. I. p. 286 U. 13-15 (MU. II. p. 463). 
Shapur Bliaruchi : — If, in this world, a person is blind of his eyes, or lame in 
his legs, or has undergone sickness, he should offer thanksgiving and gratitude to 
(God), 1 and Ormazd the good and the propitious will give him recompense thereof 
at the Chinvat Bridge. But if he has practised unthankfulness, disease and trouble 
will befall him in both the worlds. 

On being grateful to God on every occasion : — Adarbad Marespand's 

miracles. 

MU. I. pp. 286-289. 

Bafanan Punjya (in verse) : — On the approach of any calamity, Adarbad 
Marespand would only offer thanks unto God and would never think of the Almighty 
as the author of evil. For one such calamity or misfortune befalling him, he would 
express his gratitude to God, ten times more. Under all such trying circumstances, 
he would say thus : — 

(1) Thanks be to God that the affliction brought on me by Ahriman is not on 
the increase, for out of one evil there will always arise many. (2) Thanks be to 
God that this evil is now endured by my body here in this world, but not by my 
soul. (3) Thanks be to God that out of the many evils in store for me in this world, 
one calamity which has been borne has become extinct and this has made me fearless. 
(4) Thanks be to God that the torture suffered on account of the evil and mis- 
fortune brought on by me is less. (5) Thanks be to God that the worst evil befalls 
the good and the pious only, who should, in return therefor, offer thanks to the 
Almighty, but should never blaspheme him. (6) Thanks be to God that the evil 
which has befallen me has not overwhelmed any other Behedin who would not 
have the power to endure it as patiently as myself. (7) Thanks be to God that the 
calamity has fallen on me only and it has not descended on my children, for 
if any evil destined for one will not, for the time being, reach one, then one's children 
will have to undergo the trouble. (8) Thanks be to God that the affliction which 
was due on account of my stars has now come to an end and nothing further there- 
of is in store for me. (9) Thanks be to God that the evil which has reached me 
was not on account of Ahriman but on account of my own deeds. (10) Thanks 



-«J iw ir^i iroV 5t» k: \g\bj4 i£ , new ai g^, wrjSi j^ Jjj sfi m 
t£ ]f itWi -w -^tov -jj»J nei i WW nor)-*;, -»jj litajij} net vp 4\f>j$2 jjjj 

One is this that while vowing for those gifts and favours for the sovereign moon and other 
angels, e.g., (the gifts of) the eggs and other food, they should vow thus : ' I shall consecrate so 
much food for such an angel and not that (I shall consecrate) one Darum with so much food'. 
The reason of it is that those who vow thus : ' One Darun out of so much food ' and if there is 
one thing less (therein), even though one consecrates it many times, still it is not repaid ; and 
those who vow thus : ' I shall consecrate so much food for such an angel ' and though one con- 
secrates it with many Darums, it is proper and in the 22 (sections) of the Sakadum (Nask) (it 
is said) : Grievous things happen to those who do not make vows (austofarid) unto the angels. 

l As, God is not the Author of evil, but every kind of antagonism (petyarak) proceede 
from Ahriman. 



281 

be to God that I understand the religion and know my Creator. For one evil, 
I would offer thanksgiving unto God ten times more 1 . 

I. Once Ahriman laid Adarbad Marespand low with a great malady, thinking 
that such a pious man who would express his gratitude to God on all occasions, even 
for any evil which came upon him, would once for all be ungrateful to the Almighty 
It was such a fell disease that worms gnawed his body for seven long years. For 
this, Adarbad would not be ungrateful to the Creator, but on the contrary praised 
Him and expressed his gratitude to Him and thus, in season and out of season, 
would always take His name on his lips, and would simply say that the revolving 
sky had brought him to such a pass. By the grace of God, he was at last 
shown a remedy for the disease. He went to a fountain of water and on washing 
his body with the water thereof, he was all at once cured of the foul disease. 

II. Once, when a shepherd saw Adarbad 's wife, he at once feU in love with 
her. He was after her for three years. Once upon a time when she went out to 
fetch water, he waylaid her and made undue overtures to her. The woman who 
was as devout and God-fearing as her renowned husband turned away from the 
villain contemptuously and told him to beware of domesday, adding that she would 
not yield even if he were to cut up her body to pieces. Being enraged at this, 
the shepherd at once drew out his knife, caught hold of her arms and cut of one of 
her ringlets. He went straight to Adarbad and told Mm that on his way he saw 
the woman with a stranger and that for her misdeed he had cut off one of her ring- 
lets which he had brought to Adarbad as a proof of what he had seen with his own 
eyes. Adarbad felt a great shock on hearing this : but he kept the secret to himself 
and offered thanks unto God, only saying that the wicked would go to hell. He 
entreated the Almighty to keep him joyful and to have his wishes fulfilled in both 
worlds. When in the evening, the wife returned home, Adarbad was delighted 
on seeing her but was not at all disturbed in mind about what had been represented 
to him by the wily shepherd. When his wife sat by his side, Adarbad put his hand 
on her hair and felt the ringlets, but he found that all her hair was intact on the 
head. The wife asked of him the reason of his doing so. Adarbad laughed and 
said : " Thanks be to God that I have never molested any one in my life : the 
chief mischief-maker here is Ahriman." Thereupon the wife unbosomed herself 
and recounted all that had passed. When Adarbad heard this, he again praised 
God and expressed his gratitutcle for the great miracle which this truly great and 
pious personage had seen wrought by the Creator on his behalf. 

How man brings on himself calamities : Prevention is better than cure. 
MU. I. p. 290 U. 13-19 to p. 291 11. 1-13— H.F. f. 141. 
Kaus Kama : — Again, God has created cures for all diseases, yet if it so happens 
that all men act up to the commandments of God and learn wisdom, and make the 
most of their opportunities 3 in the region of this world and obtain, at least, their 
livelihood (by such means), then they can reach heaven and their maladies will be 
mostly lessened. But when those who are sinners 3 are not released from trouble 

1 The writer of these verses, Dastur Noshervan Marzban, Bays that this portion is 
extracted from Kitab-i bcistan i.e., an anciont book, which is no other than the Dinkard : Cf. 
Dinkard, Vol. XII, Book VI. (Darab Sanjana's ed.) p. 99 (text). 

2 *-m£jj-o fj"^»ji for BK. *&H# ^WjJ 3 After \J\ 4 BK. adds *&£ i l ^ J 

36 



282 

and indigence, and if they do not stir themselves 1 (betimes) in (the removal of) 
them 2 , they think that their salvation lies in this that one of them may get up 
and bestir himself 3 so that he might, by chance, deprive a person of his things and 
then thinks that he will have support therefrom 4 ; but he has no idea of this that 
he will be made a prisoner (for the theft which he has committed) and executed, 
and he has no idea of the anguish of the soul as to how they will behave towards 
it (in the next world). (Such a person) gambles in the profession of a thief in this 
world 5 and thinks that his salvation lies in theft. (Such being the case), although 
there is vigour of the body everywhere, they seek remedies for the infirm 6 and they 
think that their salvation lies in that (direction). They do not know that the 
nourishment of the body is the destruction of the soul. Now let it be known to 
you that those who are healthy are the (only) rich and the afflicted (only) are the 
poor and indigent ; because giving bribes to the humble and the lowly and making 
them useless and idle is like this that these poor ones go out in' (search of) the salva- 
tion for the rich and it is also like this that a sick person gets up and goes out in 
search of health 7 . 

Again, there are the traders who endeavour so that they may buy cheap 8 
(and sell clear) and all of them find their salvation in such (transactions). Again, 
there are kings who possess countries, armies and subject-peoples, and they are 
lost in amazement 9 (when they see themselves masters of all they survey and of 
their own greatness). (They get up) and risk their lives and their armies and have 
no consideration for themselves. They turn their attention to another king so 
that they may deprive him of his kingdom and thus they seek their own salvation 
in this. Now all this comes to this : if you look closely, such persons do not diagnose 
the disease nor find out a remedy 1 °. Then you ought to know that the smiters of 
Ahriman are the pious and people bring on themselvses 11 wrath andrage by drugs la 
but for the destruction of hatred, much wisdom is necessary so that they can 
annihilate it (outright), because hatred is such that when they allow it access to 
their bodies, the way of the religion is intercepted and that hatred would perhaps 
descend to the relatives and children. And perhaps there would be acute 13 suffer- 
ing 14 in the world, just as the destruction wrought by the Turks has remained (in 

1 H.F. CM^h or perhaps »fy~&b = lie down securely. 

2 M.U.j-Cj— better H.F. , BK. & b*Jj 3 After *M^ y. BK. adds- *ty LSJJ J 
4 for MIT., H.F. t* i "'.-! y T better BK. 15--^ (i)f 

B i5*ii ji for \s» J*— for i^tjA BK. has <s >>J *> 

6 i.e., although men are able to work honestly in this world, they think that they can get 
salvation by dishonest means, or by living in idleness, and thus they bring on themselves untold 
miseries. 

, \ *■/" *e idle do themselves great harm in thinking that their salvation lies in idleness 
and thett. the rich are also to blame for their supineness in letting matters as they are and not 
reformmg the idle. Thus, m place of health, men covet disease and indigence. 

8 cJlj 1 for u'JU 1 . 9 j,J.svi^_ or perhaps = ^l>i : °-i' J-! i.e., they get up .... 

10 The writer means that every one looks to his own good but forgets the maxim ' The 
greatest good of the greatest number.' If people, besides looking to their own welfare, were 
to turn their thoughts towards their neighbours, this world would be rid of many evils. 

11 AJj,^ lit., they buy (for themselves). 12 MIT. (1) hji> — better H.F. ^jji : — 
For t_£jf j (*A* AJyi. (jljjl^ ;l j Bk. substitutes l> # j *&^ jlj j _, ie-j (the pious) are 
the smiters of wrath and rage. 

13 BK,jy— -or WJ.jMsx worse. 11 Uj — misfortune ; suffering 



283 

the world). First there was the slaughter of Irach 1 , and when hatred arose among 
the Musalrnans, the calamity thereof befell 73 s sects, and none of them pronounces 
the name (of the other sect), which may be taken as one belonging to the religious 
order 3 (of the same religion). This hatred was all (due) to the slaughter of Hasan 
and Husain 4 who have departed, but the hatred has been left in the world. Then, 
it is better that no one should give access to hatred in their bodies since 5 prevention 
is better than cure«. The drift (of it aU) is this that the destroyer of every vice 
is virtue, the destroyer of hunger is bread, and the destroyer of thirst is water and 
the destroyer of nakedness is clothing, and these (things) are created by God, who 
has made this world ; and (has created) these cures which grow up from the earth 
and the plants 7 (whereof these drugs are made), but the blowing of the wind and 
the fire and the sun are of another mould. Although one drug is the destroyer of 
one disease, yet there are many drugs which, when swallowed 8 , will make a disease 
more painful. If you are unacquainted with this saying, go to the physicians 
and ask them. I even know that you are aware of this much that when one is 
in the anguish of hunger, that anguish of his will be lessened if he eats three loaves 
of barley-bread and drink one cup 9 of whey; but if (such a person) has a 
pain 1 ? in the beUy, his disease wiU be on the increase (although he eats and drinks 
to satisfy his hunger and thirst), therefore both these- (considerations, one should 
have in mind) 11 . 

MU. I. p. 291 11. 13-15. 

Manech Changa ."—Again, they should keep the water, the earth and the trees 

and plants pure and clean. There should be concord and peace amongst men and 

there should be no squabble, or strife or quarrel, because the Creator Ormazd and 

the Amshaspands will (thereby) be pleased and propi tiated. 

1 Cf. Minokherad Ch. 21 §§ 24-26 :— 

ie, It is clearly declared in the pure religion that the origin of the estrangement of the 
Arumans and the Turks from the Iranians was owing to that hatred winch arose from them 
through the slaughter of Iraoh and it will continue upto the renovation. 

2 Properly, 72. 

3 i e each sect although conforming to the same religion acts according to its own usages 
and doctrines and tries to avoid mentioning the other sects whose religious practices vary 
from their own. 

4 Referring to the two principal sects, viz., the Shias and the Surmis. 

5 MU. \jk I = !>i' == BK. 1*0 — since, therefore. 

e ie', although there are cures for various diseases, yet Zoroastrianism teaches that it is 
better not to bring on oneself these diseases than try to remedy them after one is affected with 
them. ( 

7 MU. JjJj ] — BK. jjj' (?) 

8 MU. WjAjforBK. A?JJ*4. ° MXL ^-BK. ^-Hf 

10 MU. J«i — better H.F., BK. &J& 

11 the clause ends abruptly, withj,^ ^~but BK. substitutes instead vij* u»i 
U^J.y W* [ i W r »* «•*, then observe this well so that you may be the wiser. 



284 

On attaining to majority, Behedims should do various good works :— 
Penalties prescribed for not doing them 
MU. I. p. 291 11. 17-19 to p. 292 11. 1-17, 

Shapur Bharuchi .-—The Behdins have the following duties to do : When 
they come of age, i.e., reach the age of 14 years and 3 months 1 , then these are all 
their duties which I describe :^- 

After U years of age they should tie on the Kusti ; if they do not tie it on 
they are like darvands. Every day three times, they should recite the Khorshed 
and Meher Nyaishes. Every month, three times, they should perform the Mah 
Nyaish : 1st, when they see the new moon ; 2ndly, on the 15th day (i.e., when it 
is full moon) and 3rdly when the moon becomes very indistinct (i.e., when it wanes 
on the Vishaptatha). On aU these three occasions, the Mah Nyaish should be per, 
formed. Every year, the six Gahambars should be celebrated and the 10 clays 
of Farwardegan should be observed and Damn, Afringan and Myazd ceremonies 
should be performed. They should observe the rozgar (i.e., the anniversaries of 
the death), of fathers, mothers, relatives, wives and children. Every year they 
should consecrate the Rapithwan and during the Parvardegan, in the first 5 days 
1200 Ashem Vohus should be recited every day from the day Astad to the day 
Aniran, and during the 5 days of the Gathabyo, 1200 Ahunvars should be recited 
every day. They should eat bread and drink water with (the recitation of) Vaj 
(i.e., the prayer of grace), and then (after eating) they should finish off the Vaj, 
They should make water* with (the recitation of) Vaj and (after making water) 
they should finish off the Vaj. They should accept a Dastur (for guidance in 
religious matters), and should' do their work in accordance with the commands 
of the Dasturs and should not do any work without the order of the Dasturs. They 
should take, as their protection, one out of the Amshaspands and angels. They 
should contract friendship with a wise man. They should undergo the Bareshnum 
and keep (the retreat of) 9 nights. They should have the Geti-kharid consecrated, 
and should have their Zinda-Ravan (ceremony) consecrated. This is a great 
merit and in that ceremony, three Vendidads of Sarosh should be consecrated. 
Every day they should perform the Nyaish of Atash Behram ; if one does not 
know (how to recite it), one should order it (to be recited) by others. If one cannot 
(recite it every day) then, out of necessity, one should offer the Atash Nyaish five 
times every month 3 or order them (to be so recited). These duties the Behdins 
should do necessarily. There are many (other) meritorious deeds which one may 
be acquainted with on asking the Dastur. 

It is manifest in the religion that he who believes in, and is steadfast on, these 
five duties should be chiefly regarded as the servant of the servants of God and his 
soul will indeed reach heaven : One is this that he should think in mind without 
doubt, or suspicion that Zaratusht Asfantaman has brought the pure religion and 



1 Taking into consideration the nine months in the womb of the mother. According to 
the Avesta, a man comes of age at 15 years : cf. narsh^ancjm-dascmgho, 

2 &M& for f$,tm as in S.p.B. 

S f, e., on the days Ormazd, Ardibehesht, Adar, Sarosh and Behram (as stated in F.S.M.) 



285 

that there arises no doubt or ambiguity or suspicion about this religion (in his mind) < 
He should not raise any doubt (about it) in his mind and should be steadfast in it. 

2ndly, every day and night, he should offer thanks unto God all times either 
in joy or in grief : in every work (of this kind) he should be grateful unto God. 

3rdly, he should know that Orruazd, the religion and Zartosht are true and 
unique. He should be without doubt as to each of these three, i.e., he should not 
think of anything except these three. 

4thly, he should utter truthful words, day and night, and should practise 
truthfulness every time, for Ormazd regards the truthful speaker as His friend. 

5thly, everything he eats, he should eat with (the recitation of) Vaj, and on 
every joyous occasion and in any other work he should frequently offer thanks and 
be grateful unto God. 

He who believes in these five things wiU indeed go to heaven, and Ormazd will 
regard that person as His own friend. He who does not know these five things 
will be a darvand, fit for hell and margarjan. 

MU. I. p. 294 11. 8-9 (MU. II. p. 468). 

Shapur Bharuchi : — Again, he is called generous who bestows (something in 
charity) to the pious and the good. The second (good work) is the performance 
of Khetiodath, and speaking the truth ; the third is the consecration of the Ga- 
hambars, the fourth is the consecration of Hamadin ; the fifth is the ceremonial of 
the sacred beings, the sixth is being the well-wisher of the whole world and the 
seventh is to ponfer benefits on the good i.e., holy men 1 . 

MU. I. p. 296 11. 5-17— H.F. 123 and 162. 

Kama Bohra and Kaus Kama : — There are six meritorious deeds and if any 
one desists from the performance of these six meritorious deeds, he is counted as 
a margarjan. For it is said in the religion that he who recognises virtue and re- 
cognises vice but practises virtue and does not practise vice, resembles the Anish- 
aspands and he who recognises virtue and recognises vice, but practises vice 
and does not practise virtue resembles Ahriman. Every one who recognises both 
virtue and vice but does not practisf? any one of the two does not obtain the reward 
of virtue which is not practised and does not receive punishment for vice also, which 
he does not practise ; but inasmuch as he has not done (anyone of) those six meri- 
torious deeds, he is intercepted (on his way to the Chinvat Bridge) and is counted 
a margarjan. If any one does not recognise virtue nor vice equally, he is even (one) 
of the whole creation of Ahriman. These meritorious deeds are six-fold : 1st, the 
Gahambar ; 2nd, the performance of Khorshed Nyaish ; 3rd, the performance of 
Mah Nyaish ; 4th is the Rapithwan ; 5th, (the ceremonies for) the souls of the 
parents and also of the relatives, and the 6th is the observance of the Farvardegan. 
The Mah Nyaish is to be offered three times : at the beginning of the month, at 
the middle of the month and at the end of the month 3 . The Rapithwan should be 

1 Cf . IK. Ch. 4 : — the MK. has also seven sorts of good works prescribed, but it includes, 
in the 5th division, the providing of lodging for traders. 

2 Cf . Saddar Nasi-, Ch. 6 § 2 :— 

jtj iJo j &}■»• r*v rf'jk <-&i j &}«> y •/£ j l J <-^i ^■w | uM^ s'-* jk ^■ w ^jt 



286 

consecrated once during the year and the souls also should be propitiated and the 
Farvardegan should be observed— each one at its own (proper) time so that great 
and magnificent rewards may be obtained' 1 . 

MU. I. p. 296 1. 19 to p. 297 11. 1-2. 

Shapur Bharuchi : — The six meritorious deeds mentioned in the religion : — 
Out of these six meritorious deeds, if one is left undone at the (proper) time and 
at any other time if it is done twice as much, it is not allowable ; because although 
at another time when that meritorious deed is done twice as much, it has a merit 
twice as much ; still the opportunity which has been missed cannot be compensated 
for by the atonement (undergone by the performance) of another meritorious deed. 
This is said to be the sin of the Bridge. 3 

MU. I. p. 299 11. 1-2. 

Kamdin Shapur : — Every time that (a menstruous woman) takes her hand 
to the fire, it is a farman sin ; and if she blows the fire with the breath of the mouth, 
then every time (this is done) it is an Yat sin which is 180 stirs. If a menstruous 
woman sits over the fire, it is a margarjan sin ; and every time that nasa and im- 
pure things are burnt in fire, it is a margarjan sin. 

Crimes and margarjan sins : their degrees. 

MU. I. p. 299 U. 4-12 (MU. II. p. 468). 

Shapur Bharuchi :— -The greater crimes are these: (1) to commit unnatural 
Intercourse, (2) to exchange one's wife for another's wife, (3) to dissuade one from 
practising Khvetudath, (4) to slay a righteous man, (5) to break off (the arrange- 
ment of) adoption, (6) to extinguish Behram fire, (7) to kill a water-dog, 3 (8) to 
protect lions, panthers and noxious creatures, (9) to follow the religion of others, 
(10) to defraud one of anything given in trust ; (11) one commits a crime and even 
tells a lie (to conceal it), (12) one undergoes less labour, but takes complete hire 
thereof, (13) to telltales, (14) to practise sorcery, (15) one says one thing but practises 
another, (16) to worship daevas and idols, (17^ to steal, (18) to break a contract 
and promise, (19) to practise vindictiveness, (20) to practise oppression, (21) to 
harass the pious, (22) to practise calumniation, dissembling and hypocricy, 



1 Cf. Saddar Nasr. Ch. 6 §§ 1-2. 

2 The Chinvat Bridge where this sin will be finally taken into account. Cf. Sis. Ch. 12 § 31 : 

#!? -Hio 1 WW •* ff i $eii$ 8>Wi vp -> iwojj" fo ta £t> w (31) 
H,a l fa |jp4i Jj) i«> h '« J) !I lW8yieiJ3 jJij )iw3 pa) ~> py> sS $ ?f , ^ w0 
.M)«joi ■" *v* I KHjT I nwrei | jo )RU | |)iejw^ i $-»jwi-v> sat jk>h$ ^e^r 

One is this that these five ceremonies, when they perform them, are good works ; if one 
does not perform them and its (proper) time is manifest and when he neglects to perform them 
at the proper time, the sin (thereof) goes to the Bridge. The ceremonies which (on their non- 
performance) go to the Bridge are these as said in the Husparam : Not celebrating the Gahambar, 
Rapithwin, Sedosh, Farvardegan and (the Nyaishes of) the sun and the moon. 

s Av. bawroish-upapo, created in opposition to a demon which is in water (Bd Ch 19 
§ 29). 



287 

(23) to practice arrogance, (24) to practise whoredom, (25) to pract